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Protein

5'-adenylylsulfate reductase 2, chloroplastic

Gene

APR2

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Reduces sulfate for Cys biosynthesis. Substrate preference is adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) >> 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). Uses glutathione or DTT as source of protons.1 Publication

Catalytic activityi

AMP + sulfite + glutathione disulfide = adenylyl sulfate + 2 glutathione.

Cofactori

[4Fe-4S] cluster1 PublicationNote: Binds 1 [4Fe-4S] cluster.1 Publication

Enzyme regulationi

Stimulated by sodium sulfate > ammonium sulfate.By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Active sitei374 – 3741NucleophileBy similarity
Active sitei377 – 3771NucleophileBy similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  • adenylyl-sulfate reductase (glutathione) activity Source: UniProtKB-EC
  • adenylyl-sulfate reductase activity Source: TAIR
  • phosphoadenylyl-sulfate reductase (thioredoxin) activity Source: TAIR

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Oxidoreductase

Keywords - Biological processi

Amino-acid biosynthesis, Cysteine biosynthesis, Stress response

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:GQT-836-MONOMER.
MetaCyc:AT1G62180-MONOMER.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
5'-adenylylsulfate reductase 2, chloroplastic (EC:1.8.4.9)
Alternative name(s):
3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase homolog 43
Short name:
PAPS reductase homolog 43
Short name:
Prh-43
Adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate 5'-adenylylsulfate sulfotransferase 2
Short name:
APS sulfotransferase 2
Thioredoxin-independent APS reductase 2
Gene namesi
Name:APR2
Synonyms:APSR, PRH43
Ordered Locus Names:At1g62180
ORF Names:F19K23.11
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT1G62180.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • chloroplast Source: TAIR
  • chloroplast stroma Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chloroplast, Plastid

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi195 – 1951C → S: Slightly reduces activity. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi314 – 3141C → S: Abolishes activity. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Transit peptidei1 – 6666ChloroplastSequence analysisCombined sourcesAdd
BLAST
Chaini67 – 4543885'-adenylylsulfate reductase 2, chloroplasticPRO_0000023215Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei67 – 671N-acetylalanineCombined sources
Disulfide bondi374 ↔ 377Redox-activePROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Disulfide bond

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP92981.
PRIDEiP92981.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP92981.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Leaves and stem.

Inductioni

By sulfate starvation.

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiP92981. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP92981. AT.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

IntActiP92981. 1 interaction.
STRINGi3702.AT1G62180.1.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP92981.
SMRiP92981. Positions 84-307, 328-450.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Domaini333 – 454122ThioredoxinPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni67 – 319253Reductase domainAdd
BLAST

Domaini

The C-terminal domain may function as glutaredoxin and mediates the interaction of the enzyme with glutathione (GSH). Active in GSH-dependent reduction of hydroxyethyldisulfide, cystine, dehydroascorbate, insulin disulfides and ribonucleotide reductase (By similarity).By similarity

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the APS reductase family.Curated
Contains 1 thioredoxin domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Redox-active center, Transit peptide

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0189. Eukaryota.
KOG0191. Eukaryota.
COG0175. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000242337.
KOiK05907.
OMAiKWNPLAN.
OrthoDBiEOG093609DB.
PhylomeDBiP92981.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.30.10. 1 hit.
3.40.50.620. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR002500. PAPS_reduct.
IPR014729. Rossmann-like_a/b/a_fold.
IPR004508. Thioredoxin-indep_APS_Rdtase.
IPR012336. Thioredoxin-like_fold.
IPR013766. Thioredoxin_domain.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01507. PAPS_reduct. 1 hit.
PF00085. Thioredoxin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF52833. SSF52833. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR00424. APS_reduc. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS51352. THIOREDOXIN_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 1 isoform i produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Note: A number of isoforms are produced. According to EST sequences.
Isoform 1 (identifier: P92981-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MALAVTSSST AISGSSFSRS GASSESKALQ ICSIRLSDRT HLSQRRYSMK
60 70 80 90 100
PLNAESHSRS ESWVTRASTL IAPEVEEKGG EVEDFEQLAK KLEDASPLEI
110 120 130 140 150
MDKALERFGD QIAIAFSGAE DVALIEYARL TGKPFRVFSL DTGRLNPETY
160 170 180 190 200
RLFDAVEKQY GIRIEYMFPD AVEVQALVRN KGLFSFYEDG HQECCRVRKV
210 220 230 240 250
RPLRRALKGL KAWITGQRKD QSPGTRSEIP IVQVDPVFEG LDGGVGSLVK
260 270 280 290 300
WNPLANVEGA DVWNFLRTMD VPVNALHAQG YVSIGCEPCT RPVLPGQHER
310 320 330 340 350
EGRWWWEDAK AKECGLHKGN IKEEDGAADS KPAAVQEIFE SNNVVALSKG
360 370 380 390 400
GVENLLKLEN RKEAWLVVLY APWCPFCQAM EASYIELAEK LAGKGVKVAK
410 420 430 440 450
FRADGEQKEF AKQELQLGSF PTILLFPKRA PRAIKYPSEH RDVDSLMSFV

NLLR
Length:454
Mass (Da):50,656
Last modified:October 19, 2002 - v2
Checksum:i4EB93C1FFC5E4636
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAC26977 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally extended.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti16 – 161S → T in AAB57688 (Ref. 3) Curated
Sequence conflicti16 – 161S → T in AAM66987 (Ref. 8) Curated
Sequence conflicti40 – 401T → N in AAB57688 (Ref. 3) Curated
Sequence conflicti40 – 401T → N in AAM66987 (Ref. 8) Curated
Sequence conflicti43 – 431S → A in AAC49563 (PubMed:8917599).Curated
Sequence conflicti47 – 482YS → P in AAC49563 (PubMed:8917599).Curated
Sequence conflicti57 – 582HS → SHT in AAB57688 (Ref. 3) Curated
Sequence conflicti57 – 582HS → SHT in AAM66987 (Ref. 8) Curated
Sequence conflicti65 – 651T → L in AAB57688 (Ref. 3) Curated
Sequence conflicti65 – 651T → L in AAM66987 (Ref. 8) Curated
Sequence conflicti79 – 791G → E in AAB57688 (Ref. 3) Curated
Sequence conflicti79 – 791G → E in AAM66987 (Ref. 8) Curated
Sequence conflicti107 – 1071R → K in AAB57688 (Ref. 3) Curated
Sequence conflicti107 – 1071R → K in AAM66987 (Ref. 8) Curated
Sequence conflicti111 – 1111Q → E in AAB57688 (Ref. 3) Curated
Sequence conflicti111 – 1111Q → E in AAM66987 (Ref. 8) Curated
Sequence conflicti291 – 2911R → S in AAC26977 (PubMed:8917600).Curated
Sequence conflicti322 – 3221K → F in AAC26977 (PubMed:8917600).Curated
Sequence conflicti349 – 3491K → R in AAB57688 (Ref. 3) Curated
Sequence conflicti349 – 3491K → R in AAM66987 (Ref. 8) Curated
Sequence conflicti351 – 3511G → R in AAC26977 (PubMed:8917600).Curated
Sequence conflicti385 – 3851I → V in AAB57688 (Ref. 3) Curated
Sequence conflicti385 – 3851I → V in AAM66987 (Ref. 8) Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U53866 mRNA. Translation: AAC49563.1.
AF023167 mRNA. Translation: AAB80957.1.
U96045 mRNA. Translation: AAB57688.1.
AF016283 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC26980.1.
AC000375 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB60764.1.
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE33931.1.
AF360192 mRNA. Translation: AAK25902.1.
AY040005 mRNA. Translation: AAK64082.1.
AY088665 mRNA. Translation: AAM66987.1.
U56921 mRNA. Translation: AAC26977.1. Different initiation.
PIRiC96648.
RefSeqiNP_176409.1. NM_104899.2. [P92981-1]
UniGeneiAt.25368.
At.74995.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT1G62180.1; AT1G62180.1; AT1G62180. [P92981-1]
GeneIDi842514.
KEGGiath:AT1G62180.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U53866 mRNA. Translation: AAC49563.1.
AF023167 mRNA. Translation: AAB80957.1.
U96045 mRNA. Translation: AAB57688.1.
AF016283 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC26980.1.
AC000375 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB60764.1.
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE33931.1.
AF360192 mRNA. Translation: AAK25902.1.
AY040005 mRNA. Translation: AAK64082.1.
AY088665 mRNA. Translation: AAM66987.1.
U56921 mRNA. Translation: AAC26977.1. Different initiation.
PIRiC96648.
RefSeqiNP_176409.1. NM_104899.2. [P92981-1]
UniGeneiAt.25368.
At.74995.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP92981.
SMRiP92981. Positions 84-307, 328-450.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

IntActiP92981. 1 interaction.
STRINGi3702.AT1G62180.1.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP92981.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP92981.
PRIDEiP92981.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT1G62180.1; AT1G62180.1; AT1G62180. [P92981-1]
GeneIDi842514.
KEGGiath:AT1G62180.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT1G62180.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0189. Eukaryota.
KOG0191. Eukaryota.
COG0175. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000242337.
KOiK05907.
OMAiKWNPLAN.
OrthoDBiEOG093609DB.
PhylomeDBiP92981.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:GQT-836-MONOMER.
MetaCyc:AT1G62180-MONOMER.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiP92981.

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiP92981. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP92981. AT.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.30.10. 1 hit.
3.40.50.620. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR002500. PAPS_reduct.
IPR014729. Rossmann-like_a/b/a_fold.
IPR004508. Thioredoxin-indep_APS_Rdtase.
IPR012336. Thioredoxin-like_fold.
IPR013766. Thioredoxin_domain.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01507. PAPS_reduct. 1 hit.
PF00085. Thioredoxin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF52833. SSF52833. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR00424. APS_reduc. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS51352. THIOREDOXIN_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiAPR2_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P92981
Secondary accession number(s): O04215
, O04583, O22554, Q38947, Q541D4
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 19, 2002
Last sequence update: October 19, 2002
Last modified: September 7, 2016
This is version 134 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.