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Protein

Autophagy protein 5

Gene

ATG5

Organism
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c) (Baker's yeast)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Involved in cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) and autophagic vesicle formation. Autophagy is essential for maintenance of amino acid levels and protein synthesis under nitrogen starvation. Required for selective autophagic degradation of the nucleus (nucleophagy). Also required for mitophagy, which eliminates defective or superfluous mitochondria in order to fulfill cellular energy requirements and prevent excess ROS production. Conjugation with ATG12, through a ubiquitin-like conjugating system involving ATG7 as an E1-like activating enzyme and ATG10 as an E2-like conjugating enzyme, is essential for its function. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate acts as an E3-like enzyme which is required for lipidation of ATG8 and ATG8 association to the vesicle membranes. ATG12-ATG5 rearranges the ATG3 catalytic center and enhances its E2 activity. Plays a role in the regulation of filamentous growth and chronological longevity.17 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

  • enzyme activator activity Source: SGD
  • hydrolase activity Source: UniProtKB-KW

GO - Biological processi

  • C-terminal protein lipidation Source: SGD
  • CVT pathway Source: SGD
  • late nucleophagy Source: SGD
  • macroautophagy Source: SGD
  • mitophagy Source: SGD
  • piecemeal microautophagy of nucleus Source: SGD
  • positive regulation of catalytic activity Source: GOC
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Hydrolase

Keywords - Biological processi

Autophagy, Protein transport, Transport

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciYEAST:G3O-34046-MONOMER.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Autophagy protein 5
Gene namesi
Name:ATG5
Synonyms:APG5
Ordered Locus Names:YPL149W
ORF Names:P2601
OrganismiSaccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c) (Baker's yeast)
Taxonomic identifieri559292 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaFungiDikaryaAscomycotaSaccharomycotinaSaccharomycetesSaccharomycetalesSaccharomycetaceaeSaccharomyces
Proteomesi
  • UP000002311 Componenti: Chromosome XVI

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiFungiDB:YPL149W.
SGDiS000006070. ATG5.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • Atg12-Atg5-Atg16 complex Source: SGD
  • autophagosome Source: SGD
  • cytosol Source: SGD
  • membrane Source: SGD
  • pre-autophagosomal structure Source: SGD
  • pre-autophagosomal structure membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi149 – 1491K → R: Loss of conjugation. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 294294Autophagy protein 5PRO_0000219010Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Cross-linki149 – 149Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in ATG12)

Post-translational modificationi

Conjugated to ATG12; which is essential for autophagy. Conjugation with ATG12 involves ATG7 as an E1-like activating enzyme and ATG10 as an E2-like conjugating enzyme.

Keywords - PTMi

Isopeptide bond, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiQ12380.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Conjugated with ATG12. The ATG5-ATG12 conjugate forms a complex with several units of ATG16. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate associates also with ATG3.2 Publications

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
ATG12P3831610EBI-2664,EBI-2692
ATG16Q038185EBI-2664,EBI-27344

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi36034. 55 interactions.
DIPiDIP-1195N.
IntActiQ12380. 8 interactions.
MINTiMINT-388341.

Structurei

Secondary structure

294
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Helixi1 – 99Combined sources
Beta strandi12 – 198Combined sources
Helixi21 – 233Combined sources
Helixi30 – 334Combined sources
Beta strandi34 – 4310Combined sources
Helixi45 – 484Combined sources
Helixi49 – 568Combined sources
Helixi57 – 593Combined sources
Beta strandi60 – 623Combined sources
Turni64 – 663Combined sources
Beta strandi71 – 766Combined sources
Beta strandi79 – 813Combined sources
Beta strandi83 – 853Combined sources
Helixi87 – 959Combined sources
Helixi96 – 983Combined sources
Turni105 – 1073Combined sources
Beta strandi115 – 12511Combined sources
Beta strandi136 – 1383Combined sources
Helixi139 – 15618Combined sources
Beta strandi157 – 1593Combined sources
Helixi160 – 1634Combined sources
Helixi167 – 17913Combined sources
Helixi182 – 19211Combined sources
Beta strandi202 – 2054Combined sources
Beta strandi208 – 2125Combined sources
Helixi230 – 2323Combined sources
Helixi233 – 2364Combined sources
Turni239 – 2413Combined sources
Beta strandi248 – 2525Combined sources
Beta strandi255 – 2573Combined sources
Helixi263 – 2708Combined sources
Beta strandi277 – 2837Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
2DYMX-ray2.20A/C/E/G1-294[»]
2DYOX-ray1.97A1-294[»]
3W1SX-ray2.60A1-284[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ12380.
SMRiQ12380. Positions 1-285.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ12380.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the ATG5 family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

GeneTreeiENSGT00390000004766.
InParanoidiQ12380.
KOiK08339.
OMAiVGVLYDY.
OrthoDBiEOG73BVPZ.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR007239. Atg5.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR13040. PTHR13040. 1 hit.
PfamiPF04106. APG5. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q12380-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MNDIKQLLWN GELNVLVSID PSFLMKGSPR EIAVLRIRVP RETYLVNYMP
60 70 80 90 100
LIWNKIKSFL SFDPLTDSEK YFWFEHNKTP IPWNYPVGVL FDCLAGKSAT
110 120 130 140 150
FTTSFENQVK DVLTFLRIHL VMGDSLPPTI IPIASSKTQA EKFWFHQWKQ
160 170 180 190 200
VCFILNGSSK AIMSLSVNEA RKFWGSVITR NFQDFIEISN KISSSRPRHI
210 220 230 240 250
PLIIQTSRTS GTFRISQPTI SMTGVNPTLK DIEGDILDVK EGINGNDVMV
260 270 280 290
ICQGIEIPWH MLLYDLYSKL RSFDGFLYIT LVPIKGGDKA SSEL
Length:294
Mass (Da):33,560
Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:iBE513A631DEAA0A1
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
D83519 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA11937.1.
X96770 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA65572.1.
Z73505 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA97854.1.
BK006949 Genomic DNA. Translation: DAA11286.1.
PIRiS65160.
RefSeqiNP_015176.1. NM_001183963.1.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblFungiiYPL149W; YPL149W; YPL149W.
GeneIDi855954.
KEGGisce:YPL149W.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
D83519 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA11937.1.
X96770 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA65572.1.
Z73505 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA97854.1.
BK006949 Genomic DNA. Translation: DAA11286.1.
PIRiS65160.
RefSeqiNP_015176.1. NM_001183963.1.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
2DYMX-ray2.20A/C/E/G1-294[»]
2DYOX-ray1.97A1-294[»]
3W1SX-ray2.60A1-284[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ12380.
SMRiQ12380. Positions 1-285.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi36034. 55 interactions.
DIPiDIP-1195N.
IntActiQ12380. 8 interactions.
MINTiMINT-388341.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiQ12380.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblFungiiYPL149W; YPL149W; YPL149W.
GeneIDi855954.
KEGGisce:YPL149W.

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiFungiDB:YPL149W.
SGDiS000006070. ATG5.

Phylogenomic databases

GeneTreeiENSGT00390000004766.
InParanoidiQ12380.
KOiK08339.
OMAiVGVLYDY.
OrthoDBiEOG73BVPZ.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciYEAST:G3O-34046-MONOMER.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ12380.
PROiQ12380.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR007239. Atg5.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR13040. PTHR13040. 1 hit.
PfamiPF04106. APG5. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Structural and functional analyses of APG5, a gene involved in autophagy in yeast."
    Kametaka S., Matsuura A., Wada Y., Ohsumi Y.
    Gene 178:139-143(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], FUNCTION.
  2. "The sequence of 55 kb on the left arm of yeast chromosome XVI identifies a small nuclear RNA, a new putative protein kinase and two new putative regulators."
    Purnelle B., Coster F., Goffeau A.
    Yeast 12:1483-1492(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: ATCC 204511 / S288c / AB972.
  3. "The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XVI."
    Bussey H., Storms R.K., Ahmed A., Albermann K., Allen E., Ansorge W., Araujo R., Aparicio A., Barrell B.G., Badcock K., Benes V., Botstein D., Bowman S., Brueckner M., Carpenter J., Cherry J.M., Chung E., Churcher C.M.
    , Coster F., Davis K., Davis R.W., Dietrich F.S., Delius H., DiPaolo T., Dubois E., Duesterhoeft A., Duncan M., Floeth M., Fortin N., Friesen J.D., Fritz C., Goffeau A., Hall J., Hebling U., Heumann K., Hilbert H., Hillier L.W., Hunicke-Smith S., Hyman R.W., Johnston M., Kalman S., Kleine K., Komp C., Kurdi O., Lashkari D., Lew H., Lin A., Lin D., Louis E.J., Marathe R., Messenguy F., Mewes H.-W., Mirtipati S., Moestl D., Mueller-Auer S., Namath A., Nentwich U., Oefner P., Pearson D., Petel F.X., Pohl T.M., Purnelle B., Rajandream M.A., Rechmann S., Rieger M., Riles L., Roberts D., Schaefer M., Scharfe M., Scherens B., Schramm S., Schroeder M., Sdicu A.-M., Tettelin H., Urrestarazu L.A., Ushinsky S., Vierendeels F., Vissers S., Voss H., Walsh S.V., Wambutt R., Wang Y., Wedler E., Wedler H., Winnett E., Zhong W.-W., Zollner A., Vo D.H., Hani J.
    Nature 387:103-105(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: ATCC 204508 / S288c.
  4. Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: ATCC 204508 / S288c.
  5. "Isolation and characterization of autophagy-defective mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae."
    Tsukada M., Ohsumi Y.
    FEBS Lett. 333:169-174(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  6. Cited for: FUNCTION, CONJUGATION TO ATG12, MUTAGENESIS OF LYS-149.
    Strain: ATCC 26109 / X2180.
  7. "Apg16p is required for the function of the Apg12p-Apg5p conjugate in the yeast autophagy pathway."
    Mizushima N., Noda T., Ohsumi Y.
    EMBO J. 18:3888-3896(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, INTERACTION WITH ATG12 AND ATG16.
  8. "Apg5p functions in the sequestration step in the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting and macroautophagy pathways."
    George M.D., Baba M., Scott S.V., Mizushima N., Garrison B.S., Ohsumi Y., Klionsky D.J.
    Mol. Biol. Cell 11:969-982(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  9. "The pre-autophagosomal structure organized by concerted functions of APG genes is essential for autophagosome formation."
    Suzuki K., Kirisako T., Kamada Y., Mizushima N., Noda T., Ohsumi Y.
    EMBO J. 20:5971-5981(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
  10. "Membrane recruitment of Aut7p in the autophagy and cytoplasm to vacuole targeting pathways requires Aut1p, Aut2p, and the autophagy conjugation complex."
    Kim J., Huang W.-P., Klionsky D.J.
    J. Cell Biol. 152:51-64(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  11. "Formation of the approximately 350-kDa Apg12-Apg5.Apg16 multimeric complex, mediated by Apg16 oligomerization, is essential for autophagy in yeast."
    Kuma A., Mizushima N., Ishihara N., Ohsumi Y.
    J. Biol. Chem. 277:18619-18625(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: IDENTIFICATION IN A COMPLEX WITH ATG12 AND ATG16.
  12. Cited for: NOMENCLATURE.
  13. "The carboxyl terminal 17 amino acids within Apg7 are essential for Apg8 lipidation, but not for Apg12 conjugation."
    Yamazaki-Sato H., Tanida I., Ueno T., Kominami E.
    FEBS Lett. 551:71-77(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: CONJUGATION TO ATG12.
  14. Cited for: LEVEL OF PROTEIN EXPRESSION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
  15. "Uth1p is involved in the autophagic degradation of mitochondria."
    Kissova I., Deffieu M., Manon S., Camougrand N.M.
    J. Biol. Chem. 279:39068-39074(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  16. "Atg21 is a phosphoinositide binding protein required for efficient lipidation and localization of Atg8 during uptake of aminopeptidase I by selective autophagy."
    Stromhaug P.E., Reggiori F., Guan J., Wang C.-W., Klionsky D.J.
    Mol. Biol. Cell 15:3553-3566(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
  17. "Structure-function relationship of Atg12, a ubiquitin-like modifier essential for autophagy."
    Hanada T., Ohsumi Y.
    Autophagy 1:110-118(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, CONJUGATION TO ATG12, INTERACTION WITH ATG16.
  18. "Impairing the bioenergetic status and the biogenesis of mitochondria triggers mitophagy in yeast."
    Priault M., Salin B., Schaeffer J., Vallette F.M., di Rago J.P., Martinou J.C.
    Cell Death Differ. 12:1613-1621(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  19. "Expression, purification and crystallization of the Atg5-Atg16 complex essential for autophagy."
    Matsushita M., Suzuki N.N., Fujioka Y., Ohsumi Y., Inagaki F.
    Acta Crystallogr. F 62:1021-1023(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: CRYSTALLIZATION OF THE ATG5-ATG16 COMPLEX.
  20. "Hierarchy of Atg proteins in pre-autophagosomal structure organization."
    Suzuki K., Kubota Y., Sekito T., Ohsumi Y.
    Genes Cells 12:209-218(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
  21. "An interrelationship between autophagy and filamentous growth in budding yeast."
    Ma J., Jin R., Jia X., Dobry C.J., Wang L., Reggiori F., Zhu J., Kumar A.
    Genetics 177:205-214(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  22. "The Atg12-Atg5 conjugate has a novel E3-like activity for protein lipidation in autophagy."
    Hanada T., Noda N.N., Satomi Y., Ichimura Y., Fujioka Y., Takao T., Inagaki F., Ohsumi Y.
    J. Biol. Chem. 282:37298-37302(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION OF THE ATG12-ATG5 CONJUGATE, INTERACTION WITH ATG3.
  23. "Localization of autophagy-related proteins in yeast using a versatile plasmid-based resource of fluorescent protein fusions."
    Ma J., Bharucha N., Dobry C.J., Frisch R.L., Lawson S., Kumar A.
    Autophagy 4:792-800(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
  24. "Quantitative analysis of autophagy-related protein stoichiometry by fluorescence microscopy."
    Geng J., Baba M., Nair U., Klionsky D.J.
    J. Cell Biol. 182:129-140(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  25. "In vivo reconstitution of autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae."
    Cao Y., Cheong H., Song H., Klionsky D.J.
    J. Cell Biol. 182:703-713(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: CONJUGATION TO ATG12, FUNCTION OF THE ATG12-ATG5 CONJUGATE.
  26. "Crystallization of the Atg12-Atg5 conjugate bound to Atg16 by the free-interface diffusion method."
    Noda N.N., Fujioka Y., Ohsumi Y., Inagaki F.
    J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15:266-268(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: CRYSTALLIZATION OF THE ATG12-ATG5 CONJUGATE BOUND TO ATG16.
  27. "Piecemeal microautophagy of the nucleus requires the core macroautophagy genes."
    Krick R., Muehe Y., Prick T., Bremer S., Schlotterhose P., Eskelinen E.L., Millen J., Goldfarb D.S., Thumm M.
    Mol. Biol. Cell 19:4492-4505(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  28. "Sphingolipid synthesis is involved in autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae."
    Yamagata M., Obara K., Kihara A.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 410:786-791(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: CONJUGATION TO ATG12.
  29. "Mechanism and functions of membrane binding by the Atg5-Atg12/Atg16 complex during autophagosome formation."
    Romanov J., Walczak M., Ibiricu I., Schuchner S., Ogris E., Kraft C., Martens S.
    EMBO J. 31:4304-4317(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, FUNCTION OF THE ATG5-ATG12/ATG16 COMPLEX.
  30. "A late form of nucleophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae."
    Mijaljica D., Prescott M., Devenish R.J.
    PLoS ONE 7:E40013-E40013(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  31. "Fine mapping of autophagy-related proteins during autophagosome formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae."
    Suzuki K., Akioka M., Kondo-Kakuta C., Yamamoto H., Ohsumi Y.
    J. Cell Sci. 126:2534-2544(2013) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
  32. "Atg12-Atg5 conjugate enhances E2 activity of Atg3 by rearranging its catalytic site."
    Sakoh-Nakatogawa M., Matoba K., Asai E., Kirisako H., Ishii J., Noda N.N., Inagaki F., Nakatogawa H., Ohsumi Y.
    Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 20:433-439(2013) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION OF THE ATG12-ATG5 CONJUGATE, INTERACTION WITH ATG3.
  33. "Structure of Atg5.Atg16, a complex essential for autophagy."
    Matsushita M., Suzuki N.N., Obara K., Fujioka Y., Ohsumi Y., Inagaki F.
    J. Biol. Chem. 282:6763-6772(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (1.97 ANGSTROMS) IN COMPLEX WITH ATG16.
  34. "Structure of the Atg12-Atg5 conjugate reveals a platform for stimulating Atg8-PE conjugation."
    Noda N.N., Fujioka Y., Hanada T., Ohsumi Y., Inagaki F.
    EMBO Rep. 14:206-211(2013) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.6 ANGSTROMS) OF 1-284 IN CONJUGATION WITH ATG12.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiATG5_YEAST
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q12380
Secondary accession number(s): D6W3M0
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1997
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: June 8, 2016
This is version 129 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programFungal Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

Present with 606 molecules/cell in log phase SD medium.1 Publication
Small amount of ATG5-ATG12 conjugate is enough to perform normal autophagy.

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  3. Yeast
    Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae): entries, gene names and cross-references to SGD
  4. Yeast chromosome XVI
    Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) chromosome XVI: entries and gene names

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.