P70618 (MK14_RAT) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Last modified November 13, 2013. Version 123. History...
Names and origin
|Protein names||Recommended name:|
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14
Short name=MAP kinase 14
Short name=MAPK 14
Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 alpha
Short name=MAP kinase p38 alpha
|Organism||Rattus norvegicus (Rat) [Reference proteome]|
|Taxonomic identifier||10116 [NCBI]|
|Taxonomic lineage||Eukaryota › Metazoa › Chordata › Craniata › Vertebrata › Euteleostomi › Mammalia › Eutheria › Euarchontoglires › Glires › Rodentia › Sciurognathi › Muroidea › Muridae › Murinae › Rattus|
|Sequence length||360 AA.|
|Sequence processing||The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.|
|Protein existence||Evidence at transcript level|
General annotation (Comments)
Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK14 is one of the four p38 MAPKs which play an important role in the cascades of cellular responses evoked by extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress leading to direct activation of transcription factors. Accordingly, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate a broad range of proteins and it has been estimated that they may have approximately 200 to 300 substrates each. Some of the targets are downstream kinases which are activated through phosphorylation and further phosphorylate additional targets. RPS6KA5/MSK1 and RPS6KA4/MSK2 can directly phosphorylate and activate transcription factors such as CREB1, ATF1, the NF-kappa-B isoform RELA/NFKB3, STAT1 and STAT3, but can also phosphorylate histone H3 and the nucleosomal protein HMGN1. RPS6KA5/MSK1 and RPS6KA4/MSK2 play important roles in the rapid induction of immediate-early genes in response to stress or mitogenic stimuli, either by inducing chromatin remodeling or by recruiting the transcription machinery. On the other hand, two other kinase targets, MAPKAPK2/MK2 and MAPKAPK3/MK3, participate in the control of gene expression mostly at the post-transcriptional level, by phosphorylating ZFP36 (tristetraprolin) and ELAVL1, and by regulating EEF2K, which is important for the elongation of mRNA during translation. MKNK1/MNK1 and MKNK2/MNK2, two other kinases activated by p38 MAPKs, regulate protein synthesis by phosphorylating the initiation factor EIF4E2. MAPK14 interacts also with casein kinase II, leading to its activation through autophosphorylation and further phosphorylation of TP53/p53. In the cytoplasm, the p38 MAPK pathway is an important regulator of protein turnover. For example, CFLAR is an inhibitor of TNF-induced apoptosis whose proteasome-mediated degradation is regulated by p38 MAPK phosphorylation. In a similar way, MAPK14 phosphorylates the ubiquitin ligase SIAH2, regulating its activity towards EGLN3. MAPK14 may also inhibit the lysosomal degradation pathway of autophagy by interfering with the intracellular trafficking of the transmembrane protein ATG9. Another function of MAPK14 is to regulate the endocytosis of membrane receptors by different mechanisms that impinge on the small GTPase RAB5A. In addition, clathrin-mediated EGFR internalization induced by inflammatory cytokines and UV irradiation depends on MAPK14-mediated phosphorylation of EGFR itself as well as of RAB5A effectors. Ectodomain shedding of transmembrane proteins is regulated by p38 MAPKs as well. In response to inflammatory stimuli, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate the membrane-associated metalloprotease ADAM17. Such phosphorylation is required for ADAM17-mediated ectodomain shedding of TGF-alpha family ligands, which results in the activation of EGFR signaling and cell proliferation. Another p38 MAPK substrate is FGFR1. FGFR1 can be translocated from the extracellular space into the cytosol and nucleus of target cells, and regulates processes such as rRNA synthesis and cell growth. FGFR1 translocation requires p38 MAPK activation. In the nucleus, many transcription factors are phosphorylated and activated by p38 MAPKs in response to different stimuli. Classical examples include ATF1, ATF2, ATF6, ELK1, PTPRH, DDIT3, TP53/p53 and MEF2C and MEF2A. The p38 MAPKs are emerging as important modulators of gene expression by regulating chromatin modifiers and remodelers. The promoters of several genes involved in the inflammatory response, such as IL6, IL8 and IL12B, display a p38 MAPK-dependent enrichment of histone H3 phosphorylation on 'Ser-10' (H3S10ph) in LPS-stimulated myeloid cells. This phosphorylation enhances the accessibility of the cryptic NF-kappa-B-binding sites marking promoters for increased NF-kappa-B recruitment. Phosphorylates CDC25B and CDC25C which is required for binding to 14-3-3 proteins and leads to initiation of a G2 delay after ultraviolet radiation. Phosphorylates TIAR following DNA damage, releasing TIAR from GADD45A mRNA and preventing mRNA degradation. The p38 MAPKs may also have kinase-independent roles, which are thought to be due to the binding to targets in the absence of phosphorylation. Protein O-Glc-N-acylation catalyzed by the OGT is regulated by MAPK14, and, although OGT does not seem to be phosphorylated by MAPK14, their interaction increases upon MAPK14 activation induced by glucose deprivation. This interaction may regulate OGT activity by recruiting it to specific targets such as neurofilament H, stimulating its O-Glc-N-acylation. Required in mid-fetal development for the growth of embryo-derived blood vessels in the labyrinth layer of the placenta. Also plays an essential role in developmental and stress-induced erythropoiesis, through regulation of EPO gene expression. Phosphorylates S100A9 at 'Thr-113' By similarity.
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
Magnesium By similarity.
Activated by cell stresses such as DNA damage, heat shock, osmotic shock, anisomycin and sodium arsenite, as well as pro-inflammatory stimuli such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin-1. Activation occurs through dual phosphorylation of Thr-180 and Tyr-182 by either of two dual specificity kinases, MAP2K3/MKK3 or MAP2K6/MKK6, and potentially also MAP2K4/MKK4, as well as by TAB1-mediated autophosphorylation. MAPK14 phosphorylated on both Thr-180 and Tyr-182 is 10-20-fold more active than MAPK14 phosphorylated only on Thr-180, whereas MAPK14 phosphorylated on Tyr-182 alone is inactive. whereas Thr-180 is necessary for catalysis, Tyr-182 may be required for auto-activation and substrate recognition. Phosphorylated at Tyr-323 by ZAP70 in an alternative activation pathway in response to TCR signaling in T-cells. This alternative pathway is inhibited by GADD45A. Inhibited by dual specificity phosphatases, such as DUSP1, DUSP10, and DUSP16. Specifically inhibited by the binding of pyridinyl-imidazole compounds, which are cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs (CSAID). SB203580 is an inhibitor of MAPK14 By similarity.
Binds to a kinase interaction motif within the protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTPRR By similarity. This interaction retains MAPK14 in the cytoplasm and prevents nuclear accumulation By similarity. Interacts with SPAG9 and GADD45A, CDC25B, CDC25C, DUSP1, DUSP10, DUSP16, NP60, SUPT20H and TAB1 By similarity. Interacts with casein kinase II subunits CSNK2A1 and CSNK2B By similarity.
The TXY motif contains the threonine and tyrosine residues whose phosphorylation activates the MAP kinases.
Dually phosphorylated on Thr-180 and Tyr-182 by the MAP2Ks MAP2K3/MKK3, MAP2K4/MKK4 and MAP2K6/MKK6 in response to inflammatory cytokines, environmental stress or growth factors, which activates the enzyme. Dual phosphorylation can also be mediated by TAB1-mediated autophosphorylation. TCR engagement in T-cells also leads to Tyr-323 phosphorylation by ZAP70. Dephosphorylated and inactivated by DUPS1, DUSP10 and DUSP16 By similarity.
Acetylated at Lys-53 and Lys-152 by KAT2B and EP300. Acetylation at Lys-53 increases the affinity for ATP and enhances kinase activity. Lys-53 and Lys-152 are deacetylated by HDAC3 By similarity.
Ubiquitinated. Ubiquitination leads to degradation by the proteasome pathway By similarity.
Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
|This entry describes 2 isoforms produced by alternative splicing. [Align] [Select]|
|Isoform 1 (identifier: P70618-1) |
This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.
|Isoform 2 (identifier: P70618-2) |
The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
230-254: DQLKLILRLVGTPGAELLKKISSES → NQLQQIMRLTGTPPAYLINRMPSHE
Sequence annotation (Features)
|Feature key||Position(s)||Length||Description||Graphical view||Feature identifier|
|Initiator methionine||1||1||Removed By similarity|
|Chain||2 – 360||359||Mitogen-activated protein kinase 14||PRO_0000186294|
|Domain||24 – 308||285||Protein kinase|
|Nucleotide binding||30 – 38||9||ATP By similarity|
|Motif||180 – 182||3||TXY|
|Active site||150||1||Proton acceptor By similarity|
|Binding site||53||1||ATP By similarity|
Amino acid modifications
|Modified residue||2||1||N-acetylserine By similarity|
|Modified residue||2||1||Phosphoserine By similarity|
|Modified residue||16||1||Phosphothreonine By similarity|
|Modified residue||53||1||N6-acetyllysine By similarity|
|Modified residue||152||1||N6-acetyllysine By similarity|
|Modified residue||180||1||Phosphothreonine; by MAP2K3, MAP2K4, MAP2K6 and autocatalysis By similarity|
|Modified residue||182||1||Phosphotyrosine; by MAP2K3, MAP2K4, MAP2K6 and autocatalysis By similarity|
|Modified residue||323||1||Phosphotyrosine; by ZAP70 By similarity|
|Alternative sequence||230 – 254||25||DQLKL…ISSES → NQLQQIMRLTGTPPAYLINR MPSHE in isoform 2.||VSP_004847|
|Sequence conflict||59||1||F → V in AAB51285. Ref.2|
|Sequence conflict||61||1||S → P in AAB51285. Ref.2|
|Sequence conflict||68||1||T → S in AAB51285. Ref.2|
|Sequence conflict||321||1||E → D in AAB51285. Ref.2|
|Sequence conflict||321||1||E → D in AAK15541. Ref.3|
|Sequence conflict||332||1||F → L in AAB51285. Ref.2|
|Sequence conflict||332||1||F → L in AAK15541. Ref.3|
|Sequence conflict||359||1||E → D in AAB51285. Ref.2|
|Sequence conflict||359||1||E → D in AAK15541. Ref.3|
|||"Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) identifies prolactin stimulation of p38 MAP kinase gene expression in Nb2 T lymphoma cells: molecular cloning of rat p38 MAP kinase."|
Nemeth E., Bole-Feysot C., Tashima L.S.
J. Mol. Endocrinol. 20:151-156(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
|||Garcia G.E., Han J., Feng L.|
Submitted (APR-1997) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
|||Reick M.E., Goldsmith E.J.|
Submitted (FEB-2001) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 2).
|||"In the cellular garden of forking paths: how p38 MAPKs signal for downstream assistance."|
Shi Y., Gaestel M.
Biol. Chem. 383:1519-1536(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW ON FUNCTION.
|||"Mechanisms and functions of p38 MAPK signalling."|
Cuadrado A., Nebreda A.R.
Biochem. J. 429:403-417(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW ON ENZYME REGULATION, REVIEW ON FUNCTION.
|+||Additional computationally mapped references.|
|U73142 mRNA. Translation: AAC71059.1.|
U91847 mRNA. Translation: AAB51285.1.
AF346293 mRNA. Translation: AAK15541.1.
3D structure databases
|SMR||P70618. Positions 4-354. |
Protein-protein interaction databases
|IntAct||P70618. 1 interaction.|
Protocols and materials databases
Genome annotation databases
|UCSC||RGD:70496. rat. |
|RGD||70496. Mapk14. |
Enzyme and pathway databases
|Reactome||REACT_111984. Signal Transduction. |
Gene expression databases
Family and domain databases
|InterPro||IPR011009. Kinase-like_dom. |
|Pfam||PF00069. Pkinase. 1 hit. |
|PRINTS||PR01773. P38MAPKINASE. |
|SMART||SM00220. S_TKc. 1 hit. |
|SUPFAM||SSF56112. SSF56112. 1 hit. |
|PROSITE||PS01351. MAPK. 1 hit. |
PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit.
PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit.
PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. False negative.
|Accession||Primary (citable) accession number: P70618|
Secondary accession number(s): O08594, Q99MG4
|Entry status||Reviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)|
|Annotation program||Chordata Protein Annotation Program|
Index of protein domains and families