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Protein

Tubulin alpha-3C/D chain

Gene

TUBA3C

more
Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sitei450Involved in polymerization1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Nucleotide bindingi142 – 148GTPSequence analysis7

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

LigandGTP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-1445148 Translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane
R-HSA-190840 Microtubule-dependent trafficking of connexons from Golgi to the plasma membrane
R-HSA-190861 Gap junction assembly
R-HSA-2132295 MHC class II antigen presentation
R-HSA-2467813 Separation of Sister Chromatids
R-HSA-2500257 Resolution of Sister Chromatid Cohesion
R-HSA-3371497 HSP90 chaperone cycle for steroid hormone receptors (SHR)
R-HSA-380320 Recruitment of NuMA to mitotic centrosomes
R-HSA-389957 Prefoldin mediated transfer of substrate to CCT/TriC
R-HSA-389960 Formation of tubulin folding intermediates by CCT/TriC
R-HSA-389977 Post-chaperonin tubulin folding pathway
R-HSA-437239 Recycling pathway of L1
R-HSA-5610787 Hedgehog 'off' state
R-HSA-5617833 Cilium Assembly
R-HSA-5620924 Intraflagellar transport
R-HSA-5626467 RHO GTPases activate IQGAPs
R-HSA-5663220 RHO GTPases Activate Formins
R-HSA-6807878 COPI-mediated anterograde transport
R-HSA-6811434 COPI-dependent Golgi-to-ER retrograde traffic
R-HSA-6811436 COPI-independent Golgi-to-ER retrograde traffic
R-HSA-68877 Mitotic Prometaphase
R-HSA-8852276 The role of GTSE1 in G2/M progression after G2 checkpoint
R-HSA-8955332 Carboxyterminal post-translational modifications of tubulin
R-HSA-983189 Kinesins
SIGNORiQ13748

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Tubulin alpha-3C/D chain
Alternative name(s):
Alpha-tubulin 2
Alpha-tubulin 3C/D
Tubulin alpha-2 chain
Cleaved into the following chain:
Gene namesi
Name:TUBA3C
Synonyms:TUBA2
AND
Name:TUBA3D
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componentsi: Chromosome 13, Chromosome 2

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000075886.10
HostDB:ENSG00000198033.11
HGNCiHGNC:12408 TUBA3C
HGNC:24071 TUBA3D
MIMi602528 gene
617878 gene
neXtProtiNX_Q13748

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Microtubule

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi113457
7278
OpenTargetsiENSG00000075886
ENSG00000198033
PharmGKBiPA162407346

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL2095182
DrugBankiDB05147 CYT997
DB03010 Epothilone B
DB01873 Epothilone D

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiTUBA3C
DMDMi20455316

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00000481101 – 450Tubulin alpha-3C/D chainAdd BLAST450
ChainiPRO_00004373991 – 449Detyrosinated tubulin alpha-3C/D chain1 PublicationAdd BLAST449

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei40N6-acetyllysine1 Publication1
Modified residuei282Nitrated tyrosineBy similarity1
Modified residuei439PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei4503'-nitrotyrosineBy similarity1

Post-translational modificationi

Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated, resulting in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group (PubMed:26875866). Polyglutamylation plays a key role in microtubule severing by spastin (SPAST). SPAST preferentially recognizes and acts on microtubules decorated with short polyglutamate tails: severing activity by SPAST increases as the number of glutamates per tubulin rises from one to eight, but decreases beyond this glutamylation threshold (PubMed:26875866).1 Publication
Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are monoglycylated but not polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella). Both polyglutamylation and monoglycylation can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of monoglycylation is still unclear (Probable).1 Publication
Acetylation of alpha chains at Lys-40 is located inside the microtubule lumen. This modification has been correlated with increased microtubule stability, intracellular transport and ciliary assembly.1 Publication
Methylation of alpha chains at Lys-40 is found in mitotic microtubules and is required for normal mitosis and cytokinesis contributing to genomic stability.By similarity
Nitration of Tyr-450 is irreversible and interferes with normal dynein intracellular distribution.By similarity
Undergoes a tyrosination/detyrosination cycle, the cyclic removal and re-addition of a C-terminal tyrosine residue by the enzymes tubulin tyrosine carboxypeptidase (TTCP) and tubulin tyrosine ligase (TTL), respectively.2 Publications
Tubulin alpha-1B chain: Tyrosination promotes microtubule interaction with CAP-Gly domain-containing proteins such as CLIP1, CLIP2 and DCTN1 (By similarity). Tyrosination regulates the initiation of dynein-dynactin motility via interaction with DCTN1, which brings the dynein-dynactin complex into contact with microtubules (PubMed:26972003). In neurons, tyrosinated tubulins mediate the initiation of retrograde vesicle transport (By similarity).By similarity1 Publication
Detyrosinated tubulin alpha-1C chain: Detyrosination is involved in metaphase plate congression by guiding chromosomes during mitosis: detyrosination promotes interaction with CENPE, promoting pole-proximal transport of chromosomes toward the equator (PubMed:25908662). Detyrosination increases microtubules-dependent mechanotransduction in dystrophic cardiac and skeletal muscle. In cardiomyocytes, detyrosinated microtubules are required to resist to contractile compression during contraction: detyrosination promotes association with desmin (DES) at force-generating sarcomeres, leading to buckled microtubules and mechanical resistance to contraction (By similarity).By similarity1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Isopeptide bond, Methylation, Nitration, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

EPDiQ13748
PaxDbiQ13748
PeptideAtlasiQ13748
PRIDEiQ13748
TopDownProteomicsiQ13748-1 [Q13748-1]
Q13748-2 [Q13748-2]

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ13748
PhosphoSitePlusiQ13748
SwissPalmiQ13748

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBiQ13748

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Testis specific.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000075886
CleanExiHS_TUBA3C
HS_TUBA3D
ExpressionAtlasiQ13748 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiQ13748 HS

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB004972
HPA039247
HPA043684
HPA063394

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells.

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
NMIQ132872EBI-355068,EBI-372942

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi113129, 75 interactors
125248, 10 interactors
DIPiDIP-34513N
IntActiQ13748, 19 interactors
MINTiQ13748
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000382982

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ13748
SMRiQ13748
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the tubulin family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1376 Eukaryota
COG5023 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119060
HOGENOMiHOG000165711
HOVERGENiHBG000089
InParanoidiQ13748
KOiK07374
OMAiICNEPSA
OrthoDBiEOG091G0736
PhylomeDBiQ13748
TreeFamiTF300314

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.287.600, 1 hit
3.30.1330.20, 1 hit
3.40.50.1440, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR002452 Alpha_tubulin
IPR008280 Tub_FtsZ_C
IPR000217 Tubulin
IPR018316 Tubulin/FtsZ_2-layer-sand-dom
IPR037103 Tubulin/FtsZ_C_sf
IPR036525 Tubulin/FtsZ_GTPase_sf
IPR023123 Tubulin_C
IPR017975 Tubulin_CS
IPR003008 Tubulin_FtsZ_GTPase
PANTHERiPTHR11588 PTHR11588, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00091 Tubulin, 1 hit
PF03953 Tubulin_C, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR01162 ALPHATUBULIN
PR01161 TUBULIN
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00864 Tubulin, 1 hit
SM00865 Tubulin_C, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF52490 SSF52490, 1 hit
SSF55307 SSF55307, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00227 TUBULIN, 1 hit

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q13748-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MRECISIHVG QAGVQIGNAC WELYCLEHGI QPDGQMPSDK TIGGGDDSFN
60 70 80 90 100
TFFSETGAGK HVPRAVFVDL EPTVVDEVRT GTYRQLFHPE QLITGKEDAA
110 120 130 140 150
NNYARGHYTI GKEIVDLVLD RIRKLADLCT GLQGFLIFHS FGGGTGSGFA
160 170 180 190 200
SLLMERLSVD YGKKSKLEFA IYPAPQVSTA VVEPYNSILT THTTLEHSDC
210 220 230 240 250
AFMVDNEAIY DICRRNLDIE RPTYTNLNRL IGQIVSSITA SLRFDGALNV
260 270 280 290 300
DLTEFQTNLV PYPRIHFPLA TYAPVISAEK AYHEQLSVAE ITNACFEPAN
310 320 330 340 350
QMVKCDPRHG KYMACCMLYR GDVVPKDVNA AIATIKTKRT IQFVDWCPTG
360 370 380 390 400
FKVGINYQPP TVVPGGDLAK VQRAVCMLSN TTAIAEAWAR LDHKFDLMYA
410 420 430 440 450
KRAFVHWYVG EGMEEGEFSE AREDLAALEK DYEEVGVDSV EAEAEEGEEY
Length:450
Mass (Da):49,960
Last modified:May 2, 2002 - v3
Checksum:i2A78714CBA782D55
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q13748-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     393-424: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:418
Mass (Da):46,112
Checksum:iB103B8C73F95D81B
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti305C → Y in AAH57810 (PubMed:15489334).Curated1

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_03454175V → L. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs36215077Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_052666392D → V. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs17076703Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_022068440V → M. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs1803092Ensembl.1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_006678393 – 424Missing in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST32

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF005392 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC39578.1
AL139327 Genomic DNA No translation available.
CH471075 Genomic DNA Translation: EAX08210.1
BC011721 mRNA Translation: AAH11721.1
BC057810 mRNA Translation: AAH57810.1
L11645 mRNA Translation: AAA35521.1
CCDSiCCDS33290.1 [Q13748-1]
CCDS9284.1 [Q13748-1]
RefSeqiNP_005992.1, NM_006001.2 [Q13748-1]
NP_525125.2, NM_080386.3 [Q13748-1]
UniGeneiHs.349695
Hs.503749

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000321253; ENSP00000326042; ENSG00000075886 [Q13748-1]
ENST00000400113; ENSP00000382982; ENSG00000198033 [Q13748-1]
ENST00000618094; ENSP00000482878; ENSG00000198033 [Q13748-2]
GeneIDi113457
7278
KEGGihsa:113457
hsa:7278
UCSCiuc058vsk.1 human [Q13748-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiTBA3C_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q13748
Secondary accession number(s): A6NJQ0
, Q5W099, Q6PEY3, Q96F18
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 2, 2002
Last sequence update: May 2, 2002
Last modified: May 23, 2018
This is version 184 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 2
    Human chromosome 2: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human chromosome 13
    Human chromosome 13: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  3. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  4. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  5. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  6. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

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