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P69722

- VIF_HV112

UniProt

P69722 - VIF_HV112

Protein

Virion infectivity factor

Gene

vif

Organism
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate PCV12) (HIV-1)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 3 out of 5- Experimental evidence at transcript leveli
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    • History
      Entry version 62 (01 Oct 2014)
      Sequence version 1 (13 Aug 1987)
      Previous versions | rss
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    Functioni

    Counteracts the innate antiviral activity of APOBEC3G. Forms a complex with host APOBEC3G thus preventing the entry of this lethally hypermutating enzyme into progeny virions. Functions as an adapter molecule, recruiting APOBEC3G to the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery. Targets APOBEC3G for degradation through the assembly with elongin BC complex, CUL5 and RBX1. Binds viral RNA and affects the stability of viral nucleoprotein core. May play a role in viral morphology. Interacts with host ABCE1, which seems to be involved in lentiviruses capsid formation and displays RNase L inhibitor activity. This interaction may play a role in protecting viral RNA from damage during viral assembly. May interact with host SAT, which is a regulator of polyamine cell level. This interaction may be relevant since polyamines affect viral RNA properties By similarity.By similarity

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Sitei150 – 1512Cleavage in virion (by viral protease)By similarity

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. RNA binding Source: UniProtKB-KW

    GO - Biological processi

    1. viral life cycle Source: InterPro

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Host-virus interaction, Ubl conjugation pathway

    Keywords - Ligandi

    RNA-binding

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Virion infectivity factor
    Short name:
    Vif
    Alternative name(s):
    SOR protein
    Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
    Gene namesi
    Name:vif
    OrganismiHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate PCV12) (HIV-1)
    Taxonomic identifieri11679 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiVirusesRetro-transcribing virusesRetroviridaeOrthoretrovirinaeLentivirusPrimate lentivirus group
    Virus hostiHomo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]

    Subcellular locationi

    Host cytoplasm By similarity. Host cell membrane By similarity; Peripheral membrane protein By similarity; Cytoplasmic side By similarity. Virion By similarity
    Note: In the cytoplasm, seems to colocalize with intermediate filament vimentin. A fraction is associated with the cytoplasmic side of cellular membranes, presumably via the interaction with Pr55Gag precursor. Incorporated in virions at a ratio of approximately 7 to 20 molecules per virion By similarity.By similarity

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. host cell cytoplasm Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
    2. host cell plasma membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
    3. membrane Source: UniProtKB-KW
    4. virion Source: UniProtKB-SubCell

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Host cell membrane, Host cytoplasm, Host membrane, Membrane, Virion

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Keywords - Diseasei

    AIDS

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Chaini1 – 192192Virion infectivity factorBy similarityPRO_0000043023Add
    BLAST
    Chaini1 – 150150p17By similarityPRO_0000043024Add
    BLAST
    Chaini151 – 19242p7By similarityPRO_0000043025Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Modified residuei96 – 961Phosphothreonine; by host MAP4K1By similarity
    Modified residuei144 – 1441Phosphoserine; by hostBy similarity
    Modified residuei165 – 1651Phosphoserine; by host MAP4K1By similarity
    Modified residuei188 – 1881Phosphothreonine; by hostBy similarity

    Post-translational modificationi

    Processed in virion by the viral protease.By similarity
    Highly phosphorylated on serines and threonines residues. Thr-96 and Ser-165 are phosphorylated by the mitogen activated kinase MAP4K1. As the HIV-1 replication can be activated by stress and mitogens, these phosphorylations could be involved in this process. Ser-144 phosphorylation may inhibit elongin BC complex binding By similarity.By similarity
    Polyubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome in the presence of APOBEC3G.By similarity

    Keywords - PTMi

    Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

    Expressioni

    Inductioni

    Expressed late during infection in a Rev-dependent manner.

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Homomultimer; in vitro and presumably in vivo. Interacts with viral Pr55Gag precursor, human APOBEC3G, UBCE7IP1 isoform 3/ZIN, ABCE1 and possibly with SAT. Binds human HCK in vitro, but since this protein does not seem to be expressed in CD4+ cells, the significance of this interaction remains unclear. The interaction between Vif and APOBEC3G is species-specific, which may play a role in restricting the replication of HIV to humans. Forms an E3 ligase complex by interacting with human CUL5 and elongin BC complex (TCEB1 and TCEB2) By similarity.By similarity

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi1205539. 56 interactions.

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliP69722.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Region

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Regioni14 – 174Interaction with host APOBEC3F; F1-boxBy similarity
    Regioni40 – 445Interaction with host APOBEC3G; G-boxBy similarity
    Regioni54 – 7219Interaction with host APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G; FG-boxBy similarityAdd
    BLAST
    Regioni74 – 796Interaction with host APOBEC3F; F2-boxBy similarity
    Regioni75 – 11440RNA-bindingSequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Regioni151 – 16414MultimerizationBy similarityAdd
    BLAST
    Regioni171 – 1722Membrane associationBy similarity

    Motif

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Motifi108 – 13932HCCH motifBy similarityAdd
    BLAST
    Motifi144 – 15310BC-box-like motif

    Domaini

    The BC-like-box motif mediates the interaction with elongin BC complex.By similarity
    The HCCH motif (H-x(5)-C-x(18)-C-x(5)-H) mediates the interaction with CUL5.By similarity

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Family and domain databases

    InterProiIPR000475. Viral_infect.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00559. Vif. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PRINTSiPR00349. VIRIONINFFCT.

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    P69722-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

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    MENRWQVMIV WQVDRMRIRT WKSLVKHHMY VSGKARGWFY RHHYESPHPR    50
    ISSEVHIPLG DARLVITTYW GLHTGERDWH LGQGVSIEWR KKRYSTQVDP 100
    ELADQLIHLY YFDCFSDSAI RKALLGHIVS PRCEYQAGHN KVGSLQYLAL 150
    AALITPKKIK PPLPSVTKLT EDRWNKPQKT KGHRGSHTMN GH 192
    Length:192
    Mass (Da):22,513
    Last modified:August 13, 1987 - v1
    Checksum:iD22589F3955CBE40
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    M11840 Genomic RNA. Translation: AAA44997.1.
    PIRiA04002. ASLJS3.
    RefSeqiNP_057851.1. NC_001802.1.

    Genome annotation databases

    GeneIDi155459.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    M11840 Genomic RNA. Translation: AAA44997.1 .
    PIRi A04002. ASLJS3.
    RefSeqi NP_057851.1. NC_001802.1.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortali P69722.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi 1205539. 56 interactions.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Genome annotation databases

    GeneIDi 155459.

    Family and domain databases

    InterProi IPR000475. Viral_infect.
    [Graphical view ]
    Pfami PF00559. Vif. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    PRINTSi PR00349. VIRIONINFFCT.
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. "Three novel genes of human T-lymphotropic virus type III: immune reactivity of their products with sera from acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients."
      Arya S.K., Gallo R.C.
      Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83:2209-2213(1986) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC RNA].
    2. "The viral infectivity factor (Vif) of HIV-1 unveiled."
      Rose K.M., Marin M., Kozak S.L., Kabat D.
      Trends Mol. Med. 10:291-297(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: REVIEW.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiVIF_HV112
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P69722
    Secondary accession number(s): P03401
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
    Last sequence update: August 13, 1987
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 62 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programViral Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Miscellaneous

    Required for replication in 'nonpermissive' cells, including primary T-cells, macrophages and certain T-cell lines, but is dispensable for replication in 'permissive' cell lines, such as 293T cells. In nonpermissive cells, Vif-defective viruses can produce virions, but they fail to complete reverse transcription and cannot successfully infect new cells.
    Vif-defective viruses show catastrophic failure in reverse transcription due to APOBEC-induced mutations that initiate a DNA base repair pathway and compromise the structural integrity of the ssDNA. In the absence of Vif, the virion is morphologically abnormal.
    HIV-1 lineages are divided in three main groups, M (for Major), O (for Outlier), and N (for New, or Non-M, Non-O). The vast majority of strains found worldwide belong to the group M. Group O seems to be endemic to and largely confined to Cameroon and neighboring countries in West Central Africa, where these viruses represent a small minority of HIV-1 strains. The group N is represented by a limited number of isolates from Cameroonian persons. The group M is further subdivided in 9 clades or subtypes (A to D, F to H, J and K).

    Documents

    1. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3