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Q14956

- GPNMB_HUMAN

UniProt

Q14956 - GPNMB_HUMAN

Protein

Transmembrane glycoprotein NMB

Gene

GPNMB

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli
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    • History
      Entry version 120 (01 Oct 2014)
      Sequence version 2 (15 Mar 2005)
      Previous versions | rss
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    Functioni

    Could be a melanogenic enzyme.By similarity

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. heparin binding Source: Ensembl

    GO - Biological processi

    1. bone mineralization Source: Ensembl
    2. cell adhesion Source: Ensembl
    3. negative regulation of cell proliferation Source: ProtInc
    4. osteoblast differentiation Source: Ensembl

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Transmembrane glycoprotein NMB
    Alternative name(s):
    Transmembrane glycoprotein HGFIN
    Gene namesi
    Name:GPNMB
    Synonyms:HGFIN, NMB
    ORF Names:UNQ1725/PRO9925
    OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
    Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
    ProteomesiUP000005640: Chromosome 7

    Organism-specific databases

    HGNCiHGNC:4462. GPNMB.

    Subcellular locationi

    Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Melanosome
    Note: Identified by mass spectrometry in melanosome fractions from stage I to stage IV. Detected at the cell surface in different types of cancers cells, including glioblastoma multiforme cells and most melanoma cell lines.

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. integral component of membrane Source: ProtInc
    2. integral component of plasma membrane Source: Ensembl
    3. melanosome Source: UniProtKB-SubCell

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cell membrane, Membrane

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Involvement in diseasei

    Glioblastoma multiforme patients that exhibit increased mRNA and protein levels (>3-fold over normal brain) in biopsy samples have a significantly higher risk of death (PubMed:16609006). In the context of cancer immunotherapy, including that of melanoma, has been proposed to be used as a cell surface protein antigen targeted by antibodies coupled to cytotoxic drugs (PubMed:16489096).2 Publications

    Organism-specific databases

    PharmGKBiPA28845.

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Signal peptidei1 – 2121Sequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Chaini22 – 572551Transmembrane glycoprotein NMBPRO_0000024709Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Glycosylationi93 – 931N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi134 – 1341N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi146 – 1461N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi200 – 2001N-linked (GlcNAc...)2 Publications
    Glycosylationi249 – 2491N-linked (GlcNAc...)2 Publications
    Glycosylationi275 – 2751N-linked (GlcNAc...)2 Publications
    Glycosylationi296 – 2961N-linked (GlcNAc...)2 Publications
    Glycosylationi300 – 3001N-linked (GlcNAc...)2 Publications
    Glycosylationi306 – 3061N-linked (GlcNAc...)2 Publications
    Glycosylationi312 – 3121N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi459 – 4591N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi467 – 4671N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
    Modified residuei542 – 5421PhosphoserineBy similarity

    Keywords - PTMi

    Glycoprotein, Phosphoprotein

    Proteomic databases

    MaxQBiQ14956.
    PaxDbiQ14956.
    PRIDEiQ14956.

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSiteiQ14956.

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    Up-regulated in various cancer cells, including in glioblastoma multiforme. Expressed in many melanoma cells, as well as in tissue macrophages, including liver Kuppfer cells and lung alveolar macrophages, in podocytes and in some cells of the ciliary body of the eye (at protein level). Hardly detectable in healthy brain.3 Publications

    Gene expression databases

    ArrayExpressiQ14956.
    BgeeiQ14956.
    CleanExiHS_GPNMB.
    HS_NMB.
    GenevestigatoriQ14956.

    Organism-specific databases

    HPAiCAB026224.
    HPA044969.

    Interactioni

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi115720. 3 interactions.
    IntActiQ14956. 1 interaction.
    MINTiMINT-1192048.
    STRINGi9606.ENSP00000371420.

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliQ14956.
    SMRiQ14956. Positions 260-321.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Topological domain

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Topological domaini22 – 486465ExtracellularSequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Topological domaini508 – 57265CytoplasmicSequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST

    Transmembrane

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Transmembranei487 – 50721HelicalSequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST

    Family & Domainsi

    Domains and Repeats

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Domaini240 – 32788PKDPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
    BLAST

    Motif

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Motifi64 – 663Cell attachment siteSequence Analysis

    Compositional bias

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Compositional biasi320 – 33213Poly-ProAdd
    BLAST

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the PMEL/NMB family.Curated
    Contains 1 PKD domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

    Keywords - Domaini

    Signal, Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiNOG40272.
    HOGENOMiHOG000252941.
    HOVERGENiHBG051797.
    InParanoidiQ14956.
    OMAiHTYVLNG.
    OrthoDBiEOG7GXPB9.
    PhylomeDBiQ14956.
    TreeFamiTF334865.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di2.60.40.670. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR022409. PKD/Chitinase_dom.
    IPR000601. PKD_dom.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00801. PKD. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SMARTiSM00089. PKD. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF49299. SSF49299. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS50093. PKD. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequences (2)i

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. Align

    Isoform 1 (identifier: Q14956-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

    « Hide

    MECLYYFLGF LLLAARLPLD AAKRFHDVLG NERPSAYMRE HNQLNGWSSD    50
    ENDWNEKLYP VWKRGDMRWK NSWKGGRVQA VLTSDSPALV GSNITFAVNL 100
    IFPRCQKEDA NGNIVYEKNC RNEAGLSADP YVYNWTAWSE DSDGENGTGQ 150
    SHHNVFPDGK PFPHHPGWRR WNFIYVFHTL GQYFQKLGRC SVRVSVNTAN 200
    VTLGPQLMEV TVYRRHGRAY VPIAQVKDVY VVTDQIPVFV TMFQKNDRNS 250
    SDETFLKDLP IMFDVLIHDP SHFLNYSTIN YKWSFGDNTG LFVSTNHTVN 300
    HTYVLNGTFS LNLTVKAAAP GPCPPPPPPP RPSKPTPSLA TTLKSYDSNT 350
    PGPAGDNPLE LSRIPDENCQ INRYGHFQAT ITIVEGILEV NIIQMTDVLM 400
    PVPWPESSLI DFVVTCQGSI PTEVCTIISD PTCEITQNTV CSPVDVDEMC 450
    LLTVRRTFNG SGTYCVNLTL GDDTSLALTS TLISVPDRDP ASPLRMANSA 500
    LISVGCLAIF VTVISLLVYK KHKEYNPIEN SPGNVVRSKG LSVFLNRAKA 550
    VFFPGNQEKD PLLKNQEFKG VS 572
    Length:572
    Mass (Da):63,923
    Last modified:March 15, 2005 - v2
    Checksum:i2465C12C2F0F3996
    GO
    Isoform 2 (identifier: Q14956-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         340-351: Missing.

    Show »
    Length:560
    Mass (Da):62,643
    Checksum:i570035B48CCE3ECC
    GO

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Sequence conflicti354 – 3541A → T in AAQ89481. (PubMed:12975309)Curated

    Natural variant

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Natural varianti110 – 1101A → D in a breast cancer sample; somatic mutation. 1 Publication
    VAR_036262
    Natural varianti195 – 1951S → C.
    Corresponds to variant rs530436 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_012076
    Natural varianti197 – 1971N → H.
    Corresponds to variant rs530413 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_012077
    Natural varianti294 – 2941S → F.
    Corresponds to variant rs35499907 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_050603
    Natural varianti324 – 3241P → L.
    Corresponds to variant rs35363287 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_050604
    Natural varianti531 – 5311S → I in a breast cancer sample; somatic mutation. 1 Publication
    VAR_036263
    Natural varianti538 – 5381S → R.
    Corresponds to variant rs35878037 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_050605

    Alternative sequence

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Alternative sequencei340 – 35112Missing in isoform 2. 2 PublicationsVSP_013001Add
    BLAST

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    X76534 mRNA. Translation: CAA54044.1.
    AF322909 mRNA. Translation: AAG42839.1.
    AY359124 mRNA. Translation: AAQ89481.1.
    AC005082 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAP22336.1.
    CH236948 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAL24259.1.
    CH471073 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW93782.1.
    BC032783 mRNA. Translation: AAH32783.1.
    CCDSiCCDS34610.1. [Q14956-1]
    CCDS5380.1. [Q14956-2]
    PIRiI38065.
    RefSeqiNP_001005340.1. NM_001005340.1. [Q14956-1]
    NP_002501.1. NM_002510.2. [Q14956-2]
    UniGeneiHs.190495.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENST00000258733; ENSP00000258733; ENSG00000136235. [Q14956-2]
    ENST00000381990; ENSP00000371420; ENSG00000136235. [Q14956-1]
    GeneIDi10457.
    KEGGihsa:10457.
    UCSCiuc003swb.3. human. [Q14956-2]
    uc003swc.3. human. [Q14956-1]

    Polymorphism databases

    DMDMi61252504.

    Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

    Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

    Cross-referencesi

    Web resourcesi

    Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    X76534 mRNA. Translation: CAA54044.1 .
    AF322909 mRNA. Translation: AAG42839.1 .
    AY359124 mRNA. Translation: AAQ89481.1 .
    AC005082 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAP22336.1 .
    CH236948 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAL24259.1 .
    CH471073 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW93782.1 .
    BC032783 mRNA. Translation: AAH32783.1 .
    CCDSi CCDS34610.1. [Q14956-1 ]
    CCDS5380.1. [Q14956-2 ]
    PIRi I38065.
    RefSeqi NP_001005340.1. NM_001005340.1. [Q14956-1 ]
    NP_002501.1. NM_002510.2. [Q14956-2 ]
    UniGenei Hs.190495.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortali Q14956.
    SMRi Q14956. Positions 260-321.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi 115720. 3 interactions.
    IntActi Q14956. 1 interaction.
    MINTi MINT-1192048.
    STRINGi 9606.ENSP00000371420.

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSitei Q14956.

    Polymorphism databases

    DMDMi 61252504.

    Proteomic databases

    MaxQBi Q14956.
    PaxDbi Q14956.
    PRIDEi Q14956.

    Protocols and materials databases

    DNASUi 10457.
    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembli ENST00000258733 ; ENSP00000258733 ; ENSG00000136235 . [Q14956-2 ]
    ENST00000381990 ; ENSP00000371420 ; ENSG00000136235 . [Q14956-1 ]
    GeneIDi 10457.
    KEGGi hsa:10457.
    UCSCi uc003swb.3. human. [Q14956-2 ]
    uc003swc.3. human. [Q14956-1 ]

    Organism-specific databases

    CTDi 10457.
    GeneCardsi GC07P023252.
    HGNCi HGNC:4462. GPNMB.
    HPAi CAB026224.
    HPA044969.
    MIMi 604368. gene.
    neXtProti NX_Q14956.
    PharmGKBi PA28845.
    GenAtlasi Search...

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGi NOG40272.
    HOGENOMi HOG000252941.
    HOVERGENi HBG051797.
    InParanoidi Q14956.
    OMAi HTYVLNG.
    OrthoDBi EOG7GXPB9.
    PhylomeDBi Q14956.
    TreeFami TF334865.

    Miscellaneous databases

    ChiTaRSi GPNMB. human.
    GeneWikii GPNMB.
    GenomeRNAii 10457.
    NextBioi 39645.
    PROi Q14956.
    SOURCEi Search...

    Gene expression databases

    ArrayExpressi Q14956.
    Bgeei Q14956.
    CleanExi HS_GPNMB.
    HS_NMB.
    Genevestigatori Q14956.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di 2.60.40.670. 1 hit.
    InterProi IPR022409. PKD/Chitinase_dom.
    IPR000601. PKD_dom.
    [Graphical view ]
    Pfami PF00801. PKD. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    SMARTi SM00089. PKD. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    SUPFAMi SSF49299. SSF49299. 1 hit.
    PROSITEi PS50093. PKD. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. "NMB, a novel gene, is expressed in low-metastatic human melanoma cell lines and xenografts."
      Weterman M.A.J., Ajubi N., van Dinter I.M.R., Degen W.G.J., van Muijen G.N.P., Ruiter D.J., Bloemers H.P.J.
      Int. J. Cancer 60:73-81(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 2), TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
      Tissue: Melanoma.
    2. "Hematopoietic growth factor inducible neurokinin-1 type: a transmembrane protein that is similar to neurokinin 1 interacts with substance P."
      Bandari P.S., Qian J., Yehia G., Joshi D.D., Maloof P.B., Potian J., Oh H.S., Gascon P., Harrison J.S., Rameshwar P.
      Regul. Pept. 111:169-178(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 2).
      Tissue: Peripheral blood.
    3. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
    4. "Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology."
      Scherer S.W., Cheung J., MacDonald J.R., Osborne L.R., Nakabayashi K., Herbrick J.-A., Carson A.R., Parker-Katiraee L., Skaug J., Khaja R., Zhang J., Hudek A.K., Li M., Haddad M., Duggan G.E., Fernandez B.A., Kanematsu E., Gentles S.
      , Christopoulos C.C., Choufani S., Kwasnicka D., Zheng X.H., Lai Z., Nusskern D.R., Zhang Q., Gu Z., Lu F., Zeesman S., Nowaczyk M.J., Teshima I., Chitayat D., Shuman C., Weksberg R., Zackai E.H., Grebe T.A., Cox S.R., Kirkpatrick S.J., Rahman N., Friedman J.M., Heng H.H.Q., Pelicci P.G., Lo-Coco F., Belloni E., Shaffer L.G., Pober B., Morton C.C., Gusella J.F., Bruns G.A.P., Korf B.R., Quade B.J., Ligon A.H., Ferguson H., Higgins A.W., Leach N.T., Herrick S.R., Lemyre E., Farra C.G., Kim H.-G., Summers A.M., Gripp K.W., Roberts W., Szatmari P., Winsor E.J.T., Grzeschik K.-H., Teebi A., Minassian B.A., Kere J., Armengol L., Pujana M.A., Estivill X., Wilson M.D., Koop B.F., Tosi S., Moore G.E., Boright A.P., Zlotorynski E., Kerem B., Kroisel P.M., Petek E., Oscier D.G., Mould S.J., Doehner H., Doehner K., Rommens J.M., Vincent J.B., Venter J.C., Li P.W., Mural R.J., Adams M.D., Tsui L.-C.
      Science 300:767-772(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    5. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    6. "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7."
      Hillier L.W., Fulton R.S., Fulton L.A., Graves T.A., Pepin K.H., Wagner-McPherson C., Layman D., Maas J., Jaeger S., Walker R., Wylie K., Sekhon M., Becker M.C., O'Laughlin M.D., Schaller M.E., Fewell G.A., Delehaunty K.D., Miner T.L.
      , Nash W.E., Cordes M., Du H., Sun H., Edwards J., Bradshaw-Cordum H., Ali J., Andrews S., Isak A., Vanbrunt A., Nguyen C., Du F., Lamar B., Courtney L., Kalicki J., Ozersky P., Bielicki L., Scott K., Holmes A., Harkins R., Harris A., Strong C.M., Hou S., Tomlinson C., Dauphin-Kohlberg S., Kozlowicz-Reilly A., Leonard S., Rohlfing T., Rock S.M., Tin-Wollam A.-M., Abbott A., Minx P., Maupin R., Strowmatt C., Latreille P., Miller N., Johnson D., Murray J., Woessner J.P., Wendl M.C., Yang S.-P., Schultz B.R., Wallis J.W., Spieth J., Bieri T.A., Nelson J.O., Berkowicz N., Wohldmann P.E., Cook L.L., Hickenbotham M.T., Eldred J., Williams D., Bedell J.A., Mardis E.R., Clifton S.W., Chissoe S.L., Marra M.A., Raymond C., Haugen E., Gillett W., Zhou Y., James R., Phelps K., Iadanoto S., Bubb K., Simms E., Levy R., Clendenning J., Kaul R., Kent W.J., Furey T.S., Baertsch R.A., Brent M.R., Keibler E., Flicek P., Bork P., Suyama M., Bailey J.A., Portnoy M.E., Torrents D., Chinwalla A.T., Gish W.R., Eddy S.R., McPherson J.D., Olson M.V., Eichler E.E., Green E.D., Waterston R.H., Wilson R.K.
      Nature 424:157-164(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    7. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
      The MGC Project Team
      Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
      Tissue: Brain.
    8. Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
      Tissue: Melanoma.
    9. Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, GLYCOSYLATION, ALTERNATIVE SPLICING, POTENTIAL TUMOR-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN FOR IMMUNOTHERAPY, DISEASE.
    10. "Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B, a potential molecular therapeutic target in patients with glioblastoma multiforme."
      Kuan C.T., Wakiya K., Dowell J.M., Herndon J.E. II, Reardon D.A., Graner M.W., Riggins G.J., Wikstrand C.J., Bigner D.D.
      Clin. Cancer Res. 12:1970-1982(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, ALTERNATIVE SPLICING, DISEASE.
    11. Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
      Tissue: Melanoma.
    12. "Glycoproteomics analysis of human liver tissue by combination of multiple enzyme digestion and hydrazide chemistry."
      Chen R., Jiang X., Sun D., Han G., Wang F., Ye M., Wang L., Zou H.
      J. Proteome Res. 8:651-661(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: GLYCOSYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT ASN-200; ASN-249; ASN-275; ASN-296; ASN-300 AND ASN-306.
      Tissue: Liver.
    13. Cited for: VARIANTS [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] ASP-110 AND ILE-531.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiGPNMB_HUMAN
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q14956
    Secondary accession number(s): A4D155, Q6UVX1, Q8N1A1
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1997
    Last sequence update: March 15, 2005
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 120 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
    DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Human chromosome 7
      Human chromosome 7: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
    2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
      List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
      Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    4. MIM cross-references
      Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    5. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3