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Protein

Serotonin N-acetyltransferase

Gene

AANAT

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Controls the night/day rhythm of melatonin production in the pineal gland. Catalyzes the N-acetylation of serotonin into N-acetylserotonin, the penultimate step in the synthesis of melatonin.

Catalytic activityi

Acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine = CoA + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine.

Kineticsi

  1. KM=0.13 mM for tryptamine1 Publication
  2. KM=2.6 mM for 5-hydroxytryptamine1 Publication
  3. KM=0.55 mM for phenylethylamine1 Publication
  4. KM=10.6 mM for tyramine1 Publication

Pathwayi

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sitei120 – 1201Important for the catalytic mechanism; involved in substrate deprotonationBy similarity
Sitei122 – 1221Important for the catalytic mechanism; involved in substrate deprotonationBy similarity
Binding sitei124 – 1241Substrate; via carbonyl oxygenBy similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity Source: UniProtKB
  2. arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity Source: Ensembl

GO - Biological processi

  1. cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process Source: Reactome
  2. cellular response to cAMP Source: UniProtKB
  3. circadian rhythm Source: UniProtKB
  4. indolalkylamine biosynthetic process Source: Reactome
  5. melatonin biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
  6. N-terminal protein amino acid acetylation Source: UniProtKB
  7. response to calcium ion Source: Ensembl
  8. response to copper ion Source: Ensembl
  9. response to corticosterone Source: Ensembl
  10. response to cytokine Source: Ensembl
  11. response to insulin Source: Ensembl
  12. response to light stimulus Source: Ensembl
  13. response to prostaglandin E Source: Ensembl
  14. response to zinc ion Source: Ensembl
  15. small molecule metabolic process Source: Reactome
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Acyltransferase, Transferase

Keywords - Biological processi

Biological rhythms, Melatonin biosynthesis

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:HS05303-MONOMER.
BRENDAi2.3.1.87. 2681.
ReactomeiREACT_15439. Serotonin and melatonin biosynthesis.
UniPathwayiUPA00837; UER00815.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (EC:2.3.1.87)
Short name:
Serotonin acetylase
Alternative name(s):
Aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase
Short name:
AA-NAT
Gene namesi
Name:AANAT
Synonyms:SNAT
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 17

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:19. AANAT.

Subcellular locationi

Cytoplasm 1 Publication

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. cytosol Source: Reactome
  2. perinuclear region of cytoplasm Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm

Pathology & Biotechi

Involvement in diseasei

Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS)1 Publication

Disease susceptibility may be associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry. Susceptibility to delayed sleep phase syndrome can be conferred by variant Thr-129. Thr-129 shows a significantly higher frequency in affected individuals than in healthy controls.

Disease descriptionA circadian rhythm sleep disorder characterized by sleep-onset insomnia and difficulty in awakening at the desired time. Patients with DSPS have chronic difficulty in adjusting their sleep-onset and wake-up times to occupational, school, and social activities.

See also OMIM:614163
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti129 – 1291A → T in DSPS. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs28936679 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_055086

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi31 – 311T → A: Loss of activation by cAMP. 1 Publication

Keywords - Diseasei

Disease mutation

Organism-specific databases

MIMi614163. phenotype.
PharmGKBiPA24366.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 207207Serotonin N-acetyltransferasePRO_0000074580Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei31 – 311Phosphothreonine; by PKABy similarity
Modified residuei205 – 2051PhosphoserineBy similarity

Post-translational modificationi

cAMP-dependent phosphorylation on both N-terminal Thr-31 and C-terminal Ser-205 regulates AANAT activity by promoting interaction with 14-3-3 proteins.

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ16613.
PRIDEiQ16613.

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBQ16613.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Highly expressed in pineal gland and at lower levels in the retina. Weak expression in several brain regions and in the pituitary gland.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ16613.
CleanExiHS_AANAT.
ExpressionAtlasiQ16613. baseline.
GenevestigatoriQ16613.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA050784.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Monomer (By similarity). Interacts with several 14-3-3 proteins, including YWHAB, YWHAE, YWHAG and YWHAZ, preferentially when phosphorylated at Thr-31. Phosphorylation on Ser-205 also allows binding to YWHAZ, but with lower affinity. The interaction with YWHAZ considerably increases affinity for arylalkylamines and acetyl-CoA and protects the enzyme from dephosphorylation and proteasomal degradation (By similarity). It may also prevent thiol-dependent inactivation (By similarity).By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi106533. 3 interactions.
IntActiQ16613. 1 interaction.
MINTiMINT-1559914.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000250615.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ16613.
SMRiQ16613. Positions 30-195.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Domaini35 – 194160N-acetyltransferasePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni124 – 1263Acetyl-CoA bindingBy similarity
Regioni132 – 1376Acetyl-CoA bindingBy similarity
Regioni168 – 1703Acetyl-CoA bindingBy similarity

Sequence similaritiesi

Contains 1 N-acetyltransferase domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG324206.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000015579.
HOGENOMiHOG000115812.
HOVERGENiHBG016332.
InParanoidiQ16613.
KOiK00669.
OMAiLRRNSGC.
OrthoDBiEOG7C2R2B.
PhylomeDBiQ16613.
TreeFamiTF331622.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.630.30. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR016181. Acyl_CoA_acyltransferase.
IPR000182. GNAT_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00583. Acetyltransf_1. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF55729. SSF55729. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS51186. GNAT. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q16613-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MSTQSTHPLK PEAPRLPPGI PESPSCQRRH TLPASEFRCL TPEDAVSAFE
60 70 80 90 100
IEREAFISVL GVCPLYLDEI RHFLTLCPEL SLGWFEEGCL VAFIIGSLWD
110 120 130 140 150
KERLMQESLT LHRSGGHIAH LHVLAVHRAF RQQGRGPILL WRYLHHLGSQ
160 170 180 190 200
PAVRRAALMC EDALVPFYER FSFHAVGPCA ITVGSLTFME LHCSLRGHPF

LRRNSGC
Length:207
Mass (Da):23,344
Last modified:October 31, 1996 - v1
Checksum:i7476612F3661E0D5
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q16613-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-1: M → MEPQSMKGQKRPFGGPWRLKVLGGPPWLRRTLPKLGRPKEAPVARM

Note: No experimental confirmation available.

Show »
Length:252
Mass (Da):28,432
Checksum:i112BEFE03782A3D8
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAH69434.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally extended.Curated

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti15 – 151R → C.
Corresponds to variant rs34470791 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_048168
Natural varianti129 – 1291A → T in DSPS. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs28936679 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_055086

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei1 – 11M → MEPQSMKGQKRPFGGPWRLK VLGGPPWLRRTLPKLGRPKE APVARM in isoform 2. CuratedVSP_054108

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U40347 mRNA. Translation: AAC50554.1.
U40391 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC50555.1.
AC015802 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
BC069434 mRNA. Translation: AAH69434.1. Different initiation.
BC092430 mRNA. Translation: AAH92430.1.
BC126332 mRNA. Translation: AAI26333.1.
BC126334 mRNA. Translation: AAI26335.1.
CCDSiCCDS11745.1. [Q16613-1]
CCDS54169.1. [Q16613-2]
RefSeqiNP_001079.1. NM_001088.2. [Q16613-1]
NP_001160051.1. NM_001166579.1. [Q16613-2]
UniGeneiHs.431417.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000250615; ENSP00000250615; ENSG00000129673. [Q16613-2]
ENST00000392492; ENSP00000376282; ENSG00000129673. [Q16613-1]
GeneIDi15.
KEGGihsa:15.
UCSCiuc002jro.3. human. [Q16613-1]

Polymorphism databases

DMDMi11387096.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

SHMPD

The Singapore human mutation and polymorphism database

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U40347 mRNA. Translation: AAC50554.1.
U40391 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC50555.1.
AC015802 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
BC069434 mRNA. Translation: AAH69434.1. Different initiation.
BC092430 mRNA. Translation: AAH92430.1.
BC126332 mRNA. Translation: AAI26333.1.
BC126334 mRNA. Translation: AAI26335.1.
CCDSiCCDS11745.1. [Q16613-1]
CCDS54169.1. [Q16613-2]
RefSeqiNP_001079.1. NM_001088.2. [Q16613-1]
NP_001160051.1. NM_001166579.1. [Q16613-2]
UniGeneiHs.431417.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ16613.
SMRiQ16613. Positions 30-195.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi106533. 3 interactions.
IntActiQ16613. 1 interaction.
MINTiMINT-1559914.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000250615.

Chemistry

BindingDBiQ16613.

Polymorphism databases

DMDMi11387096.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ16613.
PRIDEiQ16613.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi15.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000250615; ENSP00000250615; ENSG00000129673. [Q16613-2]
ENST00000392492; ENSP00000376282; ENSG00000129673. [Q16613-1]
GeneIDi15.
KEGGihsa:15.
UCSCiuc002jro.3. human. [Q16613-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi15.
GeneCardsiGC17P074449.
HGNCiHGNC:19. AANAT.
HPAiHPA050784.
MIMi600950. gene.
614163. phenotype.
neXtProtiNX_Q16613.
PharmGKBiPA24366.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG324206.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000015579.
HOGENOMiHOG000115812.
HOVERGENiHBG016332.
InParanoidiQ16613.
KOiK00669.
OMAiLRRNSGC.
OrthoDBiEOG7C2R2B.
PhylomeDBiQ16613.
TreeFamiTF331622.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00837; UER00815.
BioCyciMetaCyc:HS05303-MONOMER.
BRENDAi2.3.1.87. 2681.
ReactomeiREACT_15439. Serotonin and melatonin biosynthesis.

Miscellaneous databases

GenomeRNAii15.
NextBioi35534776.
PMAP-CutDBQ16613.
PROiQ16613.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ16613.
CleanExiHS_AANAT.
ExpressionAtlasiQ16613. baseline.
GenevestigatoriQ16613.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.630.30. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR016181. Acyl_CoA_acyltransferase.
IPR000182. GNAT_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00583. Acetyltransf_1. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF55729. SSF55729. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS51186. GNAT. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "The human serotonin N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.87) gene (AANAT): structure, chromosomal localization, and tissue expression."
    Coon S.L., Mazuruk K., Bernard M., Roseboom P., Klein D.C., Rodriguez I.R.
    Genomics 34:76-84(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA / MRNA] (ISOFORM 1), INDUCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  2. "DNA sequence of human chromosome 17 and analysis of rearrangement in the human lineage."
    Zody M.C., Garber M., Adams D.J., Sharpe T., Harrow J., Lupski J.R., Nicholson C., Searle S.M., Wilming L., Young S.K., Abouelleil A., Allen N.R., Bi W., Bloom T., Borowsky M.L., Bugalter B.E., Butler J., Chang J.L.
    , Chen C.-K., Cook A., Corum B., Cuomo C.A., de Jong P.J., DeCaprio D., Dewar K., FitzGerald M., Gilbert J., Gibson R., Gnerre S., Goldstein S., Grafham D.V., Grocock R., Hafez N., Hagopian D.S., Hart E., Norman C.H., Humphray S., Jaffe D.B., Jones M., Kamal M., Khodiyar V.K., LaButti K., Laird G., Lehoczky J., Liu X., Lokyitsang T., Loveland J., Lui A., Macdonald P., Major J.E., Matthews L., Mauceli E., McCarroll S.A., Mihalev A.H., Mudge J., Nguyen C., Nicol R., O'Leary S.B., Osoegawa K., Schwartz D.C., Shaw-Smith C., Stankiewicz P., Steward C., Swarbreck D., Venkataraman V., Whittaker C.A., Yang X., Zimmer A.R., Bradley A., Hubbard T., Birren B.W., Rogers J., Lander E.S., Nusbaum C.
    Nature 440:1045-1049(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  3. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Brain and Testis.
  4. "cAMP regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT, EC 2.3.1.87): a new cell line (1E7) provides evidence of intracellular AANAT activation."
    Coon S.L., Weller J.L., Korf H.-W., Namboodiri M.A., Rollag M., Klein D.C.
    J. Biol. Chem. 276:24097-24107(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, INDUCTION, BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES.
  5. "Role of a pineal cAMP-operated arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase/14-3-3-binding switch in melatonin synthesis."
    Ganguly S., Gastel J.A., Weller J.L., Schwartz C., Jaffe H., Namboodiri M.A., Coon S.L., Hickman A.B., Rollag M., Obsil T., Beauverger P., Ferry G., Boutin J.A., Klein D.C.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98:8083-8088(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH 14-3-3 PROTEINS, MUTAGENESIS OF THR-31.
  6. "Role of melatonin in upper gastrointestinal tract."
    Konturek S.J., Konturek P.C., Brzozowski T., Bubenik G.A.
    J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 58:23-52(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  7. "Significant association of the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) gene with delayed sleep phase syndrome."
    Hohjoh H., Takasu M., Shishikura K., Takahashi Y., Honda Y., Tokunaga K.
    Neurogenetics 4:151-153(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: VARIANT DSPS THR-129.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiSNAT_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q16613
Secondary accession number(s): A0AVF2, J3KMZ5, Q562F4
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 30, 2000
Last sequence update: October 31, 1996
Last modified: March 31, 2015
This is version 128 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 17
    Human chromosome 17: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  6. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.