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Protein

Early placenta insulin-like peptide

Gene

INSL4

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

May play an important role in trophoblast development and in the regulation of bone formation.

GO - Molecular functioni

  • insulin-like growth factor receptor binding Source: ProtInc
  • receptor binding Source: ProtInc

GO - Biological processi

  • cell-cell signaling Source: ProtInc
  • cell proliferation Source: ProtInc
  • female pregnancy Source: ProtInc
  • multicellular organismal development Source: ProtInc
  • signal transduction Source: ProtInc
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Hormone

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Early placenta insulin-like peptide
Short name:
EPIL
Alternative name(s):
Insulin-like peptide 4
Placentin
Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:INSL4
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 9

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:6087. INSL4.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • extracellular space Source: ProtInc
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

PharmGKBiPA29894.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiINSL4.
DMDMi2497411.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 25251 PublicationAdd
BLAST
Chaini26 – 139114Early placenta insulin-like peptidePRO_0000016155Add
BLAST
Peptidei26 – 5833Early placenta insulin-like peptide B chainPRO_0000016156Add
BLAST
Propeptidei59 – 11456C peptidePRO_0000016157Add
BLAST
Peptidei115 – 13925Early placenta insulin-like peptide A chainPRO_0000016158Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Disulfide bondi31 ↔ 125Interchain (between B and A chains)By similarity
Disulfide bondi43 ↔ 138Interchain (between B and A chains)By similarity
Disulfide bondi124 ↔ 129By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiQ14641.
PaxDbiQ14641.
PRIDEiQ14641.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiQ14641.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in placenta, uterus and in fetal perichondrium. Expression levels were increased in both early placentas and molar pregnancies and were reduced in choriocarcinoma cells.2 Publications

Developmental stagei

Highly expressed in the early placenta. Expression of epil peptides in the villous cytotrophoblast is different from that displayed by the syncytiotrophoblast. In fetal tissues it was identified in the perichondrium of all four limbs, vertebrae, and ribs. It was abundant in interbone ligaments.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ14641.
CleanExiHS_INSL4.
GenevisibleiQ14641. HS.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9606.ENSP00000239316.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ14641.
SMRiQ14641. Positions 109-139.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the insulin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG78056.
GeneTreeiENSGT00510000050531.
HOGENOMiHOG000236342.
HOVERGENiHBG052134.
InParanoidiQ14641.
KOiK05255.
OMAiKKRNGHH.
OrthoDBiEOG7TMZTP.
PhylomeDBiQ14641.
TreeFamiTF333404.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR023258. Placentin.
IPR022421. Relaxin.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR02033. PLACENTIN.
PR02004. RELAXIN.
PROSITEiPS00262. INSULIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q14641-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MASLFRSYLP AIWLLLSQLL RESLAAELRG CGPRFGKHLL SYCPMPEKTF
60 70 80 90 100
TTTPGGWLLE SGRPKEMVST SNNKDGQALG TTSEFIPNLS PELKKPLSEG
110 120 130
QPSLKKIILS RKKRSGRHRF DPFCCEVICD DGTSVKLCT
Length:139
Mass (Da):15,445
Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:i47FB61F6F86C1342
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L34838 mRNA. Translation: AAB08516.1.
AK291543 mRNA. Translation: BAF84232.1.
AL133547 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAH70506.1.
CH471071 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW58772.1.
BC026254 mRNA. Translation: AAH26254.1.
CCDSiCCDS6459.1.
RefSeqiNP_002186.1. NM_002195.1.
UniGeneiHs.418506.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000239316; ENSP00000239316; ENSG00000120211.
GeneIDi3641.
KEGGihsa:3641.
UCSCiuc003ziy.3. human.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L34838 mRNA. Translation: AAB08516.1.
AK291543 mRNA. Translation: BAF84232.1.
AL133547 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAH70506.1.
CH471071 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW58772.1.
BC026254 mRNA. Translation: AAH26254.1.
CCDSiCCDS6459.1.
RefSeqiNP_002186.1. NM_002195.1.
UniGeneiHs.418506.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ14641.
SMRiQ14641. Positions 109-139.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9606.ENSP00000239316.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiQ14641.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiINSL4.
DMDMi2497411.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiQ14641.
PaxDbiQ14641.
PRIDEiQ14641.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi3641.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000239316; ENSP00000239316; ENSG00000120211.
GeneIDi3641.
KEGGihsa:3641.
UCSCiuc003ziy.3. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi3641.
GeneCardsiGC09P005231.
HGNCiHGNC:6087. INSL4.
MIMi600910. gene.
neXtProtiNX_Q14641.
PharmGKBiPA29894.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG78056.
GeneTreeiENSGT00510000050531.
HOGENOMiHOG000236342.
HOVERGENiHBG052134.
InParanoidiQ14641.
KOiK05255.
OMAiKKRNGHH.
OrthoDBiEOG7TMZTP.
PhylomeDBiQ14641.
TreeFamiTF333404.

Miscellaneous databases

GeneWikiiINSL4.
GenomeRNAii3641.
NextBioi14251.
PROiQ14641.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ14641.
CleanExiHS_INSL4.
GenevisibleiQ14641. HS.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR023258. Placentin.
IPR022421. Relaxin.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR02033. PLACENTIN.
PR02004. RELAXIN.
PROSITEiPS00262. INSULIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Cloning of a new member of the insulin gene superfamily (INSL4) expressed in human placenta."
    Chassin D., Laurent A., Janneau J.-L., Berger R., Bellet D.
    Genomics 29:465-470(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
    Tissue: Placenta.
  2. "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
    Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S.
    , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
    Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Placenta.
  3. "DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 9."
    Humphray S.J., Oliver K., Hunt A.R., Plumb R.W., Loveland J.E., Howe K.L., Andrews T.D., Searle S., Hunt S.E., Scott C.E., Jones M.C., Ainscough R., Almeida J.P., Ambrose K.D., Ashwell R.I.S., Babbage A.K., Babbage S., Bagguley C.L.
    , Bailey J., Banerjee R., Barker D.J., Barlow K.F., Bates K., Beasley H., Beasley O., Bird C.P., Bray-Allen S., Brown A.J., Brown J.Y., Burford D., Burrill W., Burton J., Carder C., Carter N.P., Chapman J.C., Chen Y., Clarke G., Clark S.Y., Clee C.M., Clegg S., Collier R.E., Corby N., Crosier M., Cummings A.T., Davies J., Dhami P., Dunn M., Dutta I., Dyer L.W., Earthrowl M.E., Faulkner L., Fleming C.J., Frankish A., Frankland J.A., French L., Fricker D.G., Garner P., Garnett J., Ghori J., Gilbert J.G.R., Glison C., Grafham D.V., Gribble S., Griffiths C., Griffiths-Jones S., Grocock R., Guy J., Hall R.E., Hammond S., Harley J.L., Harrison E.S.I., Hart E.A., Heath P.D., Henderson C.D., Hopkins B.L., Howard P.J., Howden P.J., Huckle E., Johnson C., Johnson D., Joy A.A., Kay M., Keenan S., Kershaw J.K., Kimberley A.M., King A., Knights A., Laird G.K., Langford C., Lawlor S., Leongamornlert D.A., Leversha M., Lloyd C., Lloyd D.M., Lovell J., Martin S., Mashreghi-Mohammadi M., Matthews L., McLaren S., McLay K.E., McMurray A., Milne S., Nickerson T., Nisbett J., Nordsiek G., Pearce A.V., Peck A.I., Porter K.M., Pandian R., Pelan S., Phillimore B., Povey S., Ramsey Y., Rand V., Scharfe M., Sehra H.K., Shownkeen R., Sims S.K., Skuce C.D., Smith M., Steward C.A., Swarbreck D., Sycamore N., Tester J., Thorpe A., Tracey A., Tromans A., Thomas D.W., Wall M., Wallis J.M., West A.P., Whitehead S.L., Willey D.L., Williams S.A., Wilming L., Wray P.W., Young L., Ashurst J.L., Coulson A., Blocker H., Durbin R.M., Sulston J.E., Hubbard T., Jackson M.J., Bentley D.R., Beck S., Rogers J., Dunham I.
    Nature 429:369-374(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  4. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  5. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Placenta.
  6. "Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites."
    Zhang Z., Henzel W.J.
    Protein Sci. 13:2819-2824(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 26-40.
  7. "Identification of pro-EPIL and EPIL peptides translated from insulin-like 4 (INSL4) mRNA in human placenta."
    Bellet D., Lavaissiere L., Mock P., Laurent A., Sabourin J.-C., Bedossa P., Le Bouteiller P., Frydman R., Troalen F., Bidart J.-M.
    J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82:3169-3172(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEOLYTIC PROCESSING.
  8. "Insulin-like 4 (INSL4) gene expression in human embryonic and trophoblastic tissues."
    Laurent A., Rouillac C., Delezoide A.-L., Giovangrandi Y., Vekemans M., Bellet D., Abitbol M., Vidaud M.
    Mol. Reprod. Dev. 51:123-129(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  9. "Transcriptional expression of genes involved in cell invasion and migration by normal and tumoral trophoblast cells."
    Janneau J.-L., Maldonado-Estrada J., Tachdjian G., Miran I., Motte N., Saulnier P., Sabourin J.-C., Cote J.-F., Simon B., Frydman R., Chaouat G., Bellet D.
    J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87:5336-5339(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY, POSSIBLE INVOLVEMENT IN INVASION/MIGRATION OF TROPHOBLAST CELLS.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiINSL4_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q14641
Secondary accession number(s): A8K678, Q5W127
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1997
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: July 22, 2015
This is version 122 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 9
    Human chromosome 9: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.