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Protein

Histone H3.1

Gene
N/A
Organism
Bos taurus (Bovine)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.

Miscellaneous

This histone is only present in mammals.

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionDNA-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-BTA-1266695. Interleukin-7 signaling.
R-BTA-171306. Packaging Of Telomere Ends.
R-BTA-201722. Formation of the beta-catenin:TCF transactivating complex.
R-BTA-212300. PRC2 methylates histones and DNA.
R-BTA-2299718. Condensation of Prophase Chromosomes.
R-BTA-2559580. Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence.
R-BTA-2559582. Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP).
R-BTA-2559586. DNA Damage/Telomere Stress Induced Senescence.
R-BTA-3214815. HDACs deacetylate histones.
R-BTA-3214841. PKMTs methylate histone lysines.
R-BTA-3214842. HDMs demethylate histones.
R-BTA-3214847. HATs acetylate histones.
R-BTA-3214858. RMTs methylate histone arginines.
R-BTA-3247509. Chromatin modifying enzymes.
R-BTA-427359. SIRT1 negatively regulates rRNA expression.
R-BTA-427413. NoRC negatively regulates rRNA expression.
R-BTA-5250924. B-WICH complex positively regulates rRNA expression.
R-BTA-5578749. Transcriptional regulation by small RNAs.
R-BTA-5625886. Activated PKN1 stimulates transcription of AR (androgen receptor) regulated genes KLK2 and KLK3.
R-BTA-5693565. Recruitment and ATM-mediated phosphorylation of repair and signaling proteins at DNA double strand breaks.
R-BTA-5693571. Nonhomologous End-Joining (NHEJ).
R-BTA-69473. G2/M DNA damage checkpoint.
R-BTA-73728. RNA Polymerase I Promoter Opening.
R-BTA-73777. RNA Polymerase I Chain Elongation.
R-BTA-8936459. RUNX1 regulates genes involved in megakaryocyte differentiation and platelet function.
R-BTA-8939236. RUNX1 regulates transcription of genes involved in differentiation of HSCs.
R-BTA-983231. Factors involved in megakaryocyte development and platelet production.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Histone H3.1
OrganismiBos taurus (Bovine)
Taxonomic identifieri9913 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaRuminantiaPecoraBovidaeBovinaeBos
Proteomesi
  • UP000009136 Componenti: Chromosome 23

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chromosome, Nucleosome core, Nucleus

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Initiator methionineiRemoved2 Publications
ChainiPRO_00002212562 – 136Histone H3.1Add BLAST135

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei3Asymmetric dimethylarginine; by PRMT6; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei3Citrulline; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei4PhosphothreonineBy similarity1
Modified residuei5Allysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei5N6,N6,N6-trimethyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei5N6,N6-dimethyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei5N6-(2-hydroxyisobutyryl)lysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei5N6-(beta-hydroxybutyryl)lysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei5N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei5N6-crotonyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei5N6-methyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei7Phosphothreonine; by PKCBy similarity1
Modified residuei9Citrulline; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei9Symmetric dimethylarginine; by PRMT5; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei10N6,N6,N6-trimethyllysine; alternate1 Publication1
Modified residuei10N6,N6-dimethyllysine; alternate1 Publication1
Modified residuei10N6-(2-hydroxyisobutyryl)lysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei10N6-(beta-hydroxybutyryl)lysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei10N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei10N6-crotonyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei10N6-methyllysine; alternate1 Publication1
Modified residuei11ADP-ribosylserine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei11Phosphoserine; alternate; by AURKB, AURKC, RPS6KA3, RPS6KA4 and RPS6KA51 Publication1
Modified residuei12Phosphothreonine; by PKC and CHEK1By similarity1
Modified residuei15N6-(2-hydroxyisobutyryl)lysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei15N6-(beta-hydroxybutyryl)lysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei15N6-acetyllysine; alternate1 Publication1
Modified residuei18Asymmetric dimethylarginine; by CARM1; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei18Citrulline; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei19N6-(2-hydroxyisobutyryl)lysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei19N6-(beta-hydroxybutyryl)lysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei19N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei19N6-butyryllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei19N6-crotonyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei19N6-methyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei24N6-(2-hydroxyisobutyryl)lysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei24N6-(beta-hydroxybutyryl)lysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei24N6-acetyllysine; alternate1 Publication1
Modified residuei24N6-butyryllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei24N6-crotonyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei24N6-methyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei27CitrullineBy similarity1
Modified residuei28N6,N6,N6-trimethyllysine; alternate1 Publication1
Modified residuei28N6,N6-dimethyllysine; alternate1 Publication1
Modified residuei28N6-(2-hydroxyisobutyryl)lysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei28N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei28N6-crotonyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei28N6-methyllysine; alternate1 Publication1
Modified residuei29ADP-ribosylserine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei29Phosphoserine; alternate; by AURKB, AURKC and RPS6KA51 Publication1
Modified residuei37N6,N6,N6-trimethyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei37N6,N6-dimethyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei37N6-(2-hydroxyisobutyryl)lysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei37N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei37N6-methyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei38N6-methyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei42PhosphotyrosineBy similarity1
Modified residuei57N6,N6,N6-trimethyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei57N6-(2-hydroxyisobutyryl)lysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei57N6-(beta-hydroxybutyryl)lysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei57N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei57N6-crotonyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei57N6-methyllysine; by EHMT2; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei57N6-succinyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei58PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei65N6-(2-hydroxyisobutyryl)lysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei65N6-methyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei80N6,N6,N6-trimethyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei80N6,N6-dimethyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei80N6-(2-hydroxyisobutyryl)lysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei80N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei80N6-methyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei80N6-succinyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei81PhosphothreonineBy similarity1
Modified residuei87PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei108PhosphothreonineBy similarity1
Modified residuei116N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei123N6-(2-hydroxyisobutyryl)lysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei123N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei123N6-methyllysine; alternateBy similarity1

Post-translational modificationi

Acetylation is generally linked to gene activation. Acetylation on Lys-10 (H3K9ac) impairs methylation at Arg-9 (H3R8me2s). Acetylation on Lys-19 (H3K18ac) and Lys-24 (H3K24ac) favors methylation at Arg-18 (H3R17me). Acetylation at Lys-123 (H3K122ac) by EP300/p300 plays a central role in chromatin structure: localizes at the surface of the histone octamer and stimulates transcription, possibly by promoting nucleosome instability.By similarity
Citrullination at Arg-9 (H3R8ci) and/or Arg-18 (H3R17ci) by PADI4 impairs methylation and represses transcription.By similarity
Asymmetric dimethylation at Arg-18 (H3R17me2a) by CARM1 is linked to gene activation. Symmetric dimethylation at Arg-9 (H3R8me2s) by PRMT5 is linked to gene repression. Asymmetric dimethylation at Arg-3 (H3R2me2a) by PRMT6 is linked to gene repression and is mutually exclusive with H3 Lys-5 methylation (H3K4me2 and H3K4me3). H3R2me2a is present at the 3' of genes regardless of their transcription state and is enriched on inactive promoters, while it is absent on active promoters.By similarity
Methylation at Lys-5 (H3K4me), Lys-37 (H3K36me) and Lys-80 (H3K79me) are linked to gene activation. Methylation at Lys-5 (H3K4me) facilitates subsequent acetylation of H3 and H4. Methylation at Lys-80 (H3K79me) is associated with DNA double-strand break (DSB) responses and is a specific target for TP53BP1. Methylation at Lys-10 (H3K9me) and Lys-28 (H3K27me) are linked to gene repression. Methylation at Lys-10 (H3K9me) is a specific target for HP1 proteins (CBX1, CBX3 and CBX5) and prevents subsequent phosphorylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ph) and acetylation of H3 and H4. Methylation at Lys-5 (H3K4me) and Lys-80 (H3K79me) require preliminary monoubiquitination of H2B at 'Lys-120'. Methylation at Lys-10 (H3K9me) and Lys-28 (H3K27me) are enriched in inactive X chromosome chromatin. Monomethylation at Lys-57 (H3K56me1) by EHMT2/G9A in G1 phase promotes interaction with PCNA and is required for DNA replication.By similarity
Phosphorylated at Thr-4 (H3T3ph) by HASPIN during prophase and dephosphorylated during anaphase. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ph) by AURKB is crucial for chromosome condensation and cell-cycle progression during mitosis and meiosis. In addition phosphorylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ph) by RPS6KA4 and RPS6KA5 is important during interphase because it enables the transcription of genes following external stimulation, like mitogens, stress, growth factors or UV irradiation and result in the activation of genes, such as c-fos and c-jun. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ph), which is linked to gene activation, prevents methylation at Lys-10 (H3K9me) but facilitates acetylation of H3 and H4. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ph) by AURKB mediates the dissociation of HP1 proteins (CBX1, CBX3 and CBX5) from heterochromatin. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ph) is also an essential regulatory mechanism for neoplastic cell transformation. Phosphorylated at Ser-29 (H3S28ph) by MAP3K20 isoform 1, RPS6KA5 or AURKB during mitosis or upon ultraviolet B irradiation. Phosphorylation at Thr-7 (H3T6ph) by PRKCB is a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation that prevents demethylation of Lys-5 (H3K4me) by LSD1/KDM1A. At centromeres, specifically phosphorylated at Thr-12 (H3T11ph) from prophase to early anaphase, by DAPK3 and PKN1. Phosphorylation at Thr-12 (H3T11ph) by PKN1 is a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation that promotes demethylation of Lys-10 (H3K9me) by KDM4C/JMJD2C. Phosphorylation at Thr-12 (H3T11ph) by chromatin-associated CHEK1 regulates the transcription of cell cycle regulatory genes by modulating acetylation of Lys-10 (H3K9ac). Phosphorylation at Tyr-42 (H3Y41ph) by JAK2 promotes exclusion of CBX5 (HP1 alpha) from chromatin.By similarity
Monoubiquitinated by RAG1 in lymphoid cells, monoubiquitination is required for V(D)J recombination (By similarity). Ubiquitinated by the CUL4-DDB-RBX1 complex in response to ultraviolet irradiation. This may weaken the interaction between histones and DNA and facilitate DNA accessibility to repair proteins (By similarity).By similarity
Lysine deamination at Lys-5 (H3K4all) to form allysine is mediated by LOXL2. Allysine formation by LOXL2 only takes place on H3K4me3 and results in gene repression.By similarity
Crotonylation (Kcr) is specifically present in male germ cells and marks testis-specific genes in post-meiotic cells, including X-linked genes that escape sex chromosome inactivation in haploid cells. Crotonylation marks active promoters and enhancers and confers resistance to transcriptional repressors. It is also associated with post-meiotically activated genes on autosomes.By similarity
Butyrylation of histones marks active promoters and competes with histone acetylation. It is present during late spermatogenesis.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, ADP-ribosylation, Citrullination, Hydroxylation, Methylation, Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP68432.
PeptideAtlasiP68432.
PRIDEiP68432.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP68432.

Expressioni

Developmental stagei

Expressed during S phase, then expression strongly decreases as cell division slows down during the process of differentiation.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSBTAG00000024175.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

The nucleosome is a histone octamer containing two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 assembled in one H3-H4 heterotetramer and two H2A-H2B heterodimers. The octamer wraps approximately 147 bp of DNA.

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
SUV39H1O434632EBI-79764,EBI-349968From Homo sapiens.

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi544398. 3 interactors.
IntActiP68432. 9 interactors.
STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000053020.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP68432.
SMRiP68432.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the histone H3 family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1745. Eukaryota.
COG2036. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000118967.
ENSGT00900000140988.
HOGENOMiHOG000155290.
HOVERGENiHBG001172.
InParanoidiP68432.
KOiK11253.
OMAiRKCAPTT.
OrthoDBiEOG091G0XGD.
TreeFamiTF314241.

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR009072. Histone-fold.
IPR007125. Histone_H2A/H2B/H3.
IPR000164. Histone_H3/CENP-A.
PANTHERiPTHR11426. PTHR11426. 1 hit.
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00125. Histone. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR00622. HISTONEH3.
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00428. H3. 1 hit.
SUPFAMiSSF47113. SSF47113. 1 hit.
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00322. HISTONE_H3_1. 1 hit.
PS00959. HISTONE_H3_2. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P68432-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MARTKQTARK STGGKAPRKQ LATKAARKSA PATGGVKKPH RYRPGTVALR
60 70 80 90 100
EIRRYQKSTE LLIRKLPFQR LVREIAQDFK TDLRFQSSAV MALQEACEAY
110 120 130
LVGLFEDTNL CAIHAKRVTI MPKDIQLARR IRGERA
Length:136
Mass (Da):15,404
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v2
Checksum:i9B89008EA50A0EF6
GO

Sequence databases

PIRiA02624. HSBO3.
RefSeqiXP_002697506.1. XM_002697460.4.
XP_002697575.1. XM_002697529.4.
XP_005196706.1. XM_005196649.3.
XP_005223855.1. XM_005223798.3.
XP_010816767.1. XM_010818465.2.
XP_010823755.1. XM_010825453.2.
XP_015315463.1. XM_015459977.1.
XP_015324501.1. XM_015469015.1.
XP_015324502.1. XM_015469016.1.
XP_874006.1. XM_868913.4.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSBTAT00000033364; ENSBTAP00000051709; ENSBTAG00000024175.
ENSBTAT00000033374; ENSBTAP00000047915; ENSBTAG00000024184.
ENSBTAT00000033376; ENSBTAP00000053020; ENSBTAG00000024186.
ENSBTAT00000044972; ENSBTAP00000048362; ENSBTAG00000031717.
ENSBTAT00000044975; ENSBTAP00000052244; ENSBTAG00000031721.
ENSBTAT00000045036; ENSBTAP00000051924; ENSBTAG00000031759.
ENSBTAT00000045041; ENSBTAP00000048719; ENSBTAG00000031761.
ENSBTAT00000045045; ENSBTAP00000049208; ENSBTAG00000031766.
ENSBTAT00000045050; ENSBTAP00000051492; ENSBTAG00000031773.
ENSBTAT00000047042; ENSBTAP00000044281; ENSBTAG00000033117.
GeneIDi107131750.
517139.
616800.
616819.
788250.
KEGGibta:107131750.
bta:517139.
bta:616800.
bta:616819.
bta:788250.

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiH31_BOVIN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P68432
Secondary accession number(s): P02295, P02296, P16106
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: November 22, 2017
This is version 125 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Caution

Disulfide bonds have been reported but this may not be physiologically relevant.1 Publication

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families