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Protein

Tubulin alpha-1D chain

Gene

TUBA1D

Organism
Bos taurus (Bovine)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 4 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sitei452Involved in polymerizationBy similarity1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Nucleotide bindingi142 – 148GTPSequence analysis7

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Ligandi

GTP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Tubulin alpha-1D chain
Cleaved into the following chain:
Gene namesi
Name:TUBA1D
OrganismiBos taurus (Bovine)
Taxonomic identifieri9913 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaRuminantiaPecoraBovidaeBovinaeBos
Proteomesi
  • UP000009136 Componenti: Chromosome 2

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Microtubule

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00002888491 – 452Tubulin alpha-1D chainAdd BLAST452
ChainiPRO_00004373911 – 448Detyrosinated tubulin alpha-1D chainBy similarityAdd BLAST448

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei40N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei282Nitrated tyrosineBy similarity1
Modified residuei439PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei4465-glutamyl polyglutamateBy similarity1
Modified residuei4523'-nitrotyrosineBy similarity1

Post-translational modificationi

Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglycylated, resulting in polyglycine chains on the gamma-carboxyl group. Glycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella) whereas glutamylation is prevalent in neuronal cells, centrioles, axonemes, and the mitotic spindle. Both modifications can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering polyglycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of polyglycylation is still unclear.By similarity
Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated, resulting in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group (By similarity). Polyglutamylation plays a key role in microtubule severing by spastin (SPAST). SPAST preferentially recognizes and acts on microtubules decorated with short polyglutamate tails: severing activity by SPAST increases as the number of glutamates per tubulin rises from one to eight, but decreases beyond this glutamylation threshold (By similarity).By similarity
Acetylation of alpha chains at Lys-40 is located inside the microtubule lumen. This modification has been correlated with increased microtubule stability, intracellular transport and ciliary assembly.By similarity
Nitration of Tyr-452 is irreversible and interferes with normal dynein intracellular distribution.By similarity
Undergoes a tyrosination/detyrosination cycle, the cyclic removal and re-addition of a C-terminal tyrosine residue by the enzymes tubulin tyrosine carboxypeptidase (TTCP) and tubulin tyrosine ligase (TTL), respectively.By similarity
Tubulin alpha-1D chain: Tyrosination promotes microtubule interaction with CAP-Gly domain-containing proteins such as CLIP1, CLIP2 and DCTN1 (By similarity). Tyrosination regulates the initiation of dynein-dynactin motility via interaction with DCTN1, which brings the dynein-dynactin complex into contact with microtubules. In neurons, tyrosinated tubulins mediate the initiation of retrograde vesicle transport (By similarity).By similarity
Detyrosinated tubulin alpha-1D chain: Detyrosination is involved in metaphase plate congression by guiding chromosomes during mitosis: detyrosination promotes interaction with CENPE, promoting pole-proximal transport of chromosomes toward the equator (By similarity). Detyrosination increases microtubules-dependent mechanotransduction in dystrophic cardiac and skeletal muscle. In cardiomyocytes, detyrosinated microtubules are required to resist to contractile compression during contraction: detyrosination promotes association with desmin (DES) at force-generating sarcomeres, leading to buckled microtubules and mechanical resistance to contraction (By similarity).By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Isopeptide bond, Nitration, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ2HJ86.
PeptideAtlasiQ2HJ86.
PRIDEiQ2HJ86.

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSBTAG00000030973.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells.

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000038183.

Structurei

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1JFFelectron microscopy3.50A1-452[»]
1SA0X-ray3.58A/C1-452[»]
1SA1X-ray4.20A/C1-452[»]
1TVKelectron microscopy2.89A1-440[»]
1Z2BX-ray4.10A/C1-451[»]
2WBEelectron microscopy9.40A1-452[»]
2XRPelectron microscopy8.20B/D/F/H1-449[»]
3EDLelectron microscopy28.00F1-452[»]
3IZ0electron microscopy8.60A1-452[»]
4AQVelectron microscopy9.70A1-452[»]
4AQWelectron microscopy9.50A1-452[»]
4ATUelectron microscopy8.30B/D/F/H1-452[»]
4ATXelectron microscopy8.20B1-452[»]
4CK5electron microscopy10.00A1-452[»]
4CK6electron microscopy9.20A1-452[»]
4CK7electron microscopy9.20A1-452[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ2HJ86.
SMRiQ2HJ86.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ2HJ86.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the tubulin family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1376. Eukaryota.
COG5023. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119060.
HOGENOMiHOG000165711.
HOVERGENiHBG000089.
InParanoidiQ2HJ86.
KOiK07374.
OMAiDKASHES.
OrthoDBiEOG091G0736.
TreeFamiTF300314.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.287.600. 1 hit.
3.30.1330.20. 1 hit.
3.40.50.1440. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR002452. Alpha_tubulin.
IPR008280. Tub_FtsZ_C.
IPR000217. Tubulin.
IPR018316. Tubulin/FtsZ_2-layer-sand-dom.
IPR023123. Tubulin_C.
IPR017975. Tubulin_CS.
IPR003008. Tubulin_FtsZ_GTPase.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11588. PTHR11588. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00091. Tubulin. 1 hit.
PF03953. Tubulin_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR01162. ALPHATUBULIN.
PR01161. TUBULIN.
SMARTiSM00864. Tubulin. 1 hit.
SM00865. Tubulin_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF52490. SSF52490. 1 hit.
SSF55307. SSF55307. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00227. TUBULIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q2HJ86-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MRECISVHVG QAGVQIGNAC WELYCLEHGI QPDGQMPSDK TIGGGDDSFN
60 70 80 90 100
TFFSETGAGK HVPRAVFVDL EPTVIDEVRT GTYRQLFHPE QLITGKEDAA
110 120 130 140 150
NNYARGHYTI GKELIDLVLD RIRKLADQCT GLQGFLIFHS FGGGTGSGFT
160 170 180 190 200
SLLMERLSVD YGKKSKLEFS IYPAPQVSTA VVEPYNSILT THTTLEHSDC
210 220 230 240 250
AFMVDNEAIY DICRRNLDIE RPTYTNLNRL IGQIVSSITA SLRFDGALNV
260 270 280 290 300
DLTEFQTNLV PYPRIHFPLA TYAPVISAEK AYHEQLSVAE ITNACFEPAN
310 320 330 340 350
QMVKCDPRHG KYMACCLLYR GDVVPKDVNA AIATIKTKRT IQFVDWCPTG
360 370 380 390 400
FKVGINYQPP TVVPGGDLAK VQRAVCMLSN TTAIAEAWAR LDHKFDLMYA
410 420 430 440 450
KRAFVHWYVG EGMEEGEFSE AREDMAALEK DYEEVGMDSV EGEGEEEEGD

EY
Length:452
Mass (Da):50,283
Last modified:March 21, 2006 - v1
Checksum:iBF41F4296CAC7A56
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
BC113253 mRNA. Translation: AAI13254.1.
RefSeqiNP_001039875.1. NM_001046410.1.
UniGeneiBt.55718.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSBTAT00000038369; ENSBTAP00000038183; ENSBTAG00000030973.
GeneIDi535605.
KEGGibta:535605.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
BC113253 mRNA. Translation: AAI13254.1.
RefSeqiNP_001039875.1. NM_001046410.1.
UniGeneiBt.55718.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1JFFelectron microscopy3.50A1-452[»]
1SA0X-ray3.58A/C1-452[»]
1SA1X-ray4.20A/C1-452[»]
1TVKelectron microscopy2.89A1-440[»]
1Z2BX-ray4.10A/C1-451[»]
2WBEelectron microscopy9.40A1-452[»]
2XRPelectron microscopy8.20B/D/F/H1-449[»]
3EDLelectron microscopy28.00F1-452[»]
3IZ0electron microscopy8.60A1-452[»]
4AQVelectron microscopy9.70A1-452[»]
4AQWelectron microscopy9.50A1-452[»]
4ATUelectron microscopy8.30B/D/F/H1-452[»]
4ATXelectron microscopy8.20B1-452[»]
4CK5electron microscopy10.00A1-452[»]
4CK6electron microscopy9.20A1-452[»]
4CK7electron microscopy9.20A1-452[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ2HJ86.
SMRiQ2HJ86.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000038183.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ2HJ86.
PeptideAtlasiQ2HJ86.
PRIDEiQ2HJ86.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSBTAT00000038369; ENSBTAP00000038183; ENSBTAG00000030973.
GeneIDi535605.
KEGGibta:535605.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi535605.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1376. Eukaryota.
COG5023. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119060.
HOGENOMiHOG000165711.
HOVERGENiHBG000089.
InParanoidiQ2HJ86.
KOiK07374.
OMAiDKASHES.
OrthoDBiEOG091G0736.
TreeFamiTF300314.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ2HJ86.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSBTAG00000030973.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.287.600. 1 hit.
3.30.1330.20. 1 hit.
3.40.50.1440. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR002452. Alpha_tubulin.
IPR008280. Tub_FtsZ_C.
IPR000217. Tubulin.
IPR018316. Tubulin/FtsZ_2-layer-sand-dom.
IPR023123. Tubulin_C.
IPR017975. Tubulin_CS.
IPR003008. Tubulin_FtsZ_GTPase.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11588. PTHR11588. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00091. Tubulin. 1 hit.
PF03953. Tubulin_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR01162. ALPHATUBULIN.
PR01161. TUBULIN.
SMARTiSM00864. Tubulin. 1 hit.
SM00865. Tubulin_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF52490. SSF52490. 1 hit.
SSF55307. SSF55307. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00227. TUBULIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiTBA1D_BOVIN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q2HJ86
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 29, 2007
Last sequence update: March 21, 2006
Last modified: November 2, 2016
This is version 89 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.