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Protein

Protein X

Gene

X

Organism
Hepatitis B virus genotype A2 subtype adw2 (strain Rutter 1979) (HBV-A)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 4 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Multifunctional protein that may modulate protein degradation pathways, apoptosis, transcription, signal transduction, cell cycle progress, and genetic stability by directly or indirectly interacting with hosts factors. Does not seem to be essential for HBV infection. May be directly involved in development of cirrhosis and liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma). Most of cytosolic activities involve modulation of cytosolic calcium. The effect on apoptosis is controversial depending on the cell types in which the studies have been conducted. By binding to human DDB1, may affect cell viability and stimulate genome replication. May induce apoptosis by localizing in mitochondria and causing loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. May also modulate apoptosis by binding human CFLAR, a key regulator of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC). Moderately stimulates transcription of many different viral and cellular transcription elements. Promoters and enhancers stimulated by HBx contain DNA binding sites for NF-kappa-B, AP-1, AP-2, c-EBP, ATF/CREB, or the calcium-activated factor NF-AT. May bind bZIP transcription factors like CREB1.2 Publications

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionActivator
Biological processActivation of host NF-kappa-B by virus, Apoptosis, Host G2/M cell cycle arrest by virus, Host-virus interaction, Modulation of host cell cycle by virus, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein X
Alternative name(s):
HBx
Peptide X
pX
Gene namesi
Name:X
OrganismiHepatitis B virus genotype A2 subtype adw2 (strain Rutter 1979) (HBV-A)
Taxonomic identifieri480116 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiVirusesRetro-transcribing virusesHepadnaviridaeOrthohepadnavirus
Virus hostiHomo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]
Pan troglodytes (Chimpanzee) [TaxID: 9598]
Proteomesi
  • UP000008766 Componenti: Genome

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Host cytoplasm, Host mitochondrion, Host nucleus

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00002223591 – 154Protein XAdd BLAST154

Post-translational modificationi

A fraction may be phosphorylated in insect cells and HepG2 cells, a human hepatoblastoma cell line. Phosphorylated in vitro by host protein kinase C or mitogen-activated protein kinase. N-acetylated in insect cells.1 Publication

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

May form homodimer. May interact with human CEBPA, CFLAR, CREB1, DDB1, E4F1, HBXIP, HSPD1/HSP60, NFKBIA, POLR2E and SMAD4 (By similarity).By similarity

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
SIAH1Q8IUQ44EBI-7088789,EBI-747107From Homo sapiens.

Protein-protein interaction databases

IntActiP69713. 4 interactors.
MINTiMINT-8202988.

Structurei

3D structure databases

SMRiP69713.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni68 – 117Mitochondrial targeting sequenceAdd BLAST50

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the orthohepadnavirus protein X family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

OrthoDBiVOG090001A7.

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000236. Transactivation_prot_X.
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00739. X. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P69713-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MAARLYCQLD PSRDVLCLRP VGAESRGRPL SGPLGTLSSP SPSAVPADHG
60 70 80 90 100
AHLSLRGLPV CAFSSAGPCA LRFTSARCME TTVNAHQILP KVLHKRTLGL
110 120 130 140 150
PAMSTTDLEA YFKDCVFKDW EELGEEIRLK VFVLGGCRHK LVCAPAPCNF

FTSA
Length:154
Mass (Da):16,583
Last modified:July 21, 1986 - v1
Checksum:i7F2AE32A4F025670
GO

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural varianti12S → A in expression vector pCMVX. 1
Natural varianti109E → A in expression vector pCMVX. 1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X02763 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA26540.1.
PIRiA31289. QQVLAW.
S47408.

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

HepSEQ

Hepatitis virus B database

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X02763 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA26540.1.
PIRiA31289. QQVLAW.
S47408.

3D structure databases

SMRiP69713.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

IntActiP69713. 4 interactors.
MINTiMINT-8202988.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

OrthoDBiVOG090001A7.

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000236. Transactivation_prot_X.
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00739. X. 1 hit.
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiX_HBVA3
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P69713
Secondary accession number(s): P03166, P12935
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: July 21, 1986
Last modified: May 10, 2017
This is version 53 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programViral Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Caution

Transcriptional activities should be taken with a grain of salt. As of 2007, all studies demonstrating in vivo interaction between protein X and transcriptional components were performed with significant overexpression of both proteins and in the absence of viral infection.Curated

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.