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Protein

Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase protein 31

Gene

XTH31

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes xyloglucan endohydrolysis (XEH) and/or endotransglycosylation (XET). Cleaves and religates xyloglucan polymers, an essential constituent of the primary cell wall, and thereby participates in cell wall construction of growing tissues. Involved in the accumulation of hemicelluloses. Has a high XEH activity and only a slight XET activity in vitro, but the main in planta activity seems to be XET, thus controlling aluminum sensitivity (PubMed:23204407, PubMed:23104861, PubMed:25446234). Acceptor preferences are XXXGol = XXFGol > XXLGol > XLLGol = XLFGol (PubMed:25446234).3 Publications

Miscellaneous

In contrast to group 1 and group 2 endotransglucosylase/hydrolase proteins, it may not contain the ligase activity, and may catalyze endohydrolysis xyloglucan polymers only.

Catalytic activityi

Breaks a beta-(1->4) bond in the backbone of a xyloglucan and transfers the xyloglucanyl segment on to O-4 of the non-reducing terminal glucose residue of an acceptor, which can be a xyloglucan or an oligosaccharide of xyloglucan.1 Publication
Xyloglucan + H2O = xyloglucan oligosaccharides.2 Publications

Kineticsi

KM for xyloglucan as donor substrate is 1.6 mg/ml. KM is quoted in mg/ml, not µM, because XTHs are able to utilise any segment of the polysaccharide chain equally well, not just one site per molecule as with the acceptor.1 Publication
  1. KM=86 µM for XXXGol1 Publication

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is 5 for the XET activity. Optimum pH is 4.5 - 4.75 for the XEH activity.2 Publications

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Active sitei114NucleophileBy similarity1
    Active sitei118Proton donorBy similarity1

    GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    • cell wall biogenesis Source: InterPro
    • cell wall macromolecule catabolic process Source: TAIR
    • cell wall organization Source: UniProtKB-KW
    • xyloglucan metabolic process Source: InterPro

    Keywordsi

    Molecular functionGlycosidase, Hydrolase, Transferase
    Biological processCell wall biogenesis/degradation

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciARA:AT3G44990-MONOMER

    Protein family/group databases

    CAZyiGH16 Glycoside Hydrolase Family 16

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase protein 311 Publication (EC:2.4.1.2071 Publication, EC:3.2.1.1511 Publication)
    Short name:
    At-XTH311 Publication
    Short name:
    AtXTR8
    Short name:
    XTH-31
    Gene namesi
    Name:XTH311 Publication
    Synonyms:ATXG, XTR8
    Ordered Locus Names:At3g44990
    ORF Names:F14D17.60
    OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
    Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
    Proteomesi
    • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 3

    Organism-specific databases

    AraportiAT3G44990
    TAIRilocus:2075919 AT3G44990

    Subcellular locationi

    Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cell wall Cytoskeleton Vacuole Chloroplast Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertion Graphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Apoplast, Cell membrane, Cell wall, Membrane, Secreted

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Disruption phenotypei

    Reduced growth, decreased cell wall xyloglucan content and increased aluminum resistance (PubMed:23204407). No visible phenotype under normal growth conditions (PubMed:23104861).2 Publications

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Signal peptidei1 – 20Sequence analysisAdd BLAST20
    ChainiPRO_000001183121 – 293Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase protein 31Add BLAST273

    Post-translational modificationi

    Contains at least one intrachain disulfide bond essential for its enzymatic activity.By similarity

    Keywords - PTMi

    Disulfide bond

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiP93046
    PRIDEiP93046

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    Predominantly expressed in root (PubMed:11673616, Ref. 1). Weakly expressed in influorescence stems (PubMed:11673616). Expressed in root tips and elongation zones, stems, young leaves, flowers and siliques (PubMed:23204407). Expressed in root, hypocotyl, and etiolated whole seedlings (PubMed:23104861).4 Publications

    Developmental stagei

    Expressed in germinating seeds from 24 hours after imbibation, and reaches a maximum level at 72 hours. After 96 hours, it then decreases.1 Publication

    Inductioni

    Up-regulated by gibberellins (Probable). Not induced by auxin (Ref. 1). Down-regulated by aluminum (PubMed:21285327, PubMed:23204407).Curated3 Publications

    Gene expression databases

    ExpressionAtlasiP93046 baseline and differential
    GenevisibleiP93046 AT

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Interacts with XTH17. The formation of an XTH17-XTH31 dimer may be required for XET activity.1 Publication

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi8954, 1 interactor
    STRINGi3702.AT3G44990.1

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliP93046
    SMRiP93046
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Domains and Repeats

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Domaini29 – 230GH16PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST202

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Keywords - Domaini

    Signal

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiENOG410J8R0 Eukaryota
    ENOG411167N LUCA
    HOGENOMiHOG000236368
    InParanoidiP93046
    KOiK08235
    OMAiHTHTPEC
    OrthoDBiEOG09360KA4
    PhylomeDBiP93046

    Family and domain databases

    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR013320 ConA-like_dom_sf
    IPR000757 GH16
    IPR010713 XET_C
    IPR016455 XTH
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF00722 Glyco_hydro_16, 1 hit
    PF06955 XET_C, 1 hit
    PIRSFiPIRSF005604 XET, 1 hit
    SUPFAMiSSF49899 SSF49899, 1 hit
    PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
    PS51762 GH16_2, 1 hit

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    P93046-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MALSLIFLAL LVLCPSSGHS QRSPSPGYYP SSRVPTSPFD REFRTLWGSQ
    60 70 80 90 100
    HQRREQDVVT LWLDKSTGSG FKSLRPYRSG YFGASIKLQP GFTAGVDTSL
    110 120 130 140 150
    YLSNNQEHPG DHDEVDIEFL GTTPGKPYSL QTNVFVRGSG DRNVIGREMK
    160 170 180 190 200
    FTLWFDPTQD FHHYAILWNP NQIVFFVDDV PIRTYNRKNE AIFPTRPMWV
    210 220 230 240 250
    YGSIWDASDW ATENGRIKAD YRYQPFVAKY KNFKLAGCTA DSSSSCRPPS
    260 270 280 290
    PAPMRNRGLS RQQMAALTWA QRNFLVYNYC HDPKRDHTQT PEC
    Length:293
    Mass (Da):33,541
    Last modified:November 28, 2003 - v2
    Checksum:iD999B4C62C5ABCA8
    GO

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Sequence conflicti11L → V in CAA63553 (Ref. 1) Curated1
    Sequence conflicti260S → T in CAA63553 (Ref. 1) Curated1

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    X92975 mRNA Translation: CAA63553.1
    AL353992 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB89314.1
    CP002686 Genomic DNA Translation: AEE77976.1
    AY056163 mRNA Translation: AAL07012.1
    AY136454 mRNA Translation: AAM97119.1
    BT006326 mRNA Translation: AAP13434.1
    PIRiT48975
    RefSeqiNP_190085.1, NM_114368.3
    UniGeneiAt.20372

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblPlantsiAT3G44990.1; AT3G44990.1; AT3G44990
    GeneIDi823634
    GrameneiAT3G44990.1; AT3G44990.1; AT3G44990
    KEGGiath:AT3G44990

    Similar proteinsi

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiXTH31_ARATH
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P93046
    Secondary accession number(s): Q9LXH6
    Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 28, 2003
    Last sequence update: November 28, 2003
    Last modified: May 23, 2018
    This is version 132 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Arabidopsis thaliana
      Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
    2. Glycosyl hydrolases
      Classification of glycosyl hydrolase families and list of entries
    3. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

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