Q03114 (CDK5_RAT) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Last modified April 16, 2014. Version 129. History...
Names and origin
|Protein names||Recommended name:|
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5
Cell division protein kinase 5
Serine/threonine-protein kinase PSSALRE
Tau protein kinase II catalytic subunit
Short name=TPKII catalytic subunit
|Organism||Rattus norvegicus (Rat) [Reference proteome]|
|Taxonomic identifier||10116 [NCBI]|
|Taxonomic lineage||Eukaryota › Metazoa › Chordata › Craniata › Vertebrata › Euteleostomi › Mammalia › Eutheria › Euarchontoglires › Glires › Rodentia › Sciurognathi › Muroidea › Muridae › Murinae › Rattus|
|Sequence length||292 AA.|
|Protein existence||Evidence at protein level|
General annotation (Comments)
Proline-directed serine/threonine-protein kinase essential for neuronal cell cycle arrest and differentiation and may be involved in apoptotic cell death in neuronal diseases by triggering abortive cell cycle re-entry. Interacts with D1 and D3-type G1 cyclins. Phosphorylates SRC, NOS3, VIM/vimentin, p35/CDK5R1, MEF2A, SIPA1L1, SH3GLB1, PXN, PAK1, MCAM/MUC18, SEPT5, SYN1, DNM1, AMPH, SYNJ1, CDK16, RAC1, RHOA, CDC42, TONEBP/NFAT5, MAPT/TAU, MAP1B, histone H1, p53/TP53, HDAC1, APEX1, PTK2/FAK1, huntingtin/HTT, ATM, MAP2, NEFH and NEFM. Regulates several neuronal development and physiological processes including neuronal survival, migration and differentiation, axonal and neurite growth, synaptogenesis, oligodendrocyte differentiation, synaptic plasticity and neurotransmission, by phosphorylating key proteins. Activated by interaction with CDK5R1 (p35) and CDK5R2 (p39), especially in post-mitotic neurons, and promotes CDK5R1 (p35) expression in an autostimulation loop. Phosphorylates many downstream substrates such as Rho and Ras family small GTPases (e.g. PAK1, RAC1, RHOA, CDC42) or microtubule-binding proteins (e.g. MAPT/TAU, MAP2, MAP1B), and modulates actin dynamics to regulate neurite growth and/or spine morphogenesis. Phosphorylates also exocytosis associated proteins such as MCAM/MUC18, SEPT5, SYN1, and CDK16/PCTAIRE1 as well as endocytosis associated proteins such as DNM1, AMPH and SYNJ1 at synaptic terminals. In the mature central nervous system (CNS), regulates neurotransmitter movements by phosphorylating substrates associated with neurotransmitter release and synapse plasticity; synaptic vesicle exocytosis, vesicles fusion with the presynaptic membrane, and endocytosis. Promotes cell survival by activating anti-apoptotic proteins BCL2 and STAT3, and negatively regulating of JNK3/MAPK10 activity. Phosphorylation of p53/TP53 in response to genotoxic and oxidative stresses enhances its stabilization by preventing ubiquitin ligase-mediated proteasomal degradation, and induces transactivation of p53/TP53 target genes, thus regulating apoptosis. Phosphorylation of p35/CDK5R1 enhances its stabilization by preventing calpain-mediated proteolysis producing p25/CDK5R1 and avoiding ubiquitin ligase-mediated proteasomal degradation. During aberrant cell-cycle activity and DNA damage, p25/CDK5 activity elicits cell-cycle activity and double-strand DNA breaks that precedes neuronal death by deregulating HDAC1. DNA damage triggered phosphorylation of huntingtin/HTT in nuclei of neurons protects neurons against polyglutamine expansion as well as DNA damage mediated toxicity. Phosphorylation of PXN reduces its interaction with PTK2/FAK1 in matrix-cell focal adhesions (MCFA) during oligodendrocytes (OLs) differentiation. Negative regulator of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Activator of the GAIT (IFN-gamma-activated inhibitor of translation) pathway, which suppresses expression of a post-transcriptional regulon of proinflammatory genes in myeloid cells; phosphorylates the linker domain of glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase (EPRS) in a IFN-gamma-dependent manner, the initial event in assembly of the GAIT complex. Phosphorylation of SH3GLB1 is required for autophagy induction in starved neurons. Phosphorylation of TONEBP/NFAT5 in response to osmotic stress mediates its rapid nuclear localization. MEF2 is inactivated by phosphorylation in nucleus in response to neurotoxin, thus leading to neuronal apoptosis. APEX1 AP-endodeoxyribonuclease is repressed by phosphorylation, resulting in accumulation of DNA damage and contributing to neuronal death. NOS3 phosphorylation down regulates NOS3-derived nitrite (NO) levels. SRC phosphorylation mediates its ubiquitin-dependent degradation and thus leads to cytoskeletal reorganization. May regulate endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis via the modulation of lamellipodia formation. Involved in dendritic spine morphogenesis by mediating the EFNA1-EPHA4 signaling. The complex p35/CDK5 participates in the regulation of the circadian clock by modulating the function of CLOCK protein: phosphorylates CLOCK at 'Thr-451' and 'Thr-461' and regulates the transcriptional activity of the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer in association with altered stability and subcellular distribution By similarity. Ref.5
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
Inhibited by 2-(1-ethyl-2-hydroxyethylamino)-6-benzylamino-9-isopropylpurine (roscovitine), 1-isopropyl-4-aminobenzyl-6-ether-linked benzimidazoles, resveratrol, AT-7519 and olomoucine. Activated by CDK5R1 (p35) and CDK5R2 (p39) during the development of the nervous system; degradation of CDK5R1 (p35) and CDK5R2 (p39) by proteasome result in down regulation of kinase activity, during this process, CDK5 phosphorylates p35 and induces its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Kinase activity is mainly determined by the amount of p35 available and subcellular location; reversible association to plasma membrane inhibits activity. Long-term inactivation as well as CDK5R1 (p25)-mediated hyperactivation of CDK5 triggers cell death. The pro-death activity of hyperactivated CDK5 is suppressed by membrane association of CDK5, via myristoylation of p35. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor (NGF), retinoic acid, laminin and neuregulin promote activity. Neurotoxicity enhances nuclear activity, thus leading to MEF2 phosphorylation and inhibition prior to apoptosis of cortical neurons. Repression by GSTP1 via p25/p35 translocation prevents neurodegeneration By similarity.
Heterodimer composed of a catalytic subunit CDK5 and a regulatory subunit CDK5R1 (p25) and macromolecular complex composed of at least CDK5, CDK5R1 (p35) and CDK5RAP1 or CDK5RAP2 or CDK5RAP3. Only the heterodimer shows kinase activity. Under neurotoxic stress and neuronal injury conditions, p35 is cleaved by calpain to generate p25 that hyperactivates CDK5, that becomes functionally disabled and often toxic. Found in a trimolecular complex with CABLES1 and ABL1. Interacts with CABLES1 and CABLES2 By similarity. Interacts with AATK and GSTP1. Binds to HDAC1 when in complex with p25. Interaction with myristoylation p35 promotes CDK5 association with membranes. Both isoforms 1 and 2 interacts with beta-catenin/CTNNB1. Interacts with delta-catenin/CTNND2 and APEX1. Interacts with P53/TP53 in neurons. Interacts with PTK2/FAK1 By similarity. Interacts with EPHA4; may mediate the activation of NGEF by EPHA4. The complex p35/CDK5 interacts with CLOCK By similarity. Ref.3 Ref.4
Cytoplasm By similarity. Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein By similarity. Perikaryon By similarity. Cell projection › lamellipodium By similarity. Cell projection › growth cone By similarity. Nucleus By similarity. Cell junction › synapse › postsynaptic cell membrane › postsynaptic density By similarity. Note: In axonal growth cone with extension to the peripheral lamellipodia By similarity. Under neurotoxic stress and neuronal injury conditions, CDK5R1 (p35) is cleaved by calpain to generate CDK5R1 (p25) in response to increased intracellular calcium. The elevated level of p25, when in complex with CDK5, leads to its subcellular misallocation as well as its hyperactivation. Colocalizes with CTNND2 in the cell body of neuronal cells, and with CTNNB1 in the cell-cell contacts and plasma membrane of undifferentiated and differentiated neuroblastoma cells. Reversibly attached to the plasma membrane in an inactive form when complexed to dephosphorylated p35 or CDK5R2 (p39), p35 phosphorylation releases this attachment and activates CDK5 By similarity. Ref.4
Expressed predominantly in post-mitotic neurons of the central and peripheral nervous system.
Phosphorylation on Tyr-15 by ABL1 and FYN, and on Ser-159 by casein kinase 1 promotes kinase activity. By contrast, phosphorylation at Thr-14 inhibits activity By similarity.
Phosphorylation at Ser-159 is essential for maximal catalytic activity By similarity.
Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Sequence annotation (Features)
|Feature key||Position(s)||Length||Description||Graphical view||Feature identifier|
|Chain||1 – 292||292||Cyclin-dependent kinase 5||PRO_0000085786|
|Domain||4 – 286||283||Protein kinase|
|Nucleotide binding||10 – 18||9||ATP By similarity|
|Active site||126||1||Proton acceptor By similarity|
|Binding site||33||1||ATP By similarity|
Amino acid modifications
|Modified residue||15||1||Phosphotyrosine; by ABL1, EPHA4 and FYN By similarity|
|Modified residue||56||1||N6-acetyllysine By similarity|
|Modified residue||72||1||Phosphoserine By similarity|
|Modified residue||159||1||Phosphoserine By similarity|
|||"D type cyclins associate with multiple protein kinases and the DNA replication and repair factor PCNA."|
Xiong Y., Zhang H., Beach D.H.
Cell 71:505-514(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
|||"Neuronal cdc2-like kinase: a cdc2-related protein kinase with predominantly neuronal expression."|
Hellmich M.R., Pant H.C., Wada E., Battey J.F.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89:10867-10871(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
|||"Apoptosis-associated tyrosine kinase is a Cdk5 activator p35 binding protein."|
Honma N., Asada A., Takeshita S., Enomoto M., Yamakawa E., Tsutsumi K., Saito T., Satoh T., Itoh H., Kaziro Y., Kishimoto T., Hisanaga S.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 310:398-404(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH AATK.
|||"Cdk5 regulates EphA4-mediated dendritic spine retraction through an ephexin1-dependent mechanism."|
Fu W.Y., Chen Y., Sahin M., Zhao X.S., Shi L., Bikoff J.B., Lai K.O., Yung W.H., Fu A.K., Greenberg M.E., Ip N.Y.
Nat. Neurosci. 10:67-76(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH EPHA4, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
|||"Critical role of CDK5 and Polo-like kinase 2 in homeostatic synaptic plasticity during elevated activity."|
Seeburg D.P., Feliu-Mojer M., Gaiottino J., Pak D.T., Sheng M.
Neuron 58:571-583(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION IN PHOSPHORYLATION OF SIPA1L1.
|+||Additional computationally mapped references.|
|L02121 mRNA. Translation: AAA40902.1.|
|RefSeq||NP_543161.1. NM_080885.1. |
3D structure databases
|SMR||Q03114. Positions 1-292. |
Protein-protein interaction databases
|BioGrid||250852. 6 interactions.|
|IntAct||Q03114. 3 interactions.|
Protocols and materials databases
Genome annotation databases
|Ensembl||ENSRNOT00000011052; ENSRNOP00000011052; ENSRNOG00000008017. |
|RGD||70514. Cdk5. |
Enzyme and pathway databases
|BRENDA||18.104.22.168. 5301. |
Gene expression databases
Family and domain databases
|InterPro||IPR011009. Kinase-like_dom. |
|Pfam||PF00069. Pkinase. 1 hit. |
|SMART||SM00220. S_TKc. 1 hit. |
|SUPFAM||SSF56112. SSF56112. 1 hit. |
|PROSITE||PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit. |
PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit.
PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 hit.
|Accession||Primary (citable) accession number: Q03114|
|Entry status||Reviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)|
|Annotation program||Chordata Protein Annotation Program|
Index of protein domains and families