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Protein

1,4-alpha-glucan-branching enzyme

Gene

GBE1

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Required for sufficient glycogen accumulation. The alpha 1-6 branches of glycogen play an important role in increasing the solubility of the molecule and, consequently, in reducing the osmotic pressure within cells.

Catalytic activityi

Transfers a segment of a (1->4)-alpha-D-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain.

Pathwayi: glycogen biosynthesis

This protein is involved in the pathway glycogen biosynthesis, which is part of Glycan biosynthesis.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway glycogen biosynthesis and in Glycan biosynthesis.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Active sitei357NucleophileBy similarity1
Active sitei412Proton donorBy similarity1

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

  • generation of precursor metabolites and energy Source: ProtInc
  • glycogen biosynthetic process Source: Reactome
  • glycogen metabolic process Source: ProtInc
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Glycosyltransferase, Transferase

Keywords - Biological processi

Glycogen biosynthesis

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:HS03772-MONOMER.
ZFISH:HS03772-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-HSA-3322077. Glycogen synthesis.
UniPathwayiUPA00164.

Protein family/group databases

CAZyiCBM48. Carbohydrate-Binding Module Family 48.
GH13. Glycoside Hydrolase Family 13.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
1,4-alpha-glucan-branching enzyme (EC:2.4.1.18)
Alternative name(s):
Brancher enzyme
Glycogen-branching enzyme
Gene namesi
Name:GBE1
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 3

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:4180. GBE1.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • cytosol Source: Reactome
  • extracellular exosome Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Pathology & Biotechi

Involvement in diseasei

Glycogen storage disease 4 (GSD4)3 Publications
The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionA metabolic disorder characterized by the accumulation of an amylopectin-like polysaccharide. The typical clinical manifestation is liver disease of childhood, progressing to lethal hepatic cirrhosis. Most children with this condition die before two years of age. However, the liver disease is not always progressive. No treatment apart from liver transplantation has been found to prevent progression of the disease. There is also a neuromuscular form of glycogen storage disease type 4 that varies in onset (perinatal, congenital, juvenile, or adult) and severity.
See also OMIM:232500
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_022429224L → P in GSD4; loss of activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs137852886dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_022430257F → L in GSD4; loss of activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs137852887dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_022431329Y → S in GSD4; non-progressive form; 50% residual activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs80338671dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_022432515R → C in GSD4; loss of activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs80338672dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_022434524R → Q in GSD4 and APBN. 3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant rs80338673dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_022435545H → R in GSD4. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs137852889dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_022436628H → R in GSD4; childhood neuromuscular form; 15 to 25% residual activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs137852891dbSNPEnsembl.1

Neuromuscular perinatal glycogen storage disease type 4 is associated with non-immune hydrops fetalis, a generalized edema of the fetus with fluid accumulation in the body cavities due to non-immune causes. Non-immune hydrops fetalis is not a diagnosis in itself but a symptom, a feature of many genetic disorders, and the end-stage of a wide variety of disorders.

Polyglucosan body neuropathy, adult form (APBN)1 Publication
The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionA late-onset, slowly progressive disorder affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems. Patients typically present after age 40 years with a variable combination of cognitive impairment, pyramidal tetraparesis, peripheral neuropathy, and neurogenic bladder. Other manifestations include cerebellar dysfunction and extrapyramidal signs. The pathologic hallmark of APBN is the widespread accumulation of round, intracellular polyglucosan bodies throughout the nervous system, which are confined to neuronal and astrocytic processes.
See also OMIM:263570
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_022433515R → H in APBN. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs201958741dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_022434524R → Q in GSD4 and APBN. 3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant rs80338673dbSNPEnsembl.1

Keywords - Diseasei

Disease mutation, Glycogen storage disease, Neuropathy

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi2632.
MalaCardsiGBE1.
MIMi232500. phenotype.
263570. phenotype.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000114480.
Orphaneti206583. Adult polyglucosan body disease.
308712. Glycogen storage disease due to glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, adult neuromuscular form.
308684. Glycogen storage disease due to glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, childhood combined hepatic and myopathic form.
308698. Glycogen storage disease due to glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, childhood neuromuscular form.
308670. Glycogen storage disease due to glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, congenital neuromuscular form.
308655. Glycogen storage disease due to glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, fatal perinatal neuromuscular form.
308638. Glycogen storage disease due to glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, non progressive hepatic form.
308621. Glycogen storage disease due to glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, progressive hepatic form.
PharmGKBiPA28594.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGBE1.
DMDMi357529509.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Initiator methionineiRemovedCombined sources
ChainiPRO_00001887752 – 7021,4-alpha-glucan-branching enzymeAdd BLAST701

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei2N-acetylalanineCombined sources1
Modified residuei173PhosphotyrosineCombined sources1

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

EPDiQ04446.
MaxQBiQ04446.
PaxDbiQ04446.
PeptideAtlasiQ04446.
PRIDEiQ04446.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ04446.
PhosphoSitePlusiQ04446.
SwissPalmiQ04446.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Highest levels found in liver and muscle.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000114480.
CleanExiHS_GBE1.
ExpressionAtlasiQ04446. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiQ04446. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA038073.
HPA038074.
HPA038075.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Monomer.

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi108902. 29 interactors.
IntActiQ04446. 12 interactors.
MINTiMINT-1415803.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000410833.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1702
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Helixi45 – 62Combined sources18
Beta strandi63 – 65Combined sources3
Helixi66 – 69Combined sources4
Helixi70 – 74Combined sources5
Beta strandi76 – 80Combined sources5
Beta strandi86 – 91Combined sources6
Beta strandi96 – 102Combined sources7
Helixi103 – 105Combined sources3
Beta strandi109 – 113Combined sources5
Helixi118 – 120Combined sources3
Beta strandi121 – 126Combined sources6
Beta strandi141 – 147Combined sources7
Beta strandi153 – 156Combined sources4
Beta strandi174 – 176Combined sources3
Beta strandi195 – 204Combined sources10
Beta strandi207 – 212Combined sources6
Helixi216 – 222Combined sources7
Helixi224 – 230Combined sources7
Beta strandi234 – 239Combined sources6
Beta strandi241 – 244Combined sources4
Helixi246 – 248Combined sources3
Beta strandi254 – 259Combined sources6
Helixi261 – 263Combined sources3
Helixi266 – 278Combined sources13
Beta strandi282 – 288Combined sources7
Beta strandi292 – 294Combined sources3
Beta strandi296 – 300Combined sources5
Turni301 – 304Combined sources4
Beta strandi305 – 307Combined sources3
Beta strandi309 – 311Combined sources3
Helixi315 – 317Combined sources3
Turni320 – 323Combined sources4
Helixi332 – 347Combined sources16
Beta strandi353 – 357Combined sources5
Helixi359 – 363Combined sources5
Turni379 – 382Combined sources4
Helixi387 – 403Combined sources17
Beta strandi408 – 411Combined sources4
Turni418 – 421Combined sources4
Helixi424 – 426Combined sources3
Beta strandi432 – 435Combined sources4
Helixi438 – 449Combined sources12
Helixi452 – 454Combined sources3
Helixi457 – 465Combined sources9
Beta strandi473 – 475Combined sources3
Helixi481 – 483Combined sources3
Helixi490 – 495Combined sources6
Helixi496 – 500Combined sources5
Helixi511 – 530Combined sources20
Beta strandi533 – 538Combined sources6
Helixi541 – 543Combined sources3
Helixi554 – 556Combined sources3
Beta strandi561 – 564Combined sources4
Helixi567 – 570Combined sources4
Helixi577 – 594Combined sources18
Beta strandi597 – 599Combined sources3
Beta strandi603 – 608Combined sources6
Turni609 – 612Combined sources4
Beta strandi613 – 618Combined sources6
Beta strandi621 – 626Combined sources6
Beta strandi633 – 642Combined sources10
Beta strandi644 – 651Combined sources8
Helixi655 – 657Combined sources3
Beta strandi669 – 673Combined sources5
Beta strandi679 – 687Combined sources9
Beta strandi691 – 698Combined sources8

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
4BZYX-ray2.75A/B/C1-702[»]
5CLTX-ray2.79A/B/C38-700[»]
5CLWX-ray2.80A/B/C38-700[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ04446.
SMRiQ04446.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0470. Eukaryota.
COG0296. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000017040.
HOVERGENiHBG051734.
InParanoidiQ04446.
KOiK00700.
OMAiICYLTLA.
OrthoDBiEOG091G02KX.
TreeFamiTF300783.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.60.40.10. 1 hit.
2.60.40.1180. 1 hit.
3.20.20.80. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR006048. A-amylase/branching_C.
IPR006407. GlgB.
IPR015902. Glyco_hydro_13.
IPR006047. Glyco_hydro_13_cat_dom.
IPR004193. Glyco_hydro_13_N.
IPR013780. Glyco_hydro_b.
IPR013781. Glyco_hydro_catalytic_dom.
IPR017853. Glycoside_hydrolase_SF.
IPR013783. Ig-like_fold.
IPR014756. Ig_E-set.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR10357. PTHR10357. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00128. Alpha-amylase. 1 hit.
PF02806. Alpha-amylase_C. 1 hit.
PF02922. CBM_48. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF000463. GlgB. 1 hit.
SMARTiSM00642. Aamy. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF51445. SSF51445. 1 hit.
SSF81296. SSF81296. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q04446-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MAAPMTPAAR PEDYEAALNA ALADVPELAR LLEIDPYLKP YAVDFQRRYK
60 70 80 90 100
QFSQILKNIG ENEGGIDKFS RGYESFGVHR CADGGLYCKE WAPGAEGVFL
110 120 130 140 150
TGDFNGWNPF SYPYKKLDYG KWELYIPPKQ NKSVLVPHGS KLKVVITSKS
160 170 180 190 200
GEILYRISPW AKYVVREGDN VNYDWIHWDP EHSYEFKHSR PKKPRSLRIY
210 220 230 240 250
ESHVGISSHE GKVASYKHFT CNVLPRIKGL GYNCIQLMAI MEHAYYASFG
260 270 280 290 300
YQITSFFAAS SRYGTPEELQ ELVDTAHSMG IIVLLDVVHS HASKNSADGL
310 320 330 340 350
NMFDGTDSCY FHSGPRGTHD LWDSRLFAYS SWEILRFLLS NIRWWLEEYR
360 370 380 390 400
FDGFRFDGVT SMLYHHHGVG QGFSGDYSEY FGLQVDEDAL TYLMLANHLV
410 420 430 440 450
HTLCPDSITI AEDVSGMPAL CSPISQGGGG FDYRLAMAIP DKWIQLLKEF
460 470 480 490 500
KDEDWNMGDI VYTLTNRRYL EKCIAYAESH DQALVGDKSL AFWLMDAEMY
510 520 530 540 550
TNMSVLTPFT PVIDRGIQLH KMIRLITHGL GGEGYLNFMG NEFGHPEWLD
560 570 580 590 600
FPRKGNNESY HYARRQFHLT DDDLLRYKFL NNFDRDMNRL EERYGWLAAP
610 620 630 640 650
QAYVSEKHEG NKIIAFERAG LLFIFNFHPS KSYTDYRVGT ALPGKFKIVL
660 670 680 690 700
DSDAAEYGGH QRLDHSTDFF SEAFEHNGRP YSLLVYIPSR VALILQNVDL

PN
Length:702
Mass (Da):80,474
Last modified:November 16, 2011 - v3
Checksum:iDEF534C821A72323
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti88C → S in AAA58642 (PubMed:8463281).Curated1

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_022109190R → G.Corresponds to variant rs2229519dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_022429224L → P in GSD4; loss of activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs137852886dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_022430257F → L in GSD4; loss of activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs137852887dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_034747265T → S.1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs17856389dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_022431329Y → S in GSD4; non-progressive form; 50% residual activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs80338671dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_034748334I → V.2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant rs2172397dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_034749507T → A.Corresponds to variant rs2228389dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_022432515R → C in GSD4; loss of activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs80338672dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_022433515R → H in APBN. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs201958741dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_022434524R → Q in GSD4 and APBN. 3 PublicationsCorresponds to variant rs80338673dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_022435545H → R in GSD4. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs137852889dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_022436628H → R in GSD4; childhood neuromuscular form; 15 to 25% residual activity. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs137852891dbSNPEnsembl.1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L07956 mRNA. Translation: AAA58642.1.
AK125918 mRNA. Translation: BAG54265.1.
AC017015 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AC025029 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AC099049 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
BC012098 mRNA. Translation: AAH12098.1.
CCDSiCCDS54612.1.
PIRiA46075.
RefSeqiNP_000149.3. NM_000158.3.
UniGeneiHs.436062.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000429644; ENSP00000410833; ENSG00000114480.
GeneIDi2632.
KEGGihsa:2632.
UCSCiuc062lqz.1. human.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L07956 mRNA. Translation: AAA58642.1.
AK125918 mRNA. Translation: BAG54265.1.
AC017015 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AC025029 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AC099049 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
BC012098 mRNA. Translation: AAH12098.1.
CCDSiCCDS54612.1.
PIRiA46075.
RefSeqiNP_000149.3. NM_000158.3.
UniGeneiHs.436062.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
4BZYX-ray2.75A/B/C1-702[»]
5CLTX-ray2.79A/B/C38-700[»]
5CLWX-ray2.80A/B/C38-700[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ04446.
SMRiQ04446.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi108902. 29 interactors.
IntActiQ04446. 12 interactors.
MINTiMINT-1415803.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000410833.

Protein family/group databases

CAZyiCBM48. Carbohydrate-Binding Module Family 48.
GH13. Glycoside Hydrolase Family 13.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ04446.
PhosphoSitePlusiQ04446.
SwissPalmiQ04446.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGBE1.
DMDMi357529509.

Proteomic databases

EPDiQ04446.
MaxQBiQ04446.
PaxDbiQ04446.
PeptideAtlasiQ04446.
PRIDEiQ04446.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi2632.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000429644; ENSP00000410833; ENSG00000114480.
GeneIDi2632.
KEGGihsa:2632.
UCSCiuc062lqz.1. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi2632.
DisGeNETi2632.
GeneCardsiGBE1.
GeneReviewsiGBE1.
HGNCiHGNC:4180. GBE1.
HPAiHPA038073.
HPA038074.
HPA038075.
MalaCardsiGBE1.
MIMi232500. phenotype.
263570. phenotype.
607839. gene.
neXtProtiNX_Q04446.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000114480.
Orphaneti206583. Adult polyglucosan body disease.
308712. Glycogen storage disease due to glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, adult neuromuscular form.
308684. Glycogen storage disease due to glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, childhood combined hepatic and myopathic form.
308698. Glycogen storage disease due to glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, childhood neuromuscular form.
308670. Glycogen storage disease due to glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, congenital neuromuscular form.
308655. Glycogen storage disease due to glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, fatal perinatal neuromuscular form.
308638. Glycogen storage disease due to glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, non progressive hepatic form.
308621. Glycogen storage disease due to glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, progressive hepatic form.
PharmGKBiPA28594.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0470. Eukaryota.
COG0296. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000017040.
HOVERGENiHBG051734.
InParanoidiQ04446.
KOiK00700.
OMAiICYLTLA.
OrthoDBiEOG091G02KX.
TreeFamiTF300783.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00164.
BioCyciMetaCyc:HS03772-MONOMER.
ZFISH:HS03772-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-HSA-3322077. Glycogen synthesis.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiGBE1. human.
GeneWikiiGBE1.
GenomeRNAii2632.
PROiQ04446.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000114480.
CleanExiHS_GBE1.
ExpressionAtlasiQ04446. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiQ04446. HS.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.60.40.10. 1 hit.
2.60.40.1180. 1 hit.
3.20.20.80. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR006048. A-amylase/branching_C.
IPR006407. GlgB.
IPR015902. Glyco_hydro_13.
IPR006047. Glyco_hydro_13_cat_dom.
IPR004193. Glyco_hydro_13_N.
IPR013780. Glyco_hydro_b.
IPR013781. Glyco_hydro_catalytic_dom.
IPR017853. Glycoside_hydrolase_SF.
IPR013783. Ig-like_fold.
IPR014756. Ig_E-set.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR10357. PTHR10357. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00128. Alpha-amylase. 1 hit.
PF02806. Alpha-amylase_C. 1 hit.
PF02922. CBM_48. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF000463. GlgB. 1 hit.
SMARTiSM00642. Aamy. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF51445. SSF51445. 1 hit.
SSF81296. SSF81296. 1 hit.
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGLGB_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q04446
Secondary accession number(s): B3KWV3, Q96EN0
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: June 1, 1994
Last sequence update: November 16, 2011
Last modified: November 30, 2016
This is version 169 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Glycosyl hydrolases
    Classification of glycosyl hydrolase families and list of entries
  2. Human chromosome 3
    Human chromosome 3: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  3. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  4. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  5. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  6. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  7. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  8. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.