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Protein

Cytochrome c

Gene

CYCS

Organism
Bos taurus (Bovine)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Electron carrier protein. The oxidized form of the cytochrome c heme group can accept an electron from the heme group of the cytochrome c1 subunit of cytochrome reductase. Cytochrome c then transfers this electron to the cytochrome oxidase complex, the final protein carrier in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain.
Plays a role in apoptosis. Suppression of the anti-apoptotic members or activation of the pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family leads to altered mitochondrial membrane permeability resulting in release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Binding of cytochrome c to Apaf-1 triggers the activation of caspase-9, which then accelerates apoptosis by activating other caspases (By similarity).By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Binding sitei15 – 151Heme (covalent)
Binding sitei18 – 181Heme (covalent)
Metal bindingi19 – 191Iron (heme axial ligand)
Metal bindingi81 – 811Iron (heme axial ligand)

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Biological processi

Apoptosis, Electron transport, Respiratory chain, Transport

Keywords - Ligandi

Heme, Iron, Metal-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_281214. Respiratory electron transport.
REACT_296224. Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species.
REACT_301651. Formation of apoptosome.
REACT_314905. Activation of caspases through apoptosome-mediated cleavage.
REACT_317980. Release of apoptotic factors from the mitochondria.
REACT_338336. Transcriptional activation of mitochondrial biogenesis.
REACT_359899. TP53 Regulates Metabolic Genes.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Cytochrome c
Gene namesi
Name:CYCS
Synonyms:CYC
OrganismiBos taurus (Bovine)
Taxonomic identifieri9913 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaRuminantiaPecoraBovidaeBovinaeBos
ProteomesiUP000009136 Componentsi: Chromosome 11, Chromosome 4

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Mitochondrion

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Initiator methioninei1 – 11Removed1 Publication
Chaini2 – 105104Cytochrome cPRO_0000108209Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei2 – 21N-acetylglycine1 Publication
Modified residuei49 – 491Phosphotyrosine1 Publication
Modified residuei98 – 981Phosphotyrosine1 Publication

Post-translational modificationi

Binds 1 heme group per subunit.
Phosphorylation at Tyr-49 and Tyr-98 both reduce by half the turnover in the reaction with cytochrome c oxidase, down-regulating mitochondrial respiration.2 Publications

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP62894.
PRIDEiP62894.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

DIPiDIP-58978N.
IntActiP62894. 1 interaction.
STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000051780.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
105
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Helixi4 – 1411Combined sources
Turni15 – 184Combined sources
Helixi51 – 555Combined sources
Helixi62 – 687Combined sources
Helixi72 – 754Combined sources
Helixi89 – 10214Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
2B4ZX-ray1.50A2-105[»]
2YBBelectron microscopy19.00Y2-105[»]
3J2Telectron microscopy9.50H/I/J/K/L/M/N2-105[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP62894.
SMRiP62894. Positions 2-105.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP62894.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the cytochrome c family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG3474.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000009405.
HOGENOMiHOG000009762.
HOVERGENiHBG003023.
InParanoidiP62894.
KOiK08738.
OMAiRDYLHNP.
OrthoDBiEOG761BWX.
TreeFamiTF300226.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.760.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR009056. Cyt_c-like_dom.
IPR002327. Cyt_c_1A/1B.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11961. PTHR11961. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00034. Cytochrom_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00604. CYTCHRMECIAB.
SUPFAMiSSF46626. SSF46626. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS51007. CYTC. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P62894-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MGDVEKGKKI FVQKCAQCHT VEKGGKHKTG PNLHGLFGRK TGQAPGFSYT
60 70 80 90 100
DANKNKGITW GEETLMEYLE NPKKYIPGTK MIFAGIKKKG EREDLIAYLK

KATNE
Length:105
Mass (Da):11,704
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v2
Checksum:iAF0CA628EDF40483
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
BC105397 mRNA. Translation: AAI05398.1.
PIRiA92022. CCBO.
RefSeqiNP_001039526.1. NM_001046061.2.
XP_005194076.1. XM_005194019.2.
XP_010802622.1. XM_010804320.1.
XP_010802623.1. XM_010804321.1.
XP_010808799.1. XM_010810497.1.
XP_010816713.1. XM_010818411.1.
UniGeneiBt.23981.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSBTAT00000004594; ENSBTAP00000051780; ENSBTAG00000023823.
ENSBTAT00000007918; ENSBTAP00000007918; ENSBTAG00000022613.
GeneIDi100847700.
104968582.
510767.
KEGGibta:100847700.
bta:104968582.
bta:510767.

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

Protein Spotlight

Life shuttle - Issue 76 of November 2006

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
BC105397 mRNA. Translation: AAI05398.1.
PIRiA92022. CCBO.
RefSeqiNP_001039526.1. NM_001046061.2.
XP_005194076.1. XM_005194019.2.
XP_010802622.1. XM_010804320.1.
XP_010802623.1. XM_010804321.1.
XP_010808799.1. XM_010810497.1.
XP_010816713.1. XM_010818411.1.
UniGeneiBt.23981.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
2B4ZX-ray1.50A2-105[»]
2YBBelectron microscopy19.00Y2-105[»]
3J2Telectron microscopy9.50H/I/J/K/L/M/N2-105[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP62894.
SMRiP62894. Positions 2-105.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

DIPiDIP-58978N.
IntActiP62894. 1 interaction.
STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000051780.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP62894.
PRIDEiP62894.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSBTAT00000004594; ENSBTAP00000051780; ENSBTAG00000023823.
ENSBTAT00000007918; ENSBTAP00000007918; ENSBTAG00000022613.
GeneIDi100847700.
104968582.
510767.
KEGGibta:100847700.
bta:104968582.
bta:510767.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi54205.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG3474.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000009405.
HOGENOMiHOG000009762.
HOVERGENiHBG003023.
InParanoidiP62894.
KOiK08738.
OMAiRDYLHNP.
OrthoDBiEOG761BWX.
TreeFamiTF300226.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_281214. Respiratory electron transport.
REACT_296224. Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species.
REACT_301651. Formation of apoptosome.
REACT_314905. Activation of caspases through apoptosome-mediated cleavage.
REACT_317980. Release of apoptotic factors from the mitochondria.
REACT_338336. Transcriptional activation of mitochondrial biogenesis.
REACT_359899. TP53 Regulates Metabolic Genes.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP62894.
NextBioi20869605.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.760.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR009056. Cyt_c-like_dom.
IPR002327. Cyt_c_1A/1B.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11961. PTHR11961. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00034. Cytochrom_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00604. CYTCHRMECIAB.
SUPFAMiSSF46626. SSF46626. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS51007. CYTC. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. NIH - Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project
    Submitted (SEP-2005) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: Hereford.
    Tissue: Thymus.
  2. "The amino acid sequence of bovine heart cytochrome c."
    Nakashima T., Higa H., Matsubara H., Benson A.M., Yasunobu K.T.
    J. Biol. Chem. 241:1166-1177(1966) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 2-105, ACETYLATION AT GLY-2.
    Tissue: Heart.
  3. "New prospects for an old enzyme: mammalian cytochrome c is tyrosine-phosphorylated in vivo."
    Lee I., Salomon A.R., Yu K., Doan J.W., Grossman L.I., Huttemann M.
    Biochemistry 45:9121-9128(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION AT TYR-49.
    Tissue: Heart.
  4. "Mammalian liver cytochrome c is tyrosine-48 phosphorylated in vivo, inhibiting mitochondrial respiration."
    Yu H., Lee I., Salomon A.R., Yu K., Huttemann M.
    Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1777:1066-1071(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION AT TYR-98.
    Tissue: Liver.
  5. "High resolution X-ray crystallographic structure of bovine heart cytochrome c and its application to the design of an electron transfer biosensor."
    Mirkin N., Jaconcic J., Stojanoff V., Moreno A.
    Proteins 70:83-92(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (1.5 ANGSTROMS) OF 2-105, HEME-BINDING SITES.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiCYC_BOVIN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P62894
Secondary accession number(s): P00006, Q2KJD4
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: May 27, 2015
This is version 103 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. Protein Spotlight
    Protein Spotlight articles and cited UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.