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Protein

Ferric reduction oxidase 2

Gene

FRO2

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Flavocytochrome that transfers electrons across the plasma membrane to reduce ferric iron chelates to form soluble ferrous iron in the rhizosphere. May be involved in the delivery of iron to developing pollen grains. Acts also as a copper-chelate reductase. Involved in glycine betaine-mediated chilling tolerance and reactive oxygen species accumulation.4 Publications

Catalytic activityi

2 Fe(II)-siderophore + NAD+ + H+ = 2 Fe(III)-siderophore + NADH.

Cofactori

FADCurated

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Metal bindingi219 – 2191Iron (heme axial ligand)Curated
Metal bindingi233 – 2331Iron (heme axial ligand)Curated
Metal bindingi293 – 2931Iron (heme axial ligand)Curated
Metal bindingi306 – 3061Iron (heme axial ligand)Curated

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Nucleotide bindingi381 – 3844FADSequence analysis
Nucleotide bindingi429 – 4324NADSequence analysis

GO - Molecular functioni

  • ferric-chelate reductase activity Source: TAIR
  • metal ion binding Source: UniProtKB-KW

GO - Biological processi

  • ion transport Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • iron chelate transport Source: TAIR
  • iron ion homeostasis Source: TAIR
  • response to bacterium Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Oxidoreductase

Keywords - Biological processi

Electron transport, Ion transport, Transport

Keywords - Ligandi

FAD, Flavoprotein, Heme, Iron, Metal-binding, NAD

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT1G01580-MONOMER.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Ferric reduction oxidase 2 (EC:1.16.1.7)
Short name:
AtFRO2
Alternative name(s):
Ferric-chelate reductase 2
Protein FERRIC CHELATE REDUCTASE DEFECTIVE 1
Gene namesi
Name:FRO2
Synonyms:FRD1
Ordered Locus Names:At1g01580
ORF Names:F22L4.12
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT1G01580.

Subcellular locationi

  • Cell membrane 1 Publication; Multi-pass membrane protein 1 Publication

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Topological domaini1 – 2828Cytoplasmic1 PublicationAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei29 – 4820HelicalAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini49 – 7426Extracellular1 PublicationAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei75 – 9319HelicalAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini94 – 12532Cytoplasmic1 PublicationAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei126 – 14924HelicalAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini150 – 21768Extracellular1 PublicationAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei218 – 24124HelicalAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini242 – 29150Cytoplasmic1 PublicationAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei292 – 31625HelicalAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini317 – 33822Extracellular1 PublicationAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei339 – 35921HelicalAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini360 – 554195Cytoplasmic1 PublicationAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei555 – 57723HelicalAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini578 – 59720Extracellular1 PublicationAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei598 – 61922HelicalAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini620 – 725106Cytoplasmic1 PublicationAdd
BLAST

GO - Cellular componenti

  • integral component of membrane Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • plasma membrane Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Impaired growth on media with no added iron. No response to glycine betaine in chilling assays.1 Publication

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi384 – 3841T → M in frd1-3; loss of induced ferric-chelate reductase activity. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 725725Ferric reduction oxidase 2PRO_0000413200Add
BLAST

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP92949.
PRIDEiP92949.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP92949.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in the epidermal cells of the roots. High expression in lateral roots and root hairs. Detected in leaves, stems, siliques and in flowers in anthers and styles.5 Publications

Inductioni

Circadian-regulation. Up-regulated in roots by iron deficiency, carbon monoxide and by treatment with glycine betaine. Down-regulated by zinc, cadmium and cytokinin. Not regulated by copper.7 Publications

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi24646. 1 interaction.
STRINGi3702.AT1G01580.1.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP92949.
SMRiP92949. Positions 334-497.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Domaini183 – 303121Ferric oxidoreductaseAdd
BLAST
Domaini332 – 437106FAD-binding FR-typePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Compositional biasi285 – 33046Phe-richAdd
BLAST
Compositional biasi568 – 60942Ile-richAdd
BLAST

Domaini

The C-terminus is probably located inside the membrane.1 Publication

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the ferric reductase (FRE) family.Curated
Contains 1 FAD-binding FR-type domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Contains 1 ferric oxidoreductase domain.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0039. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XNZY. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000006154.
InParanoidiP92949.
OMAiRMFELFY.
OrthoDBiEOG093603NP.
PhylomeDBiP92949.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR013112. FAD-bd_8.
IPR017927. Fd_Rdtase_FAD-bd.
IPR013130. Fe3_Rdtase_TM_dom.
IPR013121. Fe_red_NAD-bd_6.
IPR017938. Riboflavin_synthase-like_b-brl.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF08022. FAD_binding_8. 1 hit.
PF01794. Ferric_reduct. 1 hit.
PF08030. NAD_binding_6. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF63380. SSF63380. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS51384. FAD_FR. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P92949-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MEIEKSNNGG SNPSAGEEFK DMIKGVTKFL MMVIFLGTIM LWIMMPTLTY
60 70 80 90 100
RTKWLPHLRI KFGTSTYFGA TGTTLFMYMF PMMVVACLGC VYLHFKNRKS
110 120 130 140 150
PHHIDRETKG GVWSKLRKPM LVKGPLGIVS VTEITFLAMF VALLLWCFIT
160 170 180 190 200
YLRNSFATIT PKSAAAHDES LWQAKLESAA LRLGLIGNIC LAFLFLPVAR
210 220 230 240 250
GSSLLPAMGL TSESSIKYHI WLGHMVMALF TVHGLCYIIY WASMHEISQM
260 270 280 290 300
IMWDTKGVSN LAGEIALAAG LVMWATTYPK IRRRFFEVFF YTHYLYIVFM
310 320 330 340 350
LFFVLHVGIS FSFIALPGFY IFLVDRFLRF LQSRENVRLL AARILPSDTM
360 370 380 390 400
ELTFSKNSKL VYSPTSIMFV NIPSISKLQW HPFTITSSSK LEPEKLSIVI
410 420 430 440 450
KKEGKWSTKL HQRLSSSDQI DRLAVSVEGP YGPASADFLR HEALVMVCGG
460 470 480 490 500
SGITPFISVI RDLIATSQKE TCKIPKITLI CAFKKSSEIS MLDLVLPLSG
510 520 530 540 550
LETELSSDIN IKIEAFITRD NDAGDEAKAG KIKTLWFKPS LSDQSISSIL
560 570 580 590 600
GPNSWLWLGA ILASSFLIFM IIIGIITRYY IYPIDHNTNK IYSLTSKTII
610 620 630 640 650
YILVISVSIM ATCSAAMLWN KKKYGKVESK QVQNVDRPSP TSSPTSSWGY
660 670 680 690 700
NSLREIESTP QESLVQRTNL HFGERPNLKK LLLDVEGSSV GVLVCGPKKM
710 720
RQKVAEICSS GLAENLHFES ISFSW
Length:725
Mass (Da):81,501
Last modified:May 1, 1999 - v2
Checksum:i9589ABA88DD79512
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAF81316 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous gene model prediction. Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
Y09581 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA70770.1.
AY302057 mRNA. Translation: AAP51420.1.
AC061957 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF81316.1. Sequence problems.
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE27308.1.
PIRiE86146.
RefSeqiNP_171664.1. NM_100040.2.
UniGeneiAt.42640.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT1G01580.1; AT1G01580.1; AT1G01580.
GeneIDi839411.
GrameneiAT1G01580.1; AT1G01580.1; AT1G01580.
KEGGiath:AT1G01580.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
Y09581 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA70770.1.
AY302057 mRNA. Translation: AAP51420.1.
AC061957 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF81316.1. Sequence problems.
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE27308.1.
PIRiE86146.
RefSeqiNP_171664.1. NM_100040.2.
UniGeneiAt.42640.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP92949.
SMRiP92949. Positions 334-497.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi24646. 1 interaction.
STRINGi3702.AT1G01580.1.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP92949.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP92949.
PRIDEiP92949.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT1G01580.1; AT1G01580.1; AT1G01580.
GeneIDi839411.
GrameneiAT1G01580.1; AT1G01580.1; AT1G01580.
KEGGiath:AT1G01580.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT1G01580.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0039. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XNZY. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000006154.
InParanoidiP92949.
OMAiRMFELFY.
OrthoDBiEOG093603NP.
PhylomeDBiP92949.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT1G01580-MONOMER.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiP92949.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR013112. FAD-bd_8.
IPR017927. Fd_Rdtase_FAD-bd.
IPR013130. Fe3_Rdtase_TM_dom.
IPR013121. Fe_red_NAD-bd_6.
IPR017938. Riboflavin_synthase-like_b-brl.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF08022. FAD_binding_8. 1 hit.
PF01794. Ferric_reduct. 1 hit.
PF08030. NAD_binding_6. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF63380. SSF63380. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS51384. FAD_FR. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiFRO2_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P92949
Secondary accession number(s): Q9LMM3
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 19, 2011
Last sequence update: May 1, 1999
Last modified: September 7, 2016
This is version 111 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

Post-transcriptionally regulated by iron. Coordinately regulated with the iron transport protein IRT1.

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.