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Q24338

- ESC_DROME

UniProt

Q24338 - ESC_DROME

Protein

Polycomb protein esc

Gene

esc

Organism
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli
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    • History
      Entry version 133 (01 Oct 2014)
      Sequence version 1 (01 Nov 1996)
      Previous versions | rss
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    Functioni

    Polycomb group (PcG) protein. While PcG proteins are generally required to maintain the transcriptionally repressive state of homeotic genes throughout development, this protein is specifically required during the first 6 hours of embryogenesis to establish the repressed state. Component of the Esc/E(z) complex, which methylates 'Lys-9' and 'Lys-27' residues of histone H3, leading to transcriptional repression of the affected target gene. The Esc/E(z) complex is necessary but not sufficient for the repression of homeotic target genes, suggesting that the recruitment of the distinct PRC1 complex is also required.1 Publication

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. enzyme activator activity Source: FlyBase
    2. identical protein binding Source: IntAct
    3. protein binding Source: UniProtKB

    GO - Biological processi

    1. chromatin-mediated maintenance of transcription Source: UniProtKB
    2. chromatin silencing Source: FlyBase
    3. dendrite morphogenesis Source: FlyBase
    4. gene silencing Source: FlyBase
    5. histone H3-K27 methylation Source: FlyBase
    6. histone H3-K9 methylation Source: GOC
    7. histone methylation Source: FlyBase
    8. muscle organ development Source: FlyBase
    9. neuron development Source: FlyBase
    10. positive regulation of catalytic activity Source: GOC
    11. positive regulation of histone methylation Source: FlyBase
    12. transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Chromatin regulator, Developmental protein, Repressor

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Transcription, Transcription regulation

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    SignaLinkiQ24338.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Polycomb protein esc
    Alternative name(s):
    Protein extra sex combs
    Gene namesi
    Name:esc
    ORF Names:CG14941
    OrganismiDrosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
    Taxonomic identifieri7227 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaHexapodaInsectaPterygotaNeopteraEndopterygotaDipteraBrachyceraMuscomorphaEphydroideaDrosophilidaeDrosophilaSophophora
    ProteomesiUP000000803: Chromosome 2L

    Organism-specific databases

    FlyBaseiFBgn0000588. esc.

    Subcellular locationi

    Nucleus 2 Publications

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. ESC/E(Z) complex Source: FlyBase
    2. histone methyltransferase complex Source: FlyBase
    3. nuclear chromatin Source: UniProtKB
    4. nucleus Source: UniProtKB
    5. polytene chromosome Source: FlyBase

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Nucleus

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Mutagenesis

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Mutagenesisi64 – 641Y → F in esc1; induces homeotic transformation; when associated with R-240. 1 Publication
    Mutagenesisi210 – 2112GG → AA: Strongly reduces phosphorylation and the interaction with E(z). 1 Publication
    Mutagenesisi216 – 2183RDE → AAA: Strongly reduces phosphorylation and the interaction with E(z). 1 Publication
    Mutagenesisi240 – 2401L → R in esc1; induces homeotic transformation; when associated with F-64. 1 Publication

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Chaini1 – 425425Polycomb protein escPRO_0000050972Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Modified residuei15 – 151Phosphoserine2 Publications

    Keywords - PTMi

    Phosphoprotein

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiQ24338.
    PRIDEiQ24338.

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    Widely expressed.

    Developmental stagei

    Expressed both maternally and zygotically. Strongly expressed in the oocyte and in early embryos, then decreases at the end of embryogenesis. Weakly expressed in third instar larvae. Transiently required between 2 and 6 hours of embryogenesis to establish PcG silencing and promote viable adults.2 Publications

    Gene expression databases

    BgeeiQ24338.

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Component of the Esc/E(z) complex, composed of Caf1, esc, E(z), Su(z)12, and possibly pho. The Esc/E(z) complex may also associate with Pcl and Rpd3 during early embryogenesis. This complex is distinct from the PRC1 complex, which contains many other PcG proteins like Pc, Ph, Psc, Su(z)2. The two complexes however cooperate and interact together during the first 3 hours of development to establish PcG silencing. Interacts with corto in vitro.8 Publications

    Binary interactionsi

    WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
    itself3EBI-88911,EBI-88911
    Caf1Q2457211EBI-88911,EBI-75924
    cortoP410463EBI-88911,EBI-300379
    E(z)P4212421EBI-88911,EBI-112315
    Rpd3Q9451711EBI-88911,EBI-302197

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi60648. 21 interactions.
    DIPiDIP-20069N.
    IntActiQ24338. 9 interactions.
    MINTiMINT-266724.
    STRINGi7227.FBpp0079907.

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliQ24338.
    SMRiQ24338. Positions 61-419.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Domains and Repeats

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Repeati71 – 11444WD 1Add
    BLAST
    Repeati126 – 16540WD 2Add
    BLAST
    Repeati168 – 20841WD 3Add
    BLAST
    Repeati214 – 25340WD 4Add
    BLAST
    Repeati284 – 32138WD 5Add
    BLAST
    Repeati340 – 37940WD 6Add
    BLAST
    Repeati388 – 42437WD 7Add
    BLAST

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the WD repeat ESC family.Curated
    Contains 7 WD repeats.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

    Keywords - Domaini

    Repeat, WD repeat

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiCOG2319.
    GeneTreeiENSGT00510000047334.
    InParanoidiQ24338.
    KOiK11462.
    OMAiDECEIWF.
    OrthoDBiEOG7WQ7S8.
    PhylomeDBiQ24338.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di2.130.10.10. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR015943. WD40/YVTN_repeat-like_dom.
    IPR001680. WD40_repeat.
    IPR019775. WD40_repeat_CS.
    IPR017986. WD40_repeat_dom.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00400. WD40. 2 hits.
    [Graphical view]
    SMARTiSM00320. WD40. 5 hits.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF50978. SSF50978. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS00678. WD_REPEATS_1. 1 hit.
    PS50082. WD_REPEATS_2. 2 hits.
    PS50294. WD_REPEATS_REGION. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Q24338-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    « Hide

    MSSDKVKNGN EPEESEESCG DESASYTTNS TTSRSKSPSS STRSKRRGRR    50
    STKSKPKSRA AYKYDTHVKE NHGANIFGVA FNTLLGKDEP QVFATAGSNR 100
    VTVYECPRQG GMQLLHCYAD PDPDEVFYTC AWSYDLKTSS PLLAAAGYRG 150
    VIRVIDVEQN EAVGNYIGHG QAINELKFHP HKLQLLLSGS KDHAIRLWNI 200
    QSHVCIAILG GVEGHRDEVL SIDFNMRGDR IVSSGMDHSL KLWCLNTPEF 250
    HHKIELSNTF SQEKSTLPFP TVTKHFPDFS TRDIHRNYVD CVQWFGNFVL 300
    SKSCENAIVC WKPGQLHQSF EQVKPSDSSC TIIAEFEYDE CEIWFVRFGF 350
    NPWQKVIALG NQQGKVYVWE LDPSDPEGAH MTTLHNSRSV ATVRQIAFSR 400
    DASVLVYVCD DATVWRWNRR QTTSI 425
    Length:425
    Mass (Da):47,988
    Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
    Checksum:i511C305E5DE86727
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    L41867 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA86427.1.
    AE014134 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF53124.1.
    AY069796 mRNA. Translation: AAL39941.1.
    PIRiS58672.
    RefSeqiNP_477431.1. NM_058083.4.
    UniGeneiDm.1948.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0080325; FBpp0079907; FBgn0000588.
    GeneIDi34595.
    KEGGidme:Dmel_CG14941.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    L41867 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA86427.1 .
    AE014134 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF53124.1 .
    AY069796 mRNA. Translation: AAL39941.1 .
    PIRi S58672.
    RefSeqi NP_477431.1. NM_058083.4.
    UniGenei Dm.1948.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortali Q24338.
    SMRi Q24338. Positions 61-419.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi 60648. 21 interactions.
    DIPi DIP-20069N.
    IntActi Q24338. 9 interactions.
    MINTi MINT-266724.
    STRINGi 7227.FBpp0079907.

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbi Q24338.
    PRIDEi Q24338.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblMetazoai FBtr0080325 ; FBpp0079907 ; FBgn0000588 .
    GeneIDi 34595.
    KEGGi dme:Dmel_CG14941.

    Organism-specific databases

    CTDi 34595.
    FlyBasei FBgn0000588. esc.

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGi COG2319.
    GeneTreei ENSGT00510000047334.
    InParanoidi Q24338.
    KOi K11462.
    OMAi DECEIWF.
    OrthoDBi EOG7WQ7S8.
    PhylomeDBi Q24338.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    SignaLinki Q24338.

    Miscellaneous databases

    GenomeRNAii 34595.
    NextBioi 789223.

    Gene expression databases

    Bgeei Q24338.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di 2.130.10.10. 1 hit.
    InterProi IPR015943. WD40/YVTN_repeat-like_dom.
    IPR001680. WD40_repeat.
    IPR019775. WD40_repeat_CS.
    IPR017986. WD40_repeat_dom.
    [Graphical view ]
    Pfami PF00400. WD40. 2 hits.
    [Graphical view ]
    SMARTi SM00320. WD40. 5 hits.
    [Graphical view ]
    SUPFAMi SSF50978. SSF50978. 1 hit.
    PROSITEi PS00678. WD_REPEATS_1. 1 hit.
    PS50082. WD_REPEATS_2. 2 hits.
    PS50294. WD_REPEATS_REGION. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. "The Polycomb-group gene, extra sex combs, encodes a nuclear member of the WD-40 repeat family."
      Gutjahr T., Frei E., Spicer C., Baumgartner S., White R.A.H., Noll M.
      EMBO J. 14:4296-4306(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], FUNCTION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE, MUTANT ESC1.
      Tissue: Embryo.
    2. "The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster."
      Adams M.D., Celniker S.E., Holt R.A., Evans C.A., Gocayne J.D., Amanatides P.G., Scherer S.E., Li P.W., Hoskins R.A., Galle R.F., George R.A., Lewis S.E., Richards S., Ashburner M., Henderson S.N., Sutton G.G., Wortman J.R., Yandell M.D.
      , Zhang Q., Chen L.X., Brandon R.C., Rogers Y.-H.C., Blazej R.G., Champe M., Pfeiffer B.D., Wan K.H., Doyle C., Baxter E.G., Helt G., Nelson C.R., Miklos G.L.G., Abril J.F., Agbayani A., An H.-J., Andrews-Pfannkoch C., Baldwin D., Ballew R.M., Basu A., Baxendale J., Bayraktaroglu L., Beasley E.M., Beeson K.Y., Benos P.V., Berman B.P., Bhandari D., Bolshakov S., Borkova D., Botchan M.R., Bouck J., Brokstein P., Brottier P., Burtis K.C., Busam D.A., Butler H., Cadieu E., Center A., Chandra I., Cherry J.M., Cawley S., Dahlke C., Davenport L.B., Davies P., de Pablos B., Delcher A., Deng Z., Mays A.D., Dew I., Dietz S.M., Dodson K., Doup L.E., Downes M., Dugan-Rocha S., Dunkov B.C., Dunn P., Durbin K.J., Evangelista C.C., Ferraz C., Ferriera S., Fleischmann W., Fosler C., Gabrielian A.E., Garg N.S., Gelbart W.M., Glasser K., Glodek A., Gong F., Gorrell J.H., Gu Z., Guan P., Harris M., Harris N.L., Harvey D.A., Heiman T.J., Hernandez J.R., Houck J., Hostin D., Houston K.A., Howland T.J., Wei M.-H., Ibegwam C., Jalali M., Kalush F., Karpen G.H., Ke Z., Kennison J.A., Ketchum K.A., Kimmel B.E., Kodira C.D., Kraft C.L., Kravitz S., Kulp D., Lai Z., Lasko P., Lei Y., Levitsky A.A., Li J.H., Li Z., Liang Y., Lin X., Liu X., Mattei B., McIntosh T.C., McLeod M.P., McPherson D., Merkulov G., Milshina N.V., Mobarry C., Morris J., Moshrefi A., Mount S.M., Moy M., Murphy B., Murphy L., Muzny D.M., Nelson D.L., Nelson D.R., Nelson K.A., Nixon K., Nusskern D.R., Pacleb J.M., Palazzolo M., Pittman G.S., Pan S., Pollard J., Puri V., Reese M.G., Reinert K., Remington K., Saunders R.D.C., Scheeler F., Shen H., Shue B.C., Siden-Kiamos I., Simpson M., Skupski M.P., Smith T.J., Spier E., Spradling A.C., Stapleton M., Strong R., Sun E., Svirskas R., Tector C., Turner R., Venter E., Wang A.H., Wang X., Wang Z.-Y., Wassarman D.A., Weinstock G.M., Weissenbach J., Williams S.M., Woodage T., Worley K.C., Wu D., Yang S., Yao Q.A., Ye J., Yeh R.-F., Zaveri J.S., Zhan M., Zhang G., Zhao Q., Zheng L., Zheng X.H., Zhong F.N., Zhong W., Zhou X., Zhu S.C., Zhu X., Smith H.O., Gibbs R.A., Myers E.W., Rubin G.M., Venter J.C.
      Science 287:2185-2195(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
      Strain: Berkeley.
    3. Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
      Strain: Berkeley.
    4. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
      Strain: Berkeley.
      Tissue: Embryo.
    5. "The Drosophila esc and E(z) proteins are direct partners in polycomb group-mediated repression."
      Jones C.A., Ng J., Peterson A.J., Morgan K., Simon J.A., Jones R.S.
      Mol. Cell. Biol. 18:2825-2834(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: INTERACTION WITH E(Z).
    6. "A Drosophila ESC-E(Z) protein complex is distinct from other polycomb group complexes and contains covalently modified ESC."
      Ng J., Hart C.M., Morgan K., Simon J.A.
      Mol. Cell. Biol. 20:3069-3078(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION, MUTAGENESIS OF 210-GLY-GLY-211 AND 216-ARG--GLU-218.
    7. "The Drosophila polycomb group proteins ESC and E(Z) are present in a complex containing the histone-binding protein p55 and the histone deacetylase RPD3."
      Tie F., Furuyama T., Prasad-Sinha J., Jane E., Harte P.J.
      Development 128:275-286(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: IDENTIFICATION IN A COMPLEX WITH RPD3; E(Z) AND CAF1.
    8. "Establishment of Polycomb silencing requires a transient interaction between PC and ESC."
      Poux S., Melfi R., Pirrotta V.
      Genes Dev. 15:2509-2514(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: IDENTIFICATION IN A COMPLEX WITH RPD3; PHO AND E(Z), TRANSIENT INTERACTION WITH THE PRC1 COMPLEX.
    9. "Drosophila Enhancer of zeste/ESC complexes have a histone H3 methyltransferase activity that marks chromosomal Polycomb sites."
      Czermin B., Melfi R., McCabe D., Seitz V., Imhof A., Pirrotta V.
      Cell 111:185-196(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: IDENTIFICATION IN AN ESC/E(Z) COMPLEX WITH CAF1; E(Z); RPD3 AND SU(Z)12, METHYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY OF THE COMPLEX.
    10. "Histone methyltransferase activity of a Drosophila Polycomb group repressor complex."
      Mueller J., Hart C.M., Francis N.J., Vargas M.L., Sengupta A., Wild B., Miller E.L., O'Connor M.B., Kingston R.E., Simon J.A.
      Cell 111:197-208(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: IDENTIFICATION IN AN ESC/E(Z) COMPLEX WITH E(Z); CAF1 AND SU(Z)12, METHYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY OF THE COMPLEX.
    11. "Polycomb group proteins ESC and E(Z) are present in multiple distinct complexes that undergo dynamic changes during development."
      Furuyama T., Tie F., Harte P.J.
      Genesis 35:114-124(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: IDENTIFICATION IN AN ESC/E(Z) COMPLEX WITH CAF1; E(Z) AND RPD3, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
    12. "A 1-megadalton ESC/E(Z) complex from Drosophila that contains polycomblike and RPD3."
      Tie F., Prasad-Sinha J., Birve A., Rasmuson-Lestander A., Harte P.J.
      Mol. Cell. Biol. 23:3352-3362(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: IDENTIFICATION IN AN ESC/E(Z) COMPLEX WITH CAF1; E(Z); PCL; RPD3 AND SU(Z)12.
    13. "The Drosophila Corto protein interacts with Polycomb-group proteins and the GAGA factor."
      Salvaing J., Lopez A., Boivin A., Deutsch J.S., Peronnet F.
      Nucleic Acids Res. 31:2873-2882(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: INTERACTION WITH CORTO.
    14. "Phosphoproteome analysis of Drosophila melanogaster embryos."
      Zhai B., Villen J., Beausoleil S.A., Mintseris J., Gygi S.P.
      J. Proteome Res. 7:1675-1682(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-15, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY.
      Tissue: Embryo.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiESC_DROME
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q24338
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: March 28, 2003
    Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 133 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programDrosophila annotation project

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Drosophila
      Drosophila: entries, gene names and cross-references to FlyBase
    2. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3