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Protein

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein

Gene

CARTPT

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Satiety factor closely associated with the actions of leptin and neuropeptide y; this anorectic peptide inhibits both normal and starvation-induced feeding and completely blocks the feeding response induced by neuropeptide Y and regulated by leptin in the hypothalamus. It promotes neuronal development and survival in vitro.1 Publication

GO - Biological processi

  1. activation of MAPKK activity Source: HGNC
  2. adult feeding behavior Source: HGNC
  3. cell-cell signaling Source: ProtInc
  4. cellular glucose homeostasis Source: HGNC
  5. cellular response to starvation Source: HGNC
  6. circadian regulation of gene expression Source: HGNC
  7. G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: HGNC
  8. negative regulation of appetite Source: HGNC
  9. negative regulation of bone resorption Source: HGNC
  10. negative regulation of glucagon secretion Source: Ensembl
  11. negative regulation of osteoclast differentiation Source: HGNC
  12. neuropeptide signaling pathway Source: UniProtKB-KW
  13. positive regulation of blood pressure Source: HGNC
  14. positive regulation of epinephrine secretion Source: HGNC
  15. positive regulation of transmission of nerve impulse Source: HGNC
  16. regulation of insulin secretion Source: Ensembl
  17. signal transduction Source: ProtInc
  18. somatostatin secretion Source: Ensembl
  19. synaptic transmission Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Neuropeptide, Neurotransmitter

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein
Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:CARTPT
Synonyms:CART
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 5

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:24323. CARTPT.

Subcellular locationi

Secreted Curated

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. extracellular space Source: HGNC
  2. secretory granule Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Keywords - Diseasei

Obesity

Organism-specific databases

PharmGKBiPA162381084.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 27271 PublicationAdd
BLAST
Chaini28 – 11689Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript proteinPRO_0000004433Add
BLAST
Peptidei28 – 6639CART(1-39)PRO_0000004434Add
BLAST
Peptidei69 – 11648CART(42-89)PRO_0000004435Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Disulfide bondi82 ↔ 100
Disulfide bondi88 ↔ 108
Disulfide bondi102 ↔ 115

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ16568.
PRIDEiQ16568.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiQ16568.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Hypothalamus. Found in neurons of the ventrolateral part of the arcuate nucleus, in the external zone of the median eminence, and also found in terminals in the periventricular part of the paraventricular nucleus.

Inductioni

By leptin.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ16568.
CleanExiHS_CARTPT.
GenevestigatoriQ16568.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA046278.

Interactioni

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
CEACAM1P136883EBI-4314526,EBI-4314481
CEACAM6P401993EBI-4314526,EBI-4314501

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi114970. 2 interactions.
IntActiQ16568. 2 interactions.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000296777.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
116
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Beta strandi84 – 863Combined sources
Beta strandi88 – 914Combined sources
Beta strandi93 – 986Combined sources
Turni110 – 1123Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1HY9NMR-A76-116[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ16568.
SMRiQ16568. Positions 76-116.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ16568.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the CART family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG47455.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000018319.
HOGENOMiHOG000111306.
HOVERGENiHBG018929.
InParanoidiQ16568.
OMAiSHEKELP.
OrthoDBiEOG7JDR0T.
PhylomeDBiQ16568.
TreeFamiTF332948.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di4.10.40.30. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR009106. CART.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR16655. PTHR16655. 1 hit.
PfamiPF06373. CART. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF64546. SSF64546. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q16568-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MESSRVRLLP LLGAALLLML PLLGTRAQED AELQPRALDI YSAVDDASHE
60 70 80 90 100
KELIEALQEV LKKLKSKRVP IYEKKYGQVP MCDAGEQCAV RKGARIGKLC
110
DCPRGTSCNS FLLKCL
Length:116
Mass (Da):12,829
Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:iFC396CA2C032AA83
GO

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti61 – 611L → F Cosegregates with obesity phenotype in a large family. 1 Publication
VAR_012199
Natural varianti66 – 661S → T.1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs78242624 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_012200
Natural varianti113 – 1131L → M.
Corresponds to variant rs12517689 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_053022

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U16826 mRNA. Translation: AAB08010.1.
U20325 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB08011.1.
CR542216 mRNA. Translation: CAG47012.1.
CH471084 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW95694.1.
BC029882 mRNA. Translation: AAH29882.1.
CCDSiCCDS4011.1.
PIRiJC4669.
RefSeqiNP_004282.1. NM_004291.3.
UniGeneiHs.1707.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000296777; ENSP00000296777; ENSG00000164326.
GeneIDi9607.
KEGGihsa:9607.
UCSCiuc003kbv.2. human.

Polymorphism databases

DMDMi2833274.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U16826 mRNA. Translation: AAB08010.1.
U20325 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB08011.1.
CR542216 mRNA. Translation: CAG47012.1.
CH471084 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW95694.1.
BC029882 mRNA. Translation: AAH29882.1.
CCDSiCCDS4011.1.
PIRiJC4669.
RefSeqiNP_004282.1. NM_004291.3.
UniGeneiHs.1707.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1HY9NMR-A76-116[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ16568.
SMRiQ16568. Positions 76-116.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi114970. 2 interactions.
IntActiQ16568. 2 interactions.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000296777.

Chemistry

DrugBankiDB00182. Amphetamine.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiQ16568.

Polymorphism databases

DMDMi2833274.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ16568.
PRIDEiQ16568.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi9607.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000296777; ENSP00000296777; ENSG00000164326.
GeneIDi9607.
KEGGihsa:9607.
UCSCiuc003kbv.2. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi9607.
GeneCardsiGC05P071051.
HGNCiHGNC:24323. CARTPT.
HPAiHPA046278.
MIMi602606. gene.
neXtProtiNX_Q16568.
PharmGKBiPA162381084.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG47455.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000018319.
HOGENOMiHOG000111306.
HOVERGENiHBG018929.
InParanoidiQ16568.
OMAiSHEKELP.
OrthoDBiEOG7JDR0T.
PhylomeDBiQ16568.
TreeFamiTF332948.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ16568.
GenomeRNAii9607.
NextBioi36043.
PROiQ16568.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ16568.
CleanExiHS_CARTPT.
GenevestigatoriQ16568.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di4.10.40.30. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR009106. CART.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR16655. PTHR16655. 1 hit.
PfamiPF06373. CART. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF64546. SSF64546. 1 hit.
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Characterization of the human cDNA and genomic DNA encoding CART: a cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript."
    Douglass J.O., Daoud S.
    Gene 169:241-245(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA / MRNA].
  2. "Cloning of human full open reading frames in Gateway(TM) system entry vector (pDONR201)."
    Ebert L., Schick M., Neubert P., Schatten R., Henze S., Korn B.
    Submitted (MAY-2004) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
  3. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  4. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Brain.
  5. "Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites."
    Zhang Z., Henzel W.J.
    Protein Sci. 13:2819-2824(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 28-42.
  6. Cited for: FUNCTION.
  7. "Solution structure of the satiety factor, CART, reveals new functionality of a well-known fold."
    Ludvigsen S., Thim L., Blom A.M., Wulff B.S.
    Biochemistry 40:9082-9088(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR OF 75-116.
  8. "The CART gene and human obesity: mutational analysis and population genetics."
    Challis B.G., Yeo G.S.H., Farooqi I.S., Luan J., Aminian S., Halsall D.J., Keogh J.M., Wareham N.J., O'Rahilly S.
    Diabetes 49:872-875(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: VARIANT THR-66.
  9. "Mutational screening of the CART gene in obese children: identifying a mutation (Leu34Phe) associated with reduced resting energy expenditure and cosegregating with obesity phenotype in a large family."
    del Giudice E.M., Santoro N., Cirillo G., D'Urso L., Di Toro R., Perrone L.
    Diabetes 50:2157-2160(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: VARIANT PHE-61.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiCART_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q16568
Secondary accession number(s): Q6FG92
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1997
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: January 7, 2015
This is version 128 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 5
    Human chromosome 5: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  6. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.