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Protein

Glucagon

Gene

GCG

Organism
Gallus gallus (Chicken)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis.
GLP-1 is a potent stimulator of glucose-dependent insulin release.
GLP-2 stimulates intestinal growth and up-regulates villus height in the small intestine, concomitant with increased crypt cell proliferation and decreased enterocyte apoptosis.

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Hormone

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-GGA-163359. Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation.
R-GGA-381771. Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1).
R-GGA-416476. G alpha (q) signalling events.
R-GGA-418555. G alpha (s) signalling events.
R-GGA-420092. Glucagon-type ligand receptors.
R-GGA-422085. Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Glucagon
Cleaved into the following 6 chains:
Glucagon-like peptide 1
Short name:
GLP-1
Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-37)
Short name:
GLP-1(7-37)
Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36)
Short name:
GLP-1(7-36)
Glucagon-like peptide 2
Short name:
GLP-2
Gene namesi
Name:GCG
OrganismiGallus gallus (Chicken)
Taxonomic identifieri9031 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiArchelosauriaArchosauriaDinosauriaSaurischiaTheropodaCoelurosauriaAvesNeognathaeGalloanseraeGalliformesPhasianidaePhasianinaeGallus
Proteomesi
  • UP000000539 Componenti: Chromosome 7

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 2222Add
BLAST
Peptidei23 – 5230Glicentin-related polypeptideBy similarityPRO_0000011325Add
BLAST
Peptidei55 – 8329GlucagonPRO_0000011326Add
BLAST
Propeptidei86 – 10924By similarityPRO_0000011327Add
BLAST
Peptidei112 – 14837Glucagon-like peptide 1By similarityPRO_0000011328Add
BLAST
Peptidei118 – 14831Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-37)By similarityPRO_0000011329Add
BLAST
Peptidei118 – 14730Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36)By similarityPRO_0000011330Add
BLAST
Propeptidei151 – 16313By similarityPRO_0000011331Add
BLAST
Peptidei166 – 19833Glucagon-like peptide 2By similarityPRO_0000011332Add
BLAST
Propeptidei199 – 2068By similarityPRO_0000011333

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei147 – 1471Arginine amideBy similarity

Post-translational modificationi

Proglucagon is post-translationally processed in a tissue-specific manner in pancreatic A cells and intestinal L cells. In pancreatic A cells, the major bioactive hormone is glucagon cleaved by PCSK2/PC2. In the intestinal L cells PCSK1/PC1 liberates GLP-1 and GLP-2. GLP-1 is further N-terminally truncated by post-translational processing in the intestinal L cells resulting in GLP-1(7-37) GLP-1-(7-36)amide (By similarity).By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sitei54 – 552Cleavage; by PCSK2By similarity
Sitei85 – 862Cleavage; by PCSK1 and PCSK2By similarity
Sitei111 – 1122Cleavage; by PCSK1By similarity
Sitei117 – 1182Cleavage; by PCSK1By similarity
Sitei150 – 1512Cleavage; by PCSK1By similarity
Sitei165 – 1662Cleavage; by PCSK1By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Cleavage on pair of basic residues

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP68259.

Expressioni

Inductioni

Produced in the A cells of the islets of Langerhans in response to a drop in blood sugar concentration.

Interactioni

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9031.ENSGALP00000018068.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP68259.
SMRiP68259. Positions 55-83, 118-147, 166-194.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the glucagon family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IKZ8. Eukaryota.
ENOG4111VKC. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000231876.
HOVERGENiHBG003010.
InParanoidiP68259.
KOiK05259.
OMAiKMKSIYF.
OrthoDBiEOG7WMCM1.
PhylomeDBiP68259.
TreeFamiTF332333.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR015550. Glucagon.
IPR000532. Glucagon_GIP_secretin_VIP.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11418:SF0. PTHR11418:SF0. 2 hits.
PfamiPF00123. Hormone_2. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00275. GLUCAGON.
SMARTiSM00070. GLUCA. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00260. GLUCAGON. 4 hits.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform Intestinal (identifier: P68259-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MKMKSIYFIA GLLLMIVQGS WQNPLQDTEE KSRSFKASQS EPLDESRQLN
60 70 80 90 100
EVKRHSQGTF TSDYSKYLDS RRAQDFVQWL MSTKRNGQQG QEDKENDKFP
110 120 130 140 150
DQLSSNAISK RHSEFERHAE GTYTSDITSY LEGQAAKEFI AWLVNGRGRR
160 170 180 190 200
DFPEKALMAE EMGRRHADGT FTSDINKILD DMAAKEFLKW LINTKVTQRD

LLGEYQ
Length:206
Mass (Da):23,876
Last modified:October 25, 2004 - v1
Checksum:iAB299E1B02FC6AA4
GO
Isoform Pancreatic (identifier: P68259-2) [UniParc] [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     151-151: D → E
     152-206: Missing.

Show »
Length:151
Mass (Da):17,520
Checksum:iB6C0D87536C0AEB5
GO

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei151 – 1511D → E in isoform Pancreatic. 1 PublicationVSP_001753
Alternative sequencei152 – 20655Missing in isoform Pancreatic. 1 PublicationVSP_001754Add
BLAST

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
Y07539 mRNA. Translation: CAA68827.1.
S78477 mRNA. Translation: AAB34506.1.
PIRiI51301.
S09992. GCCH.
RefSeqiNP_001177094.1. NM_001190165.3. [P68259-1]
NP_990591.1. NM_205260.4. [P68259-2]
XP_015145124.1. XM_015289638.1. [P68259-1]
XP_015145125.1. XM_015289639.1. [P68259-1]
XP_015145126.1. XM_015289640.1. [P68259-1]
UniGeneiGga.704.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSGALT00000018090; ENSGALP00000018068; ENSGALG00000011104. [P68259-1]
ENSGALT00000033134; ENSGALP00000032494; ENSGALG00000011104. [P68259-1]
GeneIDi396196.
KEGGigga:396196.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
Y07539 mRNA. Translation: CAA68827.1.
S78477 mRNA. Translation: AAB34506.1.
PIRiI51301.
S09992. GCCH.
RefSeqiNP_001177094.1. NM_001190165.3. [P68259-1]
NP_990591.1. NM_205260.4. [P68259-2]
XP_015145124.1. XM_015289638.1. [P68259-1]
XP_015145125.1. XM_015289639.1. [P68259-1]
XP_015145126.1. XM_015289640.1. [P68259-1]
UniGeneiGga.704.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP68259.
SMRiP68259. Positions 55-83, 118-147, 166-194.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9031.ENSGALP00000018068.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP68259.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSGALT00000018090; ENSGALP00000018068; ENSGALG00000011104. [P68259-1]
ENSGALT00000033134; ENSGALP00000032494; ENSGALG00000011104. [P68259-1]
GeneIDi396196.
KEGGigga:396196.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi2641.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IKZ8. Eukaryota.
ENOG4111VKC. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000231876.
HOVERGENiHBG003010.
InParanoidiP68259.
KOiK05259.
OMAiKMKSIYF.
OrthoDBiEOG7WMCM1.
PhylomeDBiP68259.
TreeFamiTF332333.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-GGA-163359. Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation.
R-GGA-381771. Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1).
R-GGA-416476. G alpha (q) signalling events.
R-GGA-418555. G alpha (s) signalling events.
R-GGA-420092. Glucagon-type ligand receptors.
R-GGA-422085. Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin.

Miscellaneous databases

NextBioi20816248.
PROiP68259.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR015550. Glucagon.
IPR000532. Glucagon_GIP_secretin_VIP.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11418:SF0. PTHR11418:SF0. 2 hits.
PfamiPF00123. Hormone_2. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00275. GLUCAGON.
SMARTiSM00070. GLUCA. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00260. GLUCAGON. 4 hits.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

  1. "Nucleotide sequence determination of chicken glucagon precursor cDNA. Chicken preproglucagon does not contain glucagon-like peptide II."
    Hasegawa S., Terazono K., Nata K., Takada T., Yamamoto H., Okamoto H.
    FEBS Lett. 264:117-120(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM PANCREATIC).
    Tissue: Pancreas.
  2. "Trout and chicken proglucagon: alternative splicing generates mRNA transcripts encoding glucagon-like peptide 2."
    Irwin D.M., Wong J.
    Mol. Endocrinol. 9:267-277(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM INTESTINAL).
    Tissue: Intestinal mucosa.
  3. "Chicken glucagon. Isolation and amino acid sequence studies."
    Pollock H.G., Kimmel J.R.
    J. Biol. Chem. 250:9377-9380(1975) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 55-83.
  4. "Chicken glucagon: sequence and potency in receptor assay."
    Huang J., Eng J., Yalow R.S.
    Horm. Metab. Res. 19:542-544(1987) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 55-83.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGLUC_CHICK
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P68259
Secondary accession number(s): P01277, Q91410
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: October 25, 2004
Last modified: April 13, 2016
This is version 80 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.