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Protein

Cytochrome c, somatic

Gene

Cycs

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Electron carrier protein. The oxidized form of the cytochrome c heme group can accept an electron from the heme group of the cytochrome c1 subunit of cytochrome reductase. Cytochrome c then transfers this electron to the cytochrome oxidase complex, the final protein carrier in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain.
Plays a role in apoptosis. Suppression of the anti-apoptotic members or activation of the pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family leads to altered mitochondrial membrane permeability resulting in release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Binding of cytochrome c to Apaf-1 triggers the activation of caspase-9, which then accelerates apoptosis by activating other caspases (By similarity).By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Binding sitei15 – 151Heme (covalent)
Binding sitei18 – 181Heme (covalent)
Metal bindingi19 – 191Iron (heme axial ligand)
Metal bindingi81 – 811Iron (heme axial ligand)

GO - Molecular functioni

  • electron carrier activity Source: RGD
  • heme binding Source: InterPro
  • lipid binding Source: RGD
  • metal ion binding Source: UniProtKB-KW

GO - Biological processi

  • activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process by cytochrome c Source: RGD
  • apoptotic process Source: RGD
  • glial cell apoptotic process Source: RGD
  • mitochondrial electron transport, cytochrome c to oxygen Source: RGD
  • negative regulation of hydrogen peroxide biosynthetic process Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of cellular respiration Source: RGD
  • response to ischemia Source: RGD
  • response to oxidative stress Source: RGD
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Biological processi

Apoptosis, Electron transport, Respiratory chain, Transport

Keywords - Ligandi

Heme, Iron, Metal-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-RNO-111457. Release of apoptotic factors from the mitochondria.
R-RNO-111458. Formation of apoptosome.
R-RNO-111459. Activation of caspases through apoptosome-mediated cleavage.
R-RNO-2151201. Transcriptional activation of mitochondrial biogenesis.
R-RNO-3299685. Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species.
R-RNO-5628897. TP53 Regulates Metabolic Genes.
R-RNO-611105. Respiratory electron transport.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Cytochrome c, somatic
Gene namesi
Name:Cycs
OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaSciurognathiMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
Proteomesi
  • UP000002494 Componentsi: Chromosome 18, Chromosome 4

Organism-specific databases

RGDi2451. Cycs.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • cytosol Source: MGI
  • mitochondrial inner membrane Source: RGD
  • mitochondrial intermembrane space Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
  • mitochondrial respiratory chain Source: RGD
  • mitochondrion Source: RGD
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Mitochondrion

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Initiator methionineiRemoved1 Publication
Chaini2 – 105104Cytochrome c, somaticPRO_0000108231Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei2 – 21N-acetylglycine1 Publication
Modified residuei49 – 491PhosphotyrosineBy similarity
Modified residuei56 – 561N6-succinyllysineBy similarity
Modified residuei73 – 731N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity
Modified residuei73 – 731N6-succinyllysine; alternateBy similarity
Modified residuei98 – 981PhosphotyrosineBy similarity
Modified residuei100 – 1001N6-acetyllysineBy similarity

Post-translational modificationi

Binds 1 heme group per subunit.
Phosphorylation at Tyr-49 and Tyr-98 both reduce by half the turnover in the reaction with cytochrome c oxidase, down-regulating mitochondrial respiration.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP62898.
PRIDEiP62898.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP62898.
PhosphoSiteiP62898.
SwissPalmiP62898.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Found in embryos and in adult liver and heart.

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiP62898. RN.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi247348. 2 interactions.
MINTiMINT-1860092.
STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000041521.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP62898.
SMRiP62898. Positions 2-105.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the cytochrome c family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3453. Eukaryota.
COG3474. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000009405.
HOGENOMiHOG000009762.
HOVERGENiHBG003023.
InParanoidiP62898.
KOiK08738.
OMAiRDYLHNP.
OrthoDBiEOG761BWX.
PhylomeDBiP62898.
TreeFamiTF300226.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.760.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR009056. Cyt_c-like_dom.
IPR002327. Cyt_c_1A/1B.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11961. PTHR11961. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00034. Cytochrom_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00604. CYTCHRMECIAB.
SUPFAMiSSF46626. SSF46626. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS51007. CYTC. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P62898-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MGDVEKGKKI FVQKCAQCHT VEKGGKHKTG PNLHGLFGRK TGQAAGFSYT
60 70 80 90 100
DANKNKGITW GEDTLMEYLE NPKKYIPGTK MIFAGIKKKG ERADLIAYLK

KATNE
Length:105
Mass (Da):11,605
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v2
Checksum:iB5BCA779BCE40492
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
K00750 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA21711.1.
M20622 mRNA. Translation: AAA41014.1.
BC081849 mRNA. Translation: AAH81849.1.
BC089051 mRNA. Translation: AAH89051.1.
PIRiA04605. CCRT.
RefSeqiNP_036971.1. NM_012839.2.
XP_003751847.1. XM_003751799.3.
XP_003753106.1. XM_003753058.3.
UniGeneiRn.161841.
Rn.2202.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000014058; ENSRNOP00000014058; ENSRNOG00000010452.
ENSRNOT00000048429; ENSRNOP00000041521; ENSRNOG00000032885.
GeneIDi100363502.
25309.
KEGGirno:100363502.
rno:25309.
UCSCiRGD:2451. rat.

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

Protein Spotlight

Life shuttle - Issue 76 of November 2006

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
K00750 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA21711.1.
M20622 mRNA. Translation: AAA41014.1.
BC081849 mRNA. Translation: AAH81849.1.
BC089051 mRNA. Translation: AAH89051.1.
PIRiA04605. CCRT.
RefSeqiNP_036971.1. NM_012839.2.
XP_003751847.1. XM_003751799.3.
XP_003753106.1. XM_003753058.3.
UniGeneiRn.161841.
Rn.2202.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP62898.
SMRiP62898. Positions 2-105.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi247348. 2 interactions.
MINTiMINT-1860092.
STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000041521.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP62898.
PhosphoSiteiP62898.
SwissPalmiP62898.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP62898.
PRIDEiP62898.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000014058; ENSRNOP00000014058; ENSRNOG00000010452.
ENSRNOT00000048429; ENSRNOP00000041521; ENSRNOG00000032885.
GeneIDi100363502.
25309.
KEGGirno:100363502.
rno:25309.
UCSCiRGD:2451. rat.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi54205.
RGDi2451. Cycs.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3453. Eukaryota.
COG3474. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000009405.
HOGENOMiHOG000009762.
HOVERGENiHBG003023.
InParanoidiP62898.
KOiK08738.
OMAiRDYLHNP.
OrthoDBiEOG761BWX.
PhylomeDBiP62898.
TreeFamiTF300226.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-RNO-111457. Release of apoptotic factors from the mitochondria.
R-RNO-111458. Formation of apoptosome.
R-RNO-111459. Activation of caspases through apoptosome-mediated cleavage.
R-RNO-2151201. Transcriptional activation of mitochondrial biogenesis.
R-RNO-3299685. Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species.
R-RNO-5628897. TP53 Regulates Metabolic Genes.
R-RNO-611105. Respiratory electron transport.

Miscellaneous databases

NextBioi606115.
PROiP62898.

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiP62898. RN.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.760.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR009056. Cyt_c-like_dom.
IPR002327. Cyt_c_1A/1B.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11961. PTHR11961. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00034. Cytochrom_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00604. CYTCHRMECIAB.
SUPFAMiSSF46626. SSF46626. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS51007. CYTC. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Isolation and structure of a rat cytochrome c gene."
    Scarpulla R.C., Agne K.M., Wu R.
    J. Biol. Chem. 256:6480-6486(1981) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
  2. "Nonallelic members of the cytochrome c multigene family of the rat may arise through different messenger RNAs."
    Scarpulla R.C., Wu R.
    Cell 32:473-482(1983) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
  3. "Structure and expression of rodent genes encoding the testis-specific cytochrome c. Differences in gene structure and evolution between somatic and testicular variants."
    Virbasius J.V., Scarpulla R.C.
    J. Biol. Chem. 263:6791-6796(1988) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
  4. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Heart and Ovary.
  5. Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 2-105, ACETYLATION AT GLY-2.
  6. Lubec G., Kang S.U.
    Submitted (JUL-2007) to UniProtKB
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 40-54; 57-73 AND 93-100, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY.
    Strain: Sprague-Dawley.
    Tissue: Brain.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiCYC_RAT
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P62898
Secondary accession number(s): P00009, Q8C2S2
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: May 11, 2016
This is version 117 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Protein Spotlight
    Protein Spotlight articles and cited UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.