P69721 (VIF_HV1BR) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Last modified February 19, 2014. Version 62. History...
Names and origin
|Protein names||Recommended name:|
Virion infectivity factor
|Organism||Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BRU/LAI) (HIV-1) [Complete proteome]|
|Taxonomic identifier||11686 [NCBI]|
|Taxonomic lineage||Viruses › Retro-transcribing viruses › Retroviridae › Orthoretrovirinae › Lentivirus › Primate lentivirus group ›|
|Virus host||Homo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]|
|Sequence length||192 AA.|
|Sequence processing||The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.|
|Protein existence||Evidence at protein level|
General annotation (Comments)
Counteracts the innate antiviral activity of human APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G. Forms a complex with host APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G thus preventing the entry of these lethally hypermutating enzymes into progeny virions. Recruits an active E3 ubiquitin ligase complex composed of elongin BC, CUL5, and RBX2 to induce polyubiquitination of APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F. In turn, they are directed to the 26S proteasome for degradation. Vif interaction with APOBEC3G also blocks its cytidine deaminase activity in a proteasome-independent manner, suggesting a dual inhibitory mechanism. May interact directly with APOBEC3G mRNA in order to inhibit its translation. Seems to play a role in viral morphology by affecting the stability of the viral nucleoprotein core. Finally, Vif also contributes to the G2 cell cycle arrest observed in HIV infected cells By similarity.
Homomultimer; in vitro and presumably in vivo. Interacts with viral RNA and Pr55Gag precursor; these interactions mediate Vif incorporation into the virion. Interacts with the viral reverse transcriptase. Interacts with human APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G. Interacts with host UBCE7IP1 isoform 3/ZINand possibly with SAT. Interacts with host tyrosine kinases HCK and FYN; these interactions may decrease level of phosphorylated APOBEC3G incorporation into virions. Interacts with host ABCE1; this interaction may play a role in protecting viral RNA from damage during viral assembly. Forms an E3 ligase complex by interacting with human CUL5 and elongin BC complex (TCEB1 and TCEB2). Interacts with host MDM2; this interaction targets Vif for degradation by the proteasome By similarity. Ref.2
Host cytoplasm By similarity. Host cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side By similarity. Virion By similarity. Note: In the cytoplasm, seems to colocalize with intermediate filament vimentin. A fraction is associated with the cytoplasmic side of cellular membranes, presumably via the interaction with Pr55Gag precursor. Incorporated in virions at a ratio of approximately 7 to 20 molecules per virion By similarity.
Expressed late during infection in a Rev-dependent manner.
The BC-like-box motif mediates the interaction with elongin BC complex By similarity.
The HCCH motif (H-x(5)-C-x(18)-C-x(5)-H) mediates the interaction with CUL5 By similarity.
Processed in virion by the viral protease By similarity.
Highly phosphorylated on serines and threonines residues. Thr-96 and Ser-165 are phosphorylated by the mitogen activated kinase MAP4K1. As the HIV-1 replication can be activated by stress and mitogens, these phosphorylations could be involved in this process. Ser-144 phosphorylation may inhibit elongin BC complex binding By similarity.
Polyubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome in the presence of APOBEC3G By similarity.
Required for replication in 'nonpermissive' cells, including primary T-cells, macrophages and certain T-cell lines, but is dispensable for replication in 'permissive' cell lines, such as 293T cells. In nonpermissive cells, Vif-defective viruses can produce virions, but they fail to complete reverse transcription and cannot successfully infect new cells.
Vif-defective viruses show catastrophic failure in reverse transcription due to APOBEC-induced mutations that initiate a DNA base repair pathway and compromise the structural integrity of the ssDNA. In the absence of Vif, the virion is morphologically abnormal.
HIV-1 lineages are divided in three main groups, M (for Major), O (for Outlier), and N (for New, or Non-M, Non-O). The vast majority of strains found worldwide belong to the group M. Group O seems to be endemic to and largely confined to Cameroon and neighboring countries in West Central Africa, where these viruses represent a small minority of HIV-1 strains. The group N is represented by a limited number of isolates from Cameroonian persons. The group M is further subdivided in 9 clades or subtypes (A to D, F to H, J and K).
Belongs to the primate lentivirus group Vif protein family.
|Biological process||Host-virus interaction|
Ubl conjugation pathway
|Cellular component||Host cell membrane|
|Technical term||Complete proteome|
|Gene Ontology (GO)|
|Biological_process||viral life cycle|
Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: InterPro
|Cellular_component||host cell cytoplasm|
Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-SubCellhost cell plasma membrane
Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-SubCellmembrane
Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KWvirion
Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW
|Complete GO annotation...|
Sequence annotation (Features)
|Feature key||Position(s)||Length||Description||Graphical view||Feature identifier|
|Chain||1 – 192||192||Virion infectivity factor By similarity||PRO_0000043029|
|Chain||1 – 150||150||p17 By similarity||PRO_0000043030|
|Chain||151 – 192||42||p7 By similarity||PRO_0000043031|
|Region||14 – 17||4||Interaction with host APOBEC3F; F1-box By similarity|
|Region||40 – 44||5||Interaction with host APOBEC3G; G-box By similarity|
|Region||54 – 72||19||Interaction with host APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G; FG-box By similarity|
|Region||74 – 79||6||Interaction with host APOBEC3F; F2-box By similarity|
|Region||75 – 114||40||RNA-binding Potential|
|Region||151 – 164||14||Multimerization By similarity|
|Region||171 – 172||2||Membrane association By similarity|
|Motif||108 – 139||32||HCCH motif By similarity|
|Motif||144 – 153||10||BC-box-like motif|
|Site||150 – 151||2||Cleavage in virion (by viral protease) By similarity|
Amino acid modifications
|Modified residue||96||1||Phosphothreonine; by host MAP4K1 By similarity|
|Modified residue||144||1||Phosphoserine; by host By similarity|
|Modified residue||165||1||Phosphoserine; by host MAP4K1 By similarity|
|Modified residue||188||1||Phosphothreonine; by host By similarity|
|||"Nucleotide sequence of the AIDS virus, LAV."|
Wain-Hobson S., Sonigo P., Danos O., Cole S., Alizon M.
Cell 40:9-17(1985) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC RNA].
|||"Identification of a host protein essential for assembly of immature HIV-1 capsids."|
Zimmerman C., Klein K.C., Kiser P.K., Singh A.R., Firestein B.L., Riba S.C., Lingappa J.R.
Nature 415:88-92(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH HUMAN ABCE1.
|||"The viral infectivity factor (Vif) of HIV-1 unveiled."|
Rose K.M., Marin M., Kozak S.L., Kabat D.
Trends Mol. Med. 10:291-297(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
|+||Additional computationally mapped references.|
|K02013 Genomic RNA. Translation: AAB59748.1.|
A04321 Unassigned RNA. Translation: CAA00351.1.
|RefSeq||NP_057851.1. NC_001802.1. |
3D structure databases
Protein-protein interaction databases
|BioGrid||1205539. 56 interactions.|
Protocols and materials databases
Genome annotation databases
Family and domain databases
|InterPro||IPR000475. Viral_infect. |
|Pfam||PF00559. Vif. 1 hit. |
|PRINTS||PR00349. VIRIONINFFCT. |
|Accession||Primary (citable) accession number: P69721|
Secondary accession number(s): P03401
|Entry status||Reviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)|
|Annotation program||Viral Protein Annotation Program|
Index of protein domains and families