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Q24338

- ESC_DROME

UniProt

Q24338 - ESC_DROME

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Protein

Polycomb protein esc

Gene

esc

Organism
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Polycomb group (PcG) protein. While PcG proteins are generally required to maintain the transcriptionally repressive state of homeotic genes throughout development, this protein is specifically required during the first 6 hours of embryogenesis to establish the repressed state. Component of the Esc/E(z) complex, which methylates 'Lys-9' and 'Lys-27' residues of histone H3, leading to transcriptional repression of the affected target gene. The Esc/E(z) complex is necessary but not sufficient for the repression of homeotic target genes, suggesting that the recruitment of the distinct PRC1 complex is also required.1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. enzyme activator activity Source: FlyBase
  2. identical protein binding Source: IntAct

GO - Biological processi

  1. chromatin-mediated maintenance of transcription Source: UniProtKB
  2. chromatin silencing Source: FlyBase
  3. dendrite morphogenesis Source: FlyBase
  4. gene silencing Source: FlyBase
  5. histone H3-K27 methylation Source: FlyBase
  6. histone H3-K9 methylation Source: GOC
  7. histone methylation Source: FlyBase
  8. muscle organ development Source: FlyBase
  9. neuron development Source: FlyBase
  10. positive regulation of catalytic activity Source: GOC
  11. positive regulation of histone methylation Source: FlyBase
  12. transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Chromatin regulator, Developmental protein, Repressor

Keywords - Biological processi

Transcription, Transcription regulation

Enzyme and pathway databases

SignaLinkiQ24338.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Polycomb protein esc
Alternative name(s):
Protein extra sex combs
Gene namesi
Name:esc
ORF Names:CG14941
OrganismiDrosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Taxonomic identifieri7227 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaHexapodaInsectaPterygotaNeopteraEndopterygotaDipteraBrachyceraMuscomorphaEphydroideaDrosophilidaeDrosophilaSophophora
ProteomesiUP000000803: Chromosome 2L

Organism-specific databases

FlyBaseiFBgn0000588. esc.

Subcellular locationi

Nucleus 2 Publications

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. ESC/E(Z) complex Source: FlyBase
  2. histone methyltransferase complex Source: FlyBase
  3. nuclear chromatin Source: UniProtKB
  4. nucleus Source: UniProtKB
  5. polytene chromosome Source: FlyBase
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi64 – 641Y → F in esc1; induces homeotic transformation; when associated with R-240.
Mutagenesisi210 – 2112GG → AA: Strongly reduces phosphorylation and the interaction with E(z). 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi216 – 2183RDE → AAA: Strongly reduces phosphorylation and the interaction with E(z). 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi240 – 2401L → R in esc1; induces homeotic transformation; when associated with F-64.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 425425Polycomb protein escPRO_0000050972Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei15 – 151Phosphoserine1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ24338.
PRIDEiQ24338.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Widely expressed.

Developmental stagei

Expressed both maternally and zygotically. Strongly expressed in the oocyte and in early embryos, then decreases at the end of embryogenesis. Weakly expressed in third instar larvae. Transiently required between 2 and 6 hours of embryogenesis to establish PcG silencing and promote viable adults.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ24338.
ExpressionAtlasiQ24338. differential.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Component of the Esc/E(z) complex, composed of Caf1, esc, E(z), Su(z)12, and possibly pho. The Esc/E(z) complex may also associate with Pcl and Rpd3 during early embryogenesis. This complex is distinct from the PRC1 complex, which contains many other PcG proteins like Pc, Ph, Psc, Su(z)2. The two complexes however cooperate and interact together during the first 3 hours of development to establish PcG silencing. Interacts with corto in vitro.8 Publications

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
itself3EBI-88911,EBI-88911
Caf1Q2457211EBI-88911,EBI-75924
cortoP410463EBI-88911,EBI-300379
E(z)P4212421EBI-88911,EBI-112315
Rpd3Q9451711EBI-88911,EBI-302197

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi60648. 21 interactions.
DIPiDIP-20069N.
IntActiQ24338. 9 interactions.
MINTiMINT-266724.
STRINGi7227.FBpp0079907.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ24338.
SMRiQ24338. Positions 61-419.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Repeati71 – 11444WD 1Add
BLAST
Repeati126 – 16540WD 2Add
BLAST
Repeati168 – 20841WD 3Add
BLAST
Repeati214 – 25340WD 4Add
BLAST
Repeati284 – 32138WD 5Add
BLAST
Repeati340 – 37940WD 6Add
BLAST
Repeati388 – 42437WD 7Add
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the WD repeat ESC family.Curated
Contains 7 WD repeats.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat, WD repeat

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG2319.
GeneTreeiENSGT00510000047334.
InParanoidiQ24338.
KOiK11462.
OMAiDECEIWF.
OrthoDBiEOG7WQ7S8.
PhylomeDBiQ24338.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.130.10.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR015943. WD40/YVTN_repeat-like_dom.
IPR001680. WD40_repeat.
IPR019775. WD40_repeat_CS.
IPR017986. WD40_repeat_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00400. WD40. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00320. WD40. 5 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF50978. SSF50978. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00678. WD_REPEATS_1. 1 hit.
PS50082. WD_REPEATS_2. 2 hits.
PS50294. WD_REPEATS_REGION. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q24338-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MSSDKVKNGN EPEESEESCG DESASYTTNS TTSRSKSPSS STRSKRRGRR
60 70 80 90 100
STKSKPKSRA AYKYDTHVKE NHGANIFGVA FNTLLGKDEP QVFATAGSNR
110 120 130 140 150
VTVYECPRQG GMQLLHCYAD PDPDEVFYTC AWSYDLKTSS PLLAAAGYRG
160 170 180 190 200
VIRVIDVEQN EAVGNYIGHG QAINELKFHP HKLQLLLSGS KDHAIRLWNI
210 220 230 240 250
QSHVCIAILG GVEGHRDEVL SIDFNMRGDR IVSSGMDHSL KLWCLNTPEF
260 270 280 290 300
HHKIELSNTF SQEKSTLPFP TVTKHFPDFS TRDIHRNYVD CVQWFGNFVL
310 320 330 340 350
SKSCENAIVC WKPGQLHQSF EQVKPSDSSC TIIAEFEYDE CEIWFVRFGF
360 370 380 390 400
NPWQKVIALG NQQGKVYVWE LDPSDPEGAH MTTLHNSRSV ATVRQIAFSR
410 420
DASVLVYVCD DATVWRWNRR QTTSI
Length:425
Mass (Da):47,988
Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:i511C305E5DE86727
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
Links Updated
L41867 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA86427.1.
AE014134 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF53124.1.
AY069796 mRNA. Translation: AAL39941.1.
PIRiS58672.
RefSeqiNP_477431.1. NM_058083.4.
UniGeneiDm.1948.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0080325; FBpp0079907; FBgn0000588.
GeneIDi34595.
KEGGidme:Dmel_CG14941.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
Links Updated
L41867 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA86427.1 .
AE014134 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF53124.1 .
AY069796 mRNA. Translation: AAL39941.1 .
PIRi S58672.
RefSeqi NP_477431.1. NM_058083.4.
UniGenei Dm.1948.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortali Q24338.
SMRi Q24338. Positions 61-419.
ModBasei Search...
MobiDBi Search...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi 60648. 21 interactions.
DIPi DIP-20069N.
IntActi Q24338. 9 interactions.
MINTi MINT-266724.
STRINGi 7227.FBpp0079907.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbi Q24338.
PRIDEi Q24338.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoai FBtr0080325 ; FBpp0079907 ; FBgn0000588 .
GeneIDi 34595.
KEGGi dme:Dmel_CG14941.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi 34595.
FlyBasei FBgn0000588. esc.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGi COG2319.
GeneTreei ENSGT00510000047334.
InParanoidi Q24338.
KOi K11462.
OMAi DECEIWF.
OrthoDBi EOG7WQ7S8.
PhylomeDBi Q24338.

Enzyme and pathway databases

SignaLinki Q24338.

Miscellaneous databases

GenomeRNAii 34595.
NextBioi 789223.

Gene expression databases

Bgeei Q24338.
ExpressionAtlasi Q24338. differential.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di 2.130.10.10. 1 hit.
InterProi IPR015943. WD40/YVTN_repeat-like_dom.
IPR001680. WD40_repeat.
IPR019775. WD40_repeat_CS.
IPR017986. WD40_repeat_dom.
[Graphical view ]
Pfami PF00400. WD40. 2 hits.
[Graphical view ]
SMARTi SM00320. WD40. 5 hits.
[Graphical view ]
SUPFAMi SSF50978. SSF50978. 1 hit.
PROSITEi PS00678. WD_REPEATS_1. 1 hit.
PS50082. WD_REPEATS_2. 2 hits.
PS50294. WD_REPEATS_REGION. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
ProtoNeti Search...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "The Polycomb-group gene, extra sex combs, encodes a nuclear member of the WD-40 repeat family."
    Gutjahr T., Frei E., Spicer C., Baumgartner S., White R.A.H., Noll M.
    EMBO J. 14:4296-4306(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], FUNCTION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE, MUTANT ESC1.
    Tissue: Embryo.
  2. "The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster."
    Adams M.D., Celniker S.E., Holt R.A., Evans C.A., Gocayne J.D., Amanatides P.G., Scherer S.E., Li P.W., Hoskins R.A., Galle R.F., George R.A., Lewis S.E., Richards S., Ashburner M., Henderson S.N., Sutton G.G., Wortman J.R., Yandell M.D.
    , Zhang Q., Chen L.X., Brandon R.C., Rogers Y.-H.C., Blazej R.G., Champe M., Pfeiffer B.D., Wan K.H., Doyle C., Baxter E.G., Helt G., Nelson C.R., Miklos G.L.G., Abril J.F., Agbayani A., An H.-J., Andrews-Pfannkoch C., Baldwin D., Ballew R.M., Basu A., Baxendale J., Bayraktaroglu L., Beasley E.M., Beeson K.Y., Benos P.V., Berman B.P., Bhandari D., Bolshakov S., Borkova D., Botchan M.R., Bouck J., Brokstein P., Brottier P., Burtis K.C., Busam D.A., Butler H., Cadieu E., Center A., Chandra I., Cherry J.M., Cawley S., Dahlke C., Davenport L.B., Davies P., de Pablos B., Delcher A., Deng Z., Mays A.D., Dew I., Dietz S.M., Dodson K., Doup L.E., Downes M., Dugan-Rocha S., Dunkov B.C., Dunn P., Durbin K.J., Evangelista C.C., Ferraz C., Ferriera S., Fleischmann W., Fosler C., Gabrielian A.E., Garg N.S., Gelbart W.M., Glasser K., Glodek A., Gong F., Gorrell J.H., Gu Z., Guan P., Harris M., Harris N.L., Harvey D.A., Heiman T.J., Hernandez J.R., Houck J., Hostin D., Houston K.A., Howland T.J., Wei M.-H., Ibegwam C., Jalali M., Kalush F., Karpen G.H., Ke Z., Kennison J.A., Ketchum K.A., Kimmel B.E., Kodira C.D., Kraft C.L., Kravitz S., Kulp D., Lai Z., Lasko P., Lei Y., Levitsky A.A., Li J.H., Li Z., Liang Y., Lin X., Liu X., Mattei B., McIntosh T.C., McLeod M.P., McPherson D., Merkulov G., Milshina N.V., Mobarry C., Morris J., Moshrefi A., Mount S.M., Moy M., Murphy B., Murphy L., Muzny D.M., Nelson D.L., Nelson D.R., Nelson K.A., Nixon K., Nusskern D.R., Pacleb J.M., Palazzolo M., Pittman G.S., Pan S., Pollard J., Puri V., Reese M.G., Reinert K., Remington K., Saunders R.D.C., Scheeler F., Shen H., Shue B.C., Siden-Kiamos I., Simpson M., Skupski M.P., Smith T.J., Spier E., Spradling A.C., Stapleton M., Strong R., Sun E., Svirskas R., Tector C., Turner R., Venter E., Wang A.H., Wang X., Wang Z.-Y., Wassarman D.A., Weinstock G.M., Weissenbach J., Williams S.M., Woodage T., Worley K.C., Wu D., Yang S., Yao Q.A., Ye J., Yeh R.-F., Zaveri J.S., Zhan M., Zhang G., Zhao Q., Zheng L., Zheng X.H., Zhong F.N., Zhong W., Zhou X., Zhu S.C., Zhu X., Smith H.O., Gibbs R.A., Myers E.W., Rubin G.M., Venter J.C.
    Science 287:2185-2195(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: Berkeley.
  3. Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: Berkeley.
  4. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: Berkeley.
    Tissue: Embryo.
  5. "The Drosophila esc and E(z) proteins are direct partners in polycomb group-mediated repression."
    Jones C.A., Ng J., Peterson A.J., Morgan K., Simon J.A., Jones R.S.
    Mol. Cell. Biol. 18:2825-2834(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH E(Z).
  6. "A Drosophila ESC-E(Z) protein complex is distinct from other polycomb group complexes and contains covalently modified ESC."
    Ng J., Hart C.M., Morgan K., Simon J.A.
    Mol. Cell. Biol. 20:3069-3078(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION, MUTAGENESIS OF 210-GLY-GLY-211 AND 216-ARG--GLU-218.
  7. "The Drosophila polycomb group proteins ESC and E(Z) are present in a complex containing the histone-binding protein p55 and the histone deacetylase RPD3."
    Tie F., Furuyama T., Prasad-Sinha J., Jane E., Harte P.J.
    Development 128:275-286(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: IDENTIFICATION IN A COMPLEX WITH RPD3; E(Z) AND CAF1.
  8. "Establishment of Polycomb silencing requires a transient interaction between PC and ESC."
    Poux S., Melfi R., Pirrotta V.
    Genes Dev. 15:2509-2514(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: IDENTIFICATION IN A COMPLEX WITH RPD3; PHO AND E(Z), TRANSIENT INTERACTION WITH THE PRC1 COMPLEX.
  9. "Drosophila Enhancer of zeste/ESC complexes have a histone H3 methyltransferase activity that marks chromosomal Polycomb sites."
    Czermin B., Melfi R., McCabe D., Seitz V., Imhof A., Pirrotta V.
    Cell 111:185-196(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: IDENTIFICATION IN AN ESC/E(Z) COMPLEX WITH CAF1; E(Z); RPD3 AND SU(Z)12, METHYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY OF THE COMPLEX.
  10. "Histone methyltransferase activity of a Drosophila Polycomb group repressor complex."
    Mueller J., Hart C.M., Francis N.J., Vargas M.L., Sengupta A., Wild B., Miller E.L., O'Connor M.B., Kingston R.E., Simon J.A.
    Cell 111:197-208(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: IDENTIFICATION IN AN ESC/E(Z) COMPLEX WITH E(Z); CAF1 AND SU(Z)12, METHYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY OF THE COMPLEX.
  11. "Polycomb group proteins ESC and E(Z) are present in multiple distinct complexes that undergo dynamic changes during development."
    Furuyama T., Tie F., Harte P.J.
    Genesis 35:114-124(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: IDENTIFICATION IN AN ESC/E(Z) COMPLEX WITH CAF1; E(Z) AND RPD3, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
  12. "A 1-megadalton ESC/E(Z) complex from Drosophila that contains polycomblike and RPD3."
    Tie F., Prasad-Sinha J., Birve A., Rasmuson-Lestander A., Harte P.J.
    Mol. Cell. Biol. 23:3352-3362(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: IDENTIFICATION IN AN ESC/E(Z) COMPLEX WITH CAF1; E(Z); PCL; RPD3 AND SU(Z)12.
  13. "The Drosophila Corto protein interacts with Polycomb-group proteins and the GAGA factor."
    Salvaing J., Lopez A., Boivin A., Deutsch J.S., Peronnet F.
    Nucleic Acids Res. 31:2873-2882(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH CORTO.
  14. "Phosphoproteome analysis of Drosophila melanogaster embryos."
    Zhai B., Villen J., Beausoleil S.A., Mintseris J., Gygi S.P.
    J. Proteome Res. 7:1675-1682(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-15, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY.
    Tissue: Embryo.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiESC_DROME
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q24338
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: March 28, 2003
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: October 29, 2014
This is version 134 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programDrosophila annotation project

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Drosophila
    Drosophila: entries, gene names and cross-references to FlyBase
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3