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Protein

Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase

Gene

Amacr

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Racemization of 2-methyl-branched fatty acid CoA esters. Responsible for the conversion of pristanoyl-CoA and C27-bile acyl-CoAs to their (S)-stereoisomers. Has a role in drug metabolism as well as probably in lipid metabolism. The 2-arylpropionic acid (2-APA's) derivatives, including ibuprofen, are the most widely used anti-inflammatory analgesic cyclooxygenase inhibitors. The (-)-R-enantiomer, which is inactive in terms of cyclooxygenase inhibition, is epimerized in vivo via this enzyme to the cyclooxygenase-inhibiting (+)-S-enantiomer.

Catalytic activityi

(2S)-2-methylacyl-CoA = (2R)-2-methylacyl-CoA.

Pathwayi: bile acid biosynthesis

This protein is involved in the pathway bile acid biosynthesis, which is part of Lipid metabolism.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway bile acid biosynthesis and in Lipid metabolism.

Pathwayi: fatty acid metabolism

This protein is involved in the pathway fatty acid metabolism, which is part of Lipid metabolism.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway fatty acid metabolism and in Lipid metabolism.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Active sitei152 – 1521NucleophileBy similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  • alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase activity Source: RGD

GO - Biological processi

  • bile acid biosynthetic process Source: RGD
  • bile acid metabolic process Source: RGD
  • fatty acid metabolic process Source: UniProtKB-UniPathway
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Isomerase

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:MONOMER-14326.
BRENDAi5.1.99.4. 5301.
SABIO-RKP70473.
UniPathwayiUPA00199.
UPA00221.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (EC:5.1.99.4)
Alternative name(s):
2-arylpropionyl-CoA epimerase
2-methylacyl-CoA racemase
Gene namesi
Name:Amacr
OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaSciurognathiMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
Proteomesi
  • UP000002494 Componenti: Unplaced

Organism-specific databases

RGDi3048. Amacr.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • mitochondrion Source: RGD
  • peroxisome Source: HGNC
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Mitochondrion, Peroxisome

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Initiator methionineiRemovedBy similarity
Chaini2 – 382381Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemasePRO_0000194707Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei58 – 581N6-acetyllysineBy similarity
Modified residuei87 – 871N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity
Modified residuei87 – 871N6-succinyllysine; alternateBy similarity
Modified residuei101 – 1011N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity
Modified residuei101 – 1011N6-succinyllysine; alternateBy similarity
Modified residuei118 – 1181N6-acetyllysineBy similarity
Modified residuei268 – 2681N6-succinyllysineBy similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP70473.
PRIDEiP70473.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP70473.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Monomer.

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000040100.

Chemistry

BindingDBiP70473.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP70473.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Motifi380 – 3823Microbody targeting signalBy similarity

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the CaiB/BaiF CoA-transferase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3957. Eukaryota.
COG1804. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000219744.
HOVERGENiHBG060891.
InParanoidiP70473.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.50.10540. 2 hits.
InterProiIPR003673. CoA-Trfase_fam_III.
IPR023606. CoA-Trfase_III_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF02515. CoA_transf_3. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF89796. SSF89796. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P70473-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MALRGVRVLE LAGLAPGPFC GMILADFGAE VVLVDRLGSV NHPSHLARGK
60 70 80 90 100
RSLALDLKRS PGAAVLRRMC ARADVLLEPF RCGVMEKLQL GPETLRQDNP
110 120 130 140 150
KLIYARLSGF GQSGIFSKVA GHDINYVALS GVLSKIGRSG ENPYPPLNLL
160 170 180 190 200
ADFGGGGLMC TLGILLALFE RTRSGLGQVI DANMVEGTAY LSTFLWKTQA
210 220 230 240 250
MGLWAQPRGQ NLLDGGAPFY TTYKTADGEF MAVGAIEPQF YTLLLKGLGL
260 270 280 290 300
ESEELPSQMS IEDWPEMKKK FADVFARKTK AEWCQIFDGT DACVTPVLTL
310 320 330 340 350
EEALHHQHNR ERGSFITDEE QHACPRPAPQ LSRTPAVPSA KRDPSVGEHT
360 370 380
VEVLKDYGFS QEEIHQLHSD RIIESNKLKA NL
Length:382
Mass (Da):41,828
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v3
Checksum:iB6FC51DB167F4767
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAB72145.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Curated
The sequence CAA69358.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti70 – 712CA → FS in CAA69358 (PubMed:9106621).Curated
Sequence conflicti80 – 801F → L in CAA69358 (PubMed:9106621).Curated
Sequence conflicti166 – 1661L → V in CAA69358 (PubMed:9106621).Curated
Sequence conflicti324 – 3241C → F in CAA69358 (PubMed:9106621).Curated
Sequence conflicti328 – 3281A → S in CAA69358 (PubMed:9106621).Curated
Sequence conflicti336 – 3361A → S in CAA69358 (PubMed:9106621).Curated
Sequence conflicti340 – 3412AK → SQ in CAA69358 (PubMed:9106621).Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
Y08172 mRNA. Translation: CAA69358.1. Different initiation.
U89905 mRNA. Translation: AAB72145.1. Different initiation.
UniGeneiRn.2590.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
Y08172 mRNA. Translation: CAA69358.1. Different initiation.
U89905 mRNA. Translation: AAB72145.1. Different initiation.
UniGeneiRn.2590.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP70473.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000040100.

Chemistry

BindingDBiP70473.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP70473.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP70473.
PRIDEiP70473.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Organism-specific databases

RGDi3048. Amacr.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3957. Eukaryota.
COG1804. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000219744.
HOVERGENiHBG060891.
InParanoidiP70473.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00199.
UPA00221.
BioCyciMetaCyc:MONOMER-14326.
BRENDAi5.1.99.4. 5301.
SABIO-RKP70473.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiP70473.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.50.10540. 2 hits.
InterProiIPR003673. CoA-Trfase_fam_III.
IPR023606. CoA-Trfase_III_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF02515. CoA_transf_3. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF89796. SSF89796. 1 hit.
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

  1. "Molecular cloning and expression of a 2-arylpropionyl-coenzyme A epimerase: a key enzyme in the inversion metabolism of ibuprofen."
    Reichel C., Brugger R., Bang H., Geisslinger G., Brune K.
    Mol. Pharmacol. 51:576-582(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 11-382.
    Strain: Sprague-Dawley.
    Tissue: Liver.
  2. "Molecular cloning of cDNA species for rat and mouse liver alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemases."
    Schmitz W., Helander H.M., Hiltunen J.K., Conzelmann E.
    Biochem. J. 326:883-889(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 3-382.
    Tissue: Liver.
  3. "In mouse alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, the same gene product is simultaneously located in mitochondria and peroxisomes."
    Kotti T.J., Savolainen K., Helander H.M., Yagi A., Novikov D.K., Kalkkinen N., Conzelmann E., Hiltunen J.K., Schmitz W.
    J. Biol. Chem. 275:20887-20895(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PARTIAL NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE.
  4. "2-arylpropionyl-CoA epimerase: partial peptide sequences and tissue localization."
    Reichel C., Bang H., Brune K., Geisslinger G., Menzel S.
    Biochem. Pharmacol. 50:1803-1806(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 103-117, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
    Tissue: Liver.
  5. "Purification and properties of an alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase from rat liver."
    Schmitz W., Fingerhut R., Conzelmann E.
    Eur. J. Biochem. 222:313-323(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: CHARACTERIZATION.
    Tissue: Liver.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiAMACR_RAT
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P70473
Secondary accession number(s): O09176
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1997
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: June 8, 2016
This is version 115 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.