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Protein

Protein trachealess

Gene

trh

Organism
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Transcription factor, master regulator of tracheal cell fates in the embryo, necessary for the development of the salivary gland duct and the posterior spiracles. It may induce a general fate of branched tubular structures of epithelial origin. Heterodimers of tgo/trh are involved in the control of breathless expression.2 Publications

Miscellaneous

Readthrough of the terminator UGA may occur between the codons for 958-Ser and 960-Val.

Caution

GO - Molecular functioni

  • DNA binding transcription factor activity Source: FlyBase
  • protein heterodimerization activity Source: FlyBase
  • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding Source: FlyBase
  • sequence-specific DNA binding Source: FlyBase

GO - Biological processi

  • epithelial cell fate determination, open tracheal system Source: FlyBase
  • epithelial tube formation Source: FlyBase
  • limb development Source: FlyBase
  • Malpighian tubule morphogenesis Source: FlyBase
  • open tracheal system development Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II Source: FlyBase
  • salivary gland development Source: UniProtKB
  • salivary gland morphogenesis Source: FlyBase
  • spiracle morphogenesis, open tracheal system Source: FlyBase
  • transcription by RNA polymerase II Source: GOC

Keywordsi

Molecular functionDevelopmental protein, DNA-binding
Biological processTranscription, Transcription regulation

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein trachealess
Gene namesi
Name:trh
ORF Names:CG6883
OrganismiDrosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Taxonomic identifieri7227 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaHexapodaInsectaPterygotaNeopteraHolometabolaDipteraBrachyceraMuscomorphaEphydroideaDrosophilidaeDrosophilaSophophora
Proteomesi
  • UP000000803 Componenti: Chromosome 3L

Organism-specific databases

FlyBaseiFBgn0262139 trh

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Tube-forming cells of the salivary gland, trachea, and filzkorper fail to invaginate to form tubes and remain on the embryo surface.1 Publication

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi579S → A: No effect on phosphorylation by Akt1; no effect on transcriptional activity. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi673S → A: Abolishes phosphorylation by Akt1, nuclear localization, and transcriptional activity. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi673S → D: Slightly increases transcriptional activity. 1 Publication1

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00001274761 – 1022Protein trachealessAdd BLAST1022

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei673Phosphoserine; by PKB/Akt11 Publication1

Post-translational modificationi

Ser-673 phosphorylation by PKB/Akt1 is required for nuclear targeting and transcriptional activity.1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ24119
PRIDEiQ24119

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ24119

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Trachea, salivary gland ducts, posterior spiracles (Filzkoeper primordia) and a subset of cells in the CNS.2 Publications

Developmental stagei

During embryogenesis, first detected in the tracheal placodes at stage 8, and expression continues throughout embryonic and larval development. In the developing salivary gland, expression is observed in the entire gland at stage 9 and by stage 12, expression is confined to the salivary ducts.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiFBgn0262139
ExpressionAtlasiQ24119 differential
GenevisibleiQ24119 DM

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Efficient DNA binding requires dimerization with another bHLH protein. Heterodimer with tgo.

GO - Molecular functioni

  • protein heterodimerization activity Source: FlyBase

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi636204 interactors.
IntActiQ24119 4 interactors.
STRINGi7227.FBpp0303179

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ24119
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini86 – 139bHLHPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST54
Domaini174 – 244PAS 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST71
Domaini391 – 461PAS 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST71
Domaini465 – 508PACAdd BLAST44

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Motifi629 – 636Nuclear localization signalSequence analysis8

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Compositional biasi244 – 281Gly-richAdd BLAST38
Compositional biasi976 – 984His-rich9

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3558 Eukaryota
ENOG410YK57 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000118788
InParanoidiQ24119
KOiK09098
OMAiRLESDMF
OrthoDBiEOG091G02J4

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00083 HLH, 1 hit
cd00130 PAS, 2 hits
Gene3Di4.10.280.101 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR011598 bHLH_dom
IPR036638 HLH_DNA-bd_sf
IPR001610 PAC
IPR000014 PAS
IPR035965 PAS-like_dom_sf
IPR013767 PAS_fold
IPR013655 PAS_fold_3
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00989 PAS, 1 hit
PF08447 PAS_3, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00353 HLH, 1 hit
SM00086 PAC, 1 hit
SM00091 PAS, 2 hits
SUPFAMiSSF47459 SSF47459, 1 hit
SSF55785 SSF55785, 2 hits
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS50888 BHLH, 1 hit
PS50112 PAS, 2 hits

Sequences (5)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 5 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform D (identifier: Q24119-5) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MLPYQAAVAM DYAGYQRQPT PGHPGSHMAT MGSLGMPAVP FTHSWMVPTQ
60 70 80 90 100
DLCAMPPYNK MTGHQQPPGA GMHAQQQPLE PGILELRKEK SRDAARSRRG
110 120 130 140 150
KENYEFYELA KMLPLPAAIT SQLDKASIIR LTISYLKLRD FSGHGDPPWT
160 170 180 190 200
REASSSSKLK SAAIRRSPAV DLFEQHQGTH ILQSLDGFAL AVAADGRFLY
210 220 230 240 250
ISETVSIYLG LSQVEMTGSS IFDYIHQADH SEIADQLGLS LTSGGGGGGG
260 270 280 290 300
SSSSGGGGGG AGGGMASPTS GASDDGSGTH GTNNPDVAAS MTQASTSGYK
310 320 330 340 350
GYDRSFCVRM KSTLTKRGCH FKSSGYRASD ATSNCNNGNN ASNNAKNVKN
360 370 380 390 400
PGSNYSVVLL LCKLRPQYTF SHSRKSQPPL LGMVALAIAL PPPSVHEIRL
410 420 430 440 450
ECDMFVTRVN FDLRVAHCEP RVSDLLDYSP EDLVNKSLYS LCHAEDANRL
460 470 480 490 500
RKSHSDLIEK GQVLTGYYRL MNKSGGYTWL QTCATVVCST KNADEQNIIC
510 520 530 540 550
VNYVISNREN ENMILDCCQL EPSPDSIKHE EGLGNDKSSG SPGGDASGEG
560 570 580 590 600
NSHLSAGDMK LNSPKTDSEG HSHRGRGRSA AASHGSSMNS LTMIKDSPTP
610 620 630 640 650
LGVEIDSGVL PTTVATPVPA ATPPVQSTKR KRKTKASQHA EDQGQEQVIS
660 670 680 690 700
EQPLPKLPTM EQRDQQPRSR LPSIVDEQPS SAADSAVKDL EQAMSKHLPS
710 720 730 740 750
PAAVVSVAPP NTDFSADSLL KQQQQQQQLD PNEKSSTIQW IGTPYQQPPA
760 770 780 790 800
PMPATALLRQ LYANRESVIR ATARQTPTGV GPGVFYGDQQ TGPLPTPPGS
810 820 830 840 850
ESSYENQYLQ LHSAASGGHP GGQKTSADAF TNLVSTYGGY HSSIDYHNAM
860 870 880 890 900
TPPSSVSPRD SNQPGKAAPV LASNGGYDYA PDPLRGQYAT SSGDVVPATL
910 920 930 940 950
PLKPQASYTA TMHPSGSTTT EGGVTYSNLD QPQYFAPHSS FHLYHKGSPA
960 970 980 990 1000
SGWYSTPSXV VDDQGQVPPS CQDQYHHHHH HHHHQDGSAG SSASQASERW
1010 1020
DFVGALGKVA RMFFSARKGN PG
Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Length:1,022
Mass (Da):109,260
Last modified:June 13, 2012 - v4
Checksum:iCDF4C8CE3FB38E37
GO
Isoform A (identifier: Q24119-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     959-1022: Missing.

Show »
Length:958
Mass (Da):102,242
Checksum:i8F9CF758F1370541
GO
Isoform B (identifier: Q24119-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     328-356: Missing.
     959-1022: Missing.

Show »
Length:929
Mass (Da):99,332
Checksum:iDA164A0B869F4BAF
GO
Isoform C (identifier: Q24119-6) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     2-82: LPYQAAVAMD...HAQQQPLEPG → EHHGSGFVAS...GAAQSSVNAR
     328-356: Missing.
     959-1022: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:966
Mass (Da):103,568
Checksum:i50144CA76E353D03
GO
Isoform E (identifier: Q24119-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     281-286: Missing.
     959-1022: Missing.

Show »
Length:952
Mass (Da):101,643
Checksum:i4B539CF8FBE67EA6
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAA96257 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally extended.Curated
The sequence AAA96754 differs from that shown. Reason: Frameshift at positions 22 and 35.Curated
The sequence AAM11264 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally extended.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti78P → A in AAA96257 (PubMed:8557198).Curated1
Sequence conflicti250G → GG in AAA96754 (PubMed:8557189).Curated1
Sequence conflicti627S → P in ABX00736 (Ref. 5) Curated1
Sequence conflicti703A → T in AAA96257 (PubMed:8557198).Curated1
Sequence conflicti708A → P in AAA96257 (PubMed:8557198).Curated1
Sequence conflicti829A → V in AAA96257 (PubMed:8557198).Curated1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_0439312 – 82LPYQA…PLEPG → EHHGSGFVASPWAAVLGHHS MASDAGFAAAAAAAHVQNHS MHHPIHSHHHHHSHSHPHPH PHSHPHHHPHLGTAGGMPMD LHVPQGFPYYRYREDALCWG DRKSMEEIGAAQSSVNAR in isoform C. CuratedAdd BLAST81
Alternative sequenceiVSP_043932281 – 286Missing in isoform E. 1 Publication6
Alternative sequenceiVSP_043933328 – 356Missing in isoform B and isoform C. 3 PublicationsAdd BLAST29
Alternative sequenceiVSP_043934959 – 1022Missing in isoform A, isoform B, isoform C and isoform E. 4 PublicationsAdd BLAST64

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U33427 mRNA Translation: AAA96257.1 Different initiation.
U42699 mRNA Translation: AAA96754.1 Frameshift.
AE014296 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF47386.1
AE014296 Genomic DNA Translation: ABI31226.1
BT031114 mRNA Translation: ABX00736.1
AY094911 mRNA Translation: AAM11264.1 Different initiation.
RefSeqiNP_001036575.1, NM_001043110.2 [Q24119-3]
NP_001097461.2, NM_001103991.2 [Q24119-6]
NP_001261207.1, NM_001274278.1 [Q24119-5]
NP_523872.2, NM_079148.3 [Q24119-1]
UniGeneiDm.7330

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0304120; FBpp0293063; FBgn0262139 [Q24119-1]
FBtr0304121; FBpp0293064; FBgn0262139 [Q24119-3]
FBtr0304122; FBpp0293065; FBgn0262139 [Q24119-6]
FBtr0330146; FBpp0303179; FBgn0262139 [Q24119-5]
FBtr0330147; FBpp0303180; FBgn0262139 [Q24119-2]
GeneIDi38065
KEGGidme:Dmel_CG42865
UCSCiCG6883-RB d. melanogaster

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiTRH_DROME
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q24119
Secondary accession number(s): A8JNH0
, A8WHG8, Q0E8K2, Q24165, Q8SX13, Q9W0Q7
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1997
Last sequence update: June 13, 2012
Last modified: March 28, 2018
This is version 175 of the entry and version 4 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programDrosophila annotation project

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome