Skip Header

You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser.
Protein

Cytoplasmic dynein 1 intermediate chain 2

Gene

DYNC1I2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Acts as one of several non-catalytic accessory components of the cytoplasmic dynein 1 complex that are thought to be involved in linking dynein to cargos and to adapter proteins that regulate dynein function. Cytoplasmic dynein 1 acts as a motor for the intracellular retrograde motility of vesicles and organelles along microtubules. The intermediate chains mediate the binding of dynein to dynactin via its 150 kDa component (p150-glued) DCNT1. Involved in membrane-transport, such as Golgi apparatus, late endosomes and lysosomes.

GO - Molecular functioni

  • microtubule motor activity Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Motor protein

Keywords - Biological processi

Host-virus interaction, Transport

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciZFISH:ENSG00000077380-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-HSA-2132295. MHC class II antigen presentation.
R-HSA-2565942. Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition.
R-HSA-380259. Loss of Nlp from mitotic centrosomes.
R-HSA-380270. Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes.
R-HSA-5620912. Anchoring of the basal body to the plasma membrane.
R-HSA-6807878. COPI-mediated anterograde transport.
R-HSA-6811436. COPI-independent Golgi-to-ER retrograde traffic.
R-HSA-8854518. AURKA Activation by TPX2.
SignaLinkiQ13409.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Cytoplasmic dynein 1 intermediate chain 2
Alternative name(s):
Cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain 2
Dynein intermediate chain 2, cytosolic
Short name:
DH IC-2
Gene namesi
Name:DYNC1I2
Synonyms:DNCI2, DNCIC2
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 2

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:2964. DYNC1I2.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • centrosome Source: UniProtKB
  • cytoplasm Source: UniProtKB
  • cytoplasmic dynein complex Source: InterPro
  • cytosol Source: Reactome
  • microtubule Source: UniProtKB
  • vesicle Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Dynein, Microtubule

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

OpenTargetsiENSG00000077380.
PharmGKBiPA27435.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

DMDMi23503058.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Initiator methionineiRemovedCombined sources
ChainiPRO_00001146552 – 638Cytoplasmic dynein 1 intermediate chain 2Add BLAST637

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei2N-acetylserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei51PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei90PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei95PhosphothreonineCombined sources1
Modified residuei97PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei101PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei104PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Isoform 2B (identifier: Q13409-2)
Modified residuei73PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei81PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei84PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Isoform 2C (identifier: Q13409-3)
Modified residuei73PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei81PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei84PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Isoform 2F (identifier: Q13409-6)
Modified residuei73PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei81PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei84PhosphoserineCombined sources1

Post-translational modificationi

The phosphorylation status of Ser-90 appears to be involved in dynactin-dependent target binding.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

EPDiQ13409.
MaxQBiQ13409.
PaxDbiQ13409.
PeptideAtlasiQ13409.
PRIDEiQ13409.

2D gel databases

REPRODUCTION-2DPAGEIPI00827813.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ13409.
PhosphoSitePlusiQ13409.

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000077380.
ExpressionAtlasiQ13409. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiQ13409. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB033836.
HPA040619.
HPA053987.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer (By similarity). The cytoplasmic dynein 1 complex consists of two catalytic heavy chains (HCs) and a number of non-catalytic subunits presented by intermediate chains (ICs), light intermediate chains (LICs) and light chains (LCs); the composition seems to vary in respect to the IC, LIC and LC composition. The heavy chain homodimer serves as a scaffold for the probable homodimeric assembly of the respective non-catalytic subunits. The ICs and LICs bind directly to the HC dimer and the LCs assemble on the IC dimer. Interacts with DYNLT1 and DYNLT3. Interacts with DCNT1 (By similarity). Interacts with human adenovirus 5 hexon protein; this interaction probably allows virus intracellular transport.By similarity1 Publication

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
DYNLRB1Q9NP973EBI-742998,EBI-372128

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi108119. 61 interactors.
IntActiQ13409. 27 interactors.
MINTiMINT-5004520.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000380308.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1638
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Beta strandi144 – 147Combined sources4

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
5JPWNMR-A/B134-154[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ13409.
SMRiQ13409.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Repeati277 – 326WD 1Add BLAST50
Repeati330 – 370WD 2Add BLAST41
Repeati379 – 420WD 3Add BLAST42
Repeati429 – 469WD 4Add BLAST41
Repeati474 – 519WD 5Add BLAST46
Repeati522 – 562WD 6Add BLAST41
Repeati568 – 607WD 7Add BLAST40

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the dynein intermediate chain family.Curated
Contains 7 WD repeats.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat, WD repeat

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1587. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XQ99. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00730000110228.
HOVERGENiHBG004083.
InParanoidiQ13409.
KOiK10415.
OMAiINCHAAV.
OrthoDBiEOG091G038G.
PhylomeDBiQ13409.
TreeFamiTF300553.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.130.10.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR025956. DYNC1I1/DYNC1I2.
IPR015943. WD40/YVTN_repeat-like_dom.
IPR001680. WD40_repeat.
IPR017986. WD40_repeat_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF11540. Dynein_IC2. 1 hit.
PF00400. WD40. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00320. WD40. 5 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF50978. SSF50978. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50294. WD_REPEATS_REGION. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (6)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 6 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 2A (identifier: Q13409-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MSDKSELKAE LERKKQRLAQ IREEKKRKEE ERKKKETDQK KEAVAPVQEE
60 70 80 90 100
SDLEKKRREA EALLQSMGLT PESPIVFSEY WVPPPMSPSS KSVSTPSEAG
110 120 130 140 150
SQDSGDGAVG SRTLHWDTDP SVLQLHSDSD LGRGPIKLGM AKITQVDFPP
160 170 180 190 200
REIVTYTKET QTPVMAQPKE DEEEDDDVVA PKPPIEPEEE KTLKKDEEND
210 220 230 240 250
SKAPPHELTE EEKQQILHSE EFLSFFDHST RIVERALSEQ INIFFDYSGR
260 270 280 290 300
DLEDKEGEIQ AGAKLSLNRQ FFDERWSKHR VVSCLDWSSQ YPELLVASYN
310 320 330 340 350
NNEDAPHEPD GVALVWNMKY KKTTPEYVFH CQSAVMSATF AKFHPNLVVG
360 370 380 390 400
GTYSGQIVLW DNRSNKRTPV QRTPLSAAAH THPVYCVNVV GTQNAHNLIS
410 420 430 440 450
ISTDGKICSW SLDMLSHPQD SMELVHKQSK AVAVTSMSFP VGDVNNFVVG
460 470 480 490 500
SEEGSVYTAC RHGSKAGISE MFEGHQGPIT GIHCHAAVGA VDFSHLFVTS
510 520 530 540 550
SFDWTVKLWT TKNNKPLYSF EDNADYVYDV MWSPTHPALF ACVDGMGRLD
560 570 580 590 600
LWNLNNDTEV PTASISVEGN PALNRVRWTH SGREIAVGDS EGQIVIYDVG
610 620 630
EQIAVPRNDE WARFGRTLAE INANRADAEE EAATRIPA
Length:638
Mass (Da):71,457
Last modified:September 19, 2002 - v3
Checksum:i2F868EC9556C47F2
GO
Isoform 2B (identifier: Q13409-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     77-82: Missing.

Show »
Length:632
Mass (Da):70,645
Checksum:i5E643B54A2979294
GO
Isoform 2C (identifier: Q13409-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     77-82: Missing.
     113-132: Missing.

Show »
Length:612
Mass (Da):68,426
Checksum:i518E1D765A2CBB15
GO
Isoform 2E (identifier: Q13409-5) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     602-602: Missing.

Show »
Length:637
Mass (Da):71,328
Checksum:i0526BC20523DF804
GO
Isoform 2F (identifier: Q13409-6) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     77-82: Missing.
     113-132: Missing.
     602-602: Missing.

Show »
Length:611
Mass (Da):68,298
Checksum:i9DB5032F12C11F5B
GO
Isoform 3 (identifier: Q13409-7) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     76-81: VFSEYW → AEQPLRVVTADTCLFHYL
     113-132: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:630
Mass (Da):70,485
Checksum:i5C3022F6F62D9C67
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAA89166 differs from that shown. Unlikely isoform. Several sequence problems.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti510T → S in AAP97254 (Ref. 1) Curated1
Sequence conflicti525D → G in AAP97254 (Ref. 1) Curated1
Sequence conflicti572A → G in AAI09376 (PubMed:15489334).Curated1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_05437776 – 81VFSEYW → AEQPLRVVTADTCLFHYL in isoform 3. 1 Publication6
Alternative sequenceiVSP_00133677 – 82Missing in isoform 2B, isoform 2C and isoform 2F. 5 Publications6
Alternative sequenceiVSP_001337113 – 132Missing in isoform 2C, isoform 2F and isoform 3. 6 PublicationsAdd BLAST20
Alternative sequenceiVSP_023011602Missing in isoform 2E and isoform 2F. 1 Publication1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF134477 mRNA. Translation: AAP97254.1.
AF250307 mRNA. Translation: AAK37426.1.
AY037160 mRNA. Translation: AAK67638.1.
BT007130 mRNA. Translation: AAP35794.1.
AK055491 mRNA. Translation: BAB70932.1.
AK316119 mRNA. Translation: BAH14490.1.
AL137519 mRNA. Translation: CAB70785.1.
BX537412 mRNA. Translation: CAD97654.1.
AC064826 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AC068039 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAY24133.1.
CH471058 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX11202.1.
CH471058 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX11204.1.
CH471058 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX11206.1.
CH471058 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX11207.1.
CH471058 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX11208.1.
CH471058 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX11209.1.
BC091498 mRNA. Translation: AAH91498.1.
BC109375 mRNA. Translation: AAI09376.1.
BC015038 mRNA. Translation: AAH15038.1.
U39575 mRNA. Translation: AAA89166.1. Sequence problems.
CCDSiCCDS46450.1. [Q13409-1]
CCDS63054.1. [Q13409-7]
CCDS63056.1. [Q13409-3]
CCDS63057.1. [Q13409-6]
CCDS82533.1. [Q13409-2]
PIRiT46365.
RefSeqiNP_001258714.1. NM_001271785.1. [Q13409-1]
NP_001258715.1. NM_001271786.1. [Q13409-7]
NP_001258716.1. NM_001271787.1. [Q13409-7]
NP_001258717.1. NM_001271788.1. [Q13409-3]
NP_001258718.1. NM_001271789.1. [Q13409-3]
NP_001258719.1. NM_001271790.1. [Q13409-6]
NP_001307811.1. NM_001320882.1. [Q13409-2]
NP_001307812.1. NM_001320883.1. [Q13409-2]
NP_001307813.1. NM_001320884.1. [Q13409-6]
NP_001369.1. NM_001378.2. [Q13409-1]
UniGeneiHs.546250.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000340296; ENSP00000339430; ENSG00000077380. [Q13409-3]
ENST00000397119; ENSP00000380308; ENSG00000077380. [Q13409-1]
ENST00000409197; ENSP00000386397; ENSG00000077380. [Q13409-3]
ENST00000409317; ENSP00000386591; ENSG00000077380. [Q13409-2]
ENST00000409453; ENSP00000386886; ENSG00000077380. [Q13409-5]
ENST00000409773; ENSP00000386415; ENSG00000077380. [Q13409-1]
ENST00000410079; ENSP00000386522; ENSG00000077380. [Q13409-7]
ENST00000508530; ENSP00000423339; ENSG00000077380. [Q13409-6]
GeneIDi1781.
KEGGihsa:1781.
UCSCiuc002uha.3. human. [Q13409-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF134477 mRNA. Translation: AAP97254.1.
AF250307 mRNA. Translation: AAK37426.1.
AY037160 mRNA. Translation: AAK67638.1.
BT007130 mRNA. Translation: AAP35794.1.
AK055491 mRNA. Translation: BAB70932.1.
AK316119 mRNA. Translation: BAH14490.1.
AL137519 mRNA. Translation: CAB70785.1.
BX537412 mRNA. Translation: CAD97654.1.
AC064826 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AC068039 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAY24133.1.
CH471058 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX11202.1.
CH471058 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX11204.1.
CH471058 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX11206.1.
CH471058 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX11207.1.
CH471058 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX11208.1.
CH471058 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX11209.1.
BC091498 mRNA. Translation: AAH91498.1.
BC109375 mRNA. Translation: AAI09376.1.
BC015038 mRNA. Translation: AAH15038.1.
U39575 mRNA. Translation: AAA89166.1. Sequence problems.
CCDSiCCDS46450.1. [Q13409-1]
CCDS63054.1. [Q13409-7]
CCDS63056.1. [Q13409-3]
CCDS63057.1. [Q13409-6]
CCDS82533.1. [Q13409-2]
PIRiT46365.
RefSeqiNP_001258714.1. NM_001271785.1. [Q13409-1]
NP_001258715.1. NM_001271786.1. [Q13409-7]
NP_001258716.1. NM_001271787.1. [Q13409-7]
NP_001258717.1. NM_001271788.1. [Q13409-3]
NP_001258718.1. NM_001271789.1. [Q13409-3]
NP_001258719.1. NM_001271790.1. [Q13409-6]
NP_001307811.1. NM_001320882.1. [Q13409-2]
NP_001307812.1. NM_001320883.1. [Q13409-2]
NP_001307813.1. NM_001320884.1. [Q13409-6]
NP_001369.1. NM_001378.2. [Q13409-1]
UniGeneiHs.546250.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
5JPWNMR-A/B134-154[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ13409.
SMRiQ13409.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi108119. 61 interactors.
IntActiQ13409. 27 interactors.
MINTiMINT-5004520.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000380308.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ13409.
PhosphoSitePlusiQ13409.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

DMDMi23503058.

2D gel databases

REPRODUCTION-2DPAGEIPI00827813.

Proteomic databases

EPDiQ13409.
MaxQBiQ13409.
PaxDbiQ13409.
PeptideAtlasiQ13409.
PRIDEiQ13409.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi1781.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000340296; ENSP00000339430; ENSG00000077380. [Q13409-3]
ENST00000397119; ENSP00000380308; ENSG00000077380. [Q13409-1]
ENST00000409197; ENSP00000386397; ENSG00000077380. [Q13409-3]
ENST00000409317; ENSP00000386591; ENSG00000077380. [Q13409-2]
ENST00000409453; ENSP00000386886; ENSG00000077380. [Q13409-5]
ENST00000409773; ENSP00000386415; ENSG00000077380. [Q13409-1]
ENST00000410079; ENSP00000386522; ENSG00000077380. [Q13409-7]
ENST00000508530; ENSP00000423339; ENSG00000077380. [Q13409-6]
GeneIDi1781.
KEGGihsa:1781.
UCSCiuc002uha.3. human. [Q13409-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi1781.
GeneCardsiDYNC1I2.
HGNCiHGNC:2964. DYNC1I2.
HPAiCAB033836.
HPA040619.
HPA053987.
MIMi603331. gene.
neXtProtiNX_Q13409.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000077380.
PharmGKBiPA27435.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1587. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XQ99. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00730000110228.
HOVERGENiHBG004083.
InParanoidiQ13409.
KOiK10415.
OMAiINCHAAV.
OrthoDBiEOG091G038G.
PhylomeDBiQ13409.
TreeFamiTF300553.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciZFISH:ENSG00000077380-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-HSA-2132295. MHC class II antigen presentation.
R-HSA-2565942. Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition.
R-HSA-380259. Loss of Nlp from mitotic centrosomes.
R-HSA-380270. Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes.
R-HSA-5620912. Anchoring of the basal body to the plasma membrane.
R-HSA-6807878. COPI-mediated anterograde transport.
R-HSA-6811436. COPI-independent Golgi-to-ER retrograde traffic.
R-HSA-8854518. AURKA Activation by TPX2.
SignaLinkiQ13409.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiDYNC1I2. human.
GeneWikiiDYNC1I2.
GenomeRNAii1781.
PROiQ13409.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000077380.
ExpressionAtlasiQ13409. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiQ13409. HS.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.130.10.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR025956. DYNC1I1/DYNC1I2.
IPR015943. WD40/YVTN_repeat-like_dom.
IPR001680. WD40_repeat.
IPR017986. WD40_repeat_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF11540. Dynein_IC2. 1 hit.
PF00400. WD40. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00320. WD40. 5 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF50978. SSF50978. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50294. WD_REPEATS_REGION. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiDC1I2_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q13409
Secondary accession number(s): B7ZA04
, D3DPD4, D3DPD5, D3DPD6, Q32LY9, Q53S84, Q5BJF8, Q7Z4X1, Q96NG7, Q96S87, Q9BXZ5, Q9NT58
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1997
Last sequence update: September 19, 2002
Last modified: November 30, 2016
This is version 173 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 2
    Human chromosome 2: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  3. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  4. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.