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Protein

Tubulin alpha-3C/D chain

Gene

TUBA3C

more
Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sitei450Involved in polymerization1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Nucleotide bindingi142 – 148GTPSequence analysis7

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Ligandi

GTP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciZFISH:ENSG00000075886-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-HSA-1445148. Translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane.
R-HSA-190840. Microtubule-dependent trafficking of connexons from Golgi to the plasma membrane.
R-HSA-190861. Gap junction assembly.
R-HSA-2132295. MHC class II antigen presentation.
R-HSA-2467813. Separation of Sister Chromatids.
R-HSA-2500257. Resolution of Sister Chromatid Cohesion.
R-HSA-380320. Recruitment of NuMA to mitotic centrosomes.
R-HSA-389957. Prefoldin mediated transfer of substrate to CCT/TriC.
R-HSA-389960. Formation of tubulin folding intermediates by CCT/TriC.
R-HSA-389977. Post-chaperonin tubulin folding pathway.
R-HSA-437239. Recycling pathway of L1.
R-HSA-5610787. Hedgehog 'off' state.
R-HSA-5617833. Assembly of the primary cilium.
R-HSA-5620924. Intraflagellar transport.
R-HSA-5626467. RHO GTPases activate IQGAPs.
R-HSA-5663220. RHO GTPases Activate Formins.
R-HSA-6807878. COPI-mediated anterograde transport.
R-HSA-6811434. COPI-dependent Golgi-to-ER retrograde traffic.
R-HSA-6811436. COPI-independent Golgi-to-ER retrograde traffic.
R-HSA-68877. Mitotic Prometaphase.
R-HSA-8852276. The role of GTSE1 in G2/M progression after G2 checkpoint.
R-HSA-983189. Kinesins.
SIGNORiQ13748.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Tubulin alpha-3C/D chain
Alternative name(s):
Alpha-tubulin 2
Alpha-tubulin 3C/D
Tubulin alpha-2 chain
Cleaved into the following chain:
Gene namesi
Name:TUBA3C
Synonyms:TUBA2
AND
Name:TUBA3D
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componentsi: Chromosome 13, Chromosome 2

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:12408. TUBA3C.
HGNC:24071. TUBA3D.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • cytoplasm Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • microtubule Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • nucleus Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Microtubule

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi113457.
7278.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000075886.
ENSG00000198033.
PharmGKBiPA162407346.

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL2095182.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiTUBA3C.
DMDMi20455316.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00000481101 – 450Tubulin alpha-3C/D chainAdd BLAST450
ChainiPRO_00004373991 – 449Detyrosinated tubulin alpha-3C/D chain1 PublicationAdd BLAST449

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei40N6-acetyllysine1 Publication1
Modified residuei48PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei83Nitrated tyrosineBy similarity1
Modified residuei282Nitrated tyrosineBy similarity1
Cross-linki326Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in ubiquitin)By similarity
Modified residuei339Omega-N-methylarginineBy similarity1
Cross-linki370Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in ubiquitin)By similarity
Modified residuei432PhosphotyrosineBy similarity1
Modified residuei439PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei4503'-nitrotyrosineBy similarity1

Post-translational modificationi

Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated, resulting in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group (PubMed:26875866). Polyglutamylation plays a key role in microtubule severing by spastin (SPAST). SPAST preferentially recognizes and acts on microtubules decorated with short polyglutamate tails: severing activity by SPAST increases as the number of glutamates per tubulin rises from one to eight, but decreases beyond this glutamylation threshold (PubMed:26875866).1 Publication
Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are monoglycylated but not polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella). Both polyglutamylation and monoglycylation can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of monoglycylation is still unclear (Probable).1 Publication
Acetylation of alpha chains at Lys-40 is located inside the microtubule lumen. This modification has been correlated with increased microtubule stability, intracellular transport and ciliary assembly.1 Publication
Nitration of Tyr-450 is irreversible and interferes with normal dynein intracellular distribution.By similarity
Undergoes a tyrosination/detyrosination cycle, the cyclic removal and re-addition of a C-terminal tyrosine residue by the enzymes tubulin tyrosine carboxypeptidase (TTCP) and tubulin tyrosine ligase (TTL), respectively.2 Publications
Tubulin alpha-1B chain: Tyrosination promotes microtubule interaction with CAP-Gly domain-containing proteins such as CLIP1, CLIP2 and DCTN1 (By similarity). Tyrosination regulates the initiation of dynein-dynactin motility via interaction with DCTN1, which brings the dynein-dynactin complex into contact with microtubules (PubMed:26972003). In neurons, tyrosinated tubulins mediate the initiation of retrograde vesicle transport (By similarity).By similarity1 Publication
Detyrosinated tubulin alpha-1C chain: Detyrosination is involved in metaphase plate congression by guiding chromosomes during mitosis: detyrosination promotes interaction with CENPE, promoting pole-proximal transport of chromosomes toward the equator (PubMed:25908662). Detyrosination increases microtubules-dependent mechanotransduction in dystrophic cardiac and skeletal muscle. In cardiomyocytes, detyrosinated microtubules are required to resist to contractile compression during contraction: detyrosination promotes association with desmin (DES) at force-generating sarcomeres, leading to buckled microtubules and mechanical resistance to contraction (By similarity).By similarity1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Isopeptide bond, Methylation, Nitration, Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

EPDiQ13748.
PaxDbiQ13748.
PeptideAtlasiQ13748.
PRIDEiQ13748.
TopDownProteomicsiQ13748-1. [Q13748-1]
Q13748-2. [Q13748-2]

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ13748.
PhosphoSitePlusiQ13748.
SwissPalmiQ13748.

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBQ13748.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Testis specific.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000075886.
CleanExiHS_TUBA3C.
HS_TUBA3D.
ExpressionAtlasiQ13748. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiQ13748. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB004972.
HPA039247.
HPA043684.
HPA063394.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells.

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
NMIQ132872EBI-355068,EBI-372942

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi113129. 63 interactors.
125248. 8 interactors.
DIPiDIP-34513N.
IntActiQ13748. 11 interactors.
MINTiMINT-1157262.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000382982.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ13748.
SMRiQ13748.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the tubulin family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1376. Eukaryota.
COG5023. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119060.
HOGENOMiHOG000165711.
HOVERGENiHBG000089.
InParanoidiQ13748.
KOiK07374.
OMAiXERECIS.
OrthoDBiEOG091G0736.
PhylomeDBiQ13748.
TreeFamiTF300314.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.287.600. 1 hit.
3.30.1330.20. 1 hit.
3.40.50.1440. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR002452. Alpha_tubulin.
IPR008280. Tub_FtsZ_C.
IPR000217. Tubulin.
IPR018316. Tubulin/FtsZ_2-layer-sand-dom.
IPR023123. Tubulin_C.
IPR017975. Tubulin_CS.
IPR003008. Tubulin_FtsZ_GTPase.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11588. PTHR11588. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00091. Tubulin. 1 hit.
PF03953. Tubulin_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR01162. ALPHATUBULIN.
PR01161. TUBULIN.
SMARTiSM00864. Tubulin. 1 hit.
SM00865. Tubulin_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF52490. SSF52490. 1 hit.
SSF55307. SSF55307. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00227. TUBULIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q13748-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MRECISIHVG QAGVQIGNAC WELYCLEHGI QPDGQMPSDK TIGGGDDSFN
60 70 80 90 100
TFFSETGAGK HVPRAVFVDL EPTVVDEVRT GTYRQLFHPE QLITGKEDAA
110 120 130 140 150
NNYARGHYTI GKEIVDLVLD RIRKLADLCT GLQGFLIFHS FGGGTGSGFA
160 170 180 190 200
SLLMERLSVD YGKKSKLEFA IYPAPQVSTA VVEPYNSILT THTTLEHSDC
210 220 230 240 250
AFMVDNEAIY DICRRNLDIE RPTYTNLNRL IGQIVSSITA SLRFDGALNV
260 270 280 290 300
DLTEFQTNLV PYPRIHFPLA TYAPVISAEK AYHEQLSVAE ITNACFEPAN
310 320 330 340 350
QMVKCDPRHG KYMACCMLYR GDVVPKDVNA AIATIKTKRT IQFVDWCPTG
360 370 380 390 400
FKVGINYQPP TVVPGGDLAK VQRAVCMLSN TTAIAEAWAR LDHKFDLMYA
410 420 430 440 450
KRAFVHWYVG EGMEEGEFSE AREDLAALEK DYEEVGVDSV EAEAEEGEEY
Length:450
Mass (Da):49,960
Last modified:May 2, 2002 - v3
Checksum:i2A78714CBA782D55
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q13748-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     393-424: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:418
Mass (Da):46,112
Checksum:iB103B8C73F95D81B
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti305C → Y in AAH57810 (PubMed:15489334).Curated1

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_03454175V → L.Corresponds to variant rs36215077dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_052666392D → V.Corresponds to variant rs17076703dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_022068440V → M.Corresponds to variant rs1803092dbSNPEnsembl.1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_006678393 – 424Missing in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST32

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF005392 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC39578.1.
AL139327 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAH73534.1.
CH471075 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX08210.1.
BC011721 mRNA. Translation: AAH11721.1.
BC057810 mRNA. Translation: AAH57810.1.
L11645 mRNA. Translation: AAA35521.1.
CCDSiCCDS33290.1. [Q13748-1]
CCDS9284.1. [Q13748-1]
RefSeqiNP_005992.1. NM_006001.2. [Q13748-1]
NP_525125.2. NM_080386.3. [Q13748-1]
UniGeneiHs.349695.
Hs.503749.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000321253; ENSP00000326042; ENSG00000075886. [Q13748-1]
ENST00000400113; ENSP00000382982; ENSG00000198033. [Q13748-1]
ENST00000618094; ENSP00000482878; ENSG00000198033. [Q13748-2]
GeneIDi113457.
7278.
KEGGihsa:113457.
hsa:7278.
UCSCiuc058vsk.1. human. [Q13748-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

Wikipedia

Tubulin entry

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF005392 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC39578.1.
AL139327 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAH73534.1.
CH471075 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX08210.1.
BC011721 mRNA. Translation: AAH11721.1.
BC057810 mRNA. Translation: AAH57810.1.
L11645 mRNA. Translation: AAA35521.1.
CCDSiCCDS33290.1. [Q13748-1]
CCDS9284.1. [Q13748-1]
RefSeqiNP_005992.1. NM_006001.2. [Q13748-1]
NP_525125.2. NM_080386.3. [Q13748-1]
UniGeneiHs.349695.
Hs.503749.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ13748.
SMRiQ13748.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi113129. 63 interactors.
125248. 8 interactors.
DIPiDIP-34513N.
IntActiQ13748. 11 interactors.
MINTiMINT-1157262.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000382982.

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL2095182.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ13748.
PhosphoSitePlusiQ13748.
SwissPalmiQ13748.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiTUBA3C.
DMDMi20455316.

Proteomic databases

EPDiQ13748.
PaxDbiQ13748.
PeptideAtlasiQ13748.
PRIDEiQ13748.
TopDownProteomicsiQ13748-1. [Q13748-1]
Q13748-2. [Q13748-2]

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi113457.
7278.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000321253; ENSP00000326042; ENSG00000075886. [Q13748-1]
ENST00000400113; ENSP00000382982; ENSG00000198033. [Q13748-1]
ENST00000618094; ENSP00000482878; ENSG00000198033. [Q13748-2]
GeneIDi113457.
7278.
KEGGihsa:113457.
hsa:7278.
UCSCiuc058vsk.1. human. [Q13748-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi113457.
7278.
DisGeNETi113457.
7278.
GeneCardsiTUBA3C.
TUBA3D.
H-InvDBHIX0002464.
HIX0011150.
HGNCiHGNC:12408. TUBA3C.
HGNC:24071. TUBA3D.
HPAiCAB004972.
HPA039247.
HPA043684.
HPA063394.
MIMi602528. gene.
neXtProtiNX_Q13748.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000075886.
ENSG00000198033.
PharmGKBiPA162407346.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1376. Eukaryota.
COG5023. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119060.
HOGENOMiHOG000165711.
HOVERGENiHBG000089.
InParanoidiQ13748.
KOiK07374.
OMAiXERECIS.
OrthoDBiEOG091G0736.
PhylomeDBiQ13748.
TreeFamiTF300314.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciZFISH:ENSG00000075886-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-HSA-1445148. Translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane.
R-HSA-190840. Microtubule-dependent trafficking of connexons from Golgi to the plasma membrane.
R-HSA-190861. Gap junction assembly.
R-HSA-2132295. MHC class II antigen presentation.
R-HSA-2467813. Separation of Sister Chromatids.
R-HSA-2500257. Resolution of Sister Chromatid Cohesion.
R-HSA-380320. Recruitment of NuMA to mitotic centrosomes.
R-HSA-389957. Prefoldin mediated transfer of substrate to CCT/TriC.
R-HSA-389960. Formation of tubulin folding intermediates by CCT/TriC.
R-HSA-389977. Post-chaperonin tubulin folding pathway.
R-HSA-437239. Recycling pathway of L1.
R-HSA-5610787. Hedgehog 'off' state.
R-HSA-5617833. Assembly of the primary cilium.
R-HSA-5620924. Intraflagellar transport.
R-HSA-5626467. RHO GTPases activate IQGAPs.
R-HSA-5663220. RHO GTPases Activate Formins.
R-HSA-6807878. COPI-mediated anterograde transport.
R-HSA-6811434. COPI-dependent Golgi-to-ER retrograde traffic.
R-HSA-6811436. COPI-independent Golgi-to-ER retrograde traffic.
R-HSA-68877. Mitotic Prometaphase.
R-HSA-8852276. The role of GTSE1 in G2/M progression after G2 checkpoint.
R-HSA-983189. Kinesins.
SIGNORiQ13748.

Miscellaneous databases

GeneWikiiAlpha-tubulin_3C.
PMAP-CutDBQ13748.
PROiQ13748.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000075886.
CleanExiHS_TUBA3C.
HS_TUBA3D.
ExpressionAtlasiQ13748. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiQ13748. HS.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.287.600. 1 hit.
3.30.1330.20. 1 hit.
3.40.50.1440. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR002452. Alpha_tubulin.
IPR008280. Tub_FtsZ_C.
IPR000217. Tubulin.
IPR018316. Tubulin/FtsZ_2-layer-sand-dom.
IPR023123. Tubulin_C.
IPR017975. Tubulin_CS.
IPR003008. Tubulin_FtsZ_GTPase.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11588. PTHR11588. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00091. Tubulin. 1 hit.
PF03953. Tubulin_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR01162. ALPHATUBULIN.
PR01161. TUBULIN.
SMARTiSM00864. Tubulin. 1 hit.
SM00865. Tubulin_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF52490. SSF52490. 1 hit.
SSF55307. SSF55307. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00227. TUBULIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiTBA3C_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q13748
Secondary accession number(s): A6NJQ0
, Q5W099, Q6PEY3, Q96F18
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 2, 2002
Last sequence update: May 2, 2002
Last modified: November 2, 2016
This is version 171 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 2
    Human chromosome 2: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human chromosome 13
    Human chromosome 13: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  3. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  4. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  5. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  6. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.