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Protein

Cobrotoxin

Gene
N/A
Organism
Naja atra (Chinese cobra)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Binds to muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and inhibit acetylcholine from binding to the receptor, thereby impairing neuromuscular transmission. Has a higher toxicity than cobrotoxin-b.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sitei54 – 541May be critical for toxicity
Sitei57 – 571May be critical for toxicity

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Acetylcholine receptor inhibiting toxin, Ion channel impairing toxin, Neurotoxin, Postsynaptic neurotoxin, Toxin

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Cobrotoxin
Short name:
CBT
Alternative name(s):
Atratoxin
Short neurotoxin 1
OrganismiNaja atra (Chinese cobra)
Taxonomic identifieri8656 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiLepidosauriaSquamataBifurcataUnidentataEpisquamataToxicoferaSerpentesColubroideaElapidaeElapinaeNaja

Subcellular locationi

  • Secreted 1 Publication

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Toxic dosei

LD50 is 0.09 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection.

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi59 – 591E → Q: Decrease in the rate of isomerization reaction of disulfide bonds. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi68 – 681K → E: Decrease in the rate of isomerization reaction of disulfide bonds. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi68 – 681K → Q: Decrease in the rate of isomerization reaction of disulfide bonds. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 21214 PublicationsAdd
BLAST
Chaini22 – 8362CobrotoxinPRO_0000035452Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Disulfide bondi24 ↔ 45
Disulfide bondi38 ↔ 62
Disulfide bondi64 ↔ 75
Disulfide bondi76 ↔ 81

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed by the venom gland.Curated

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
83
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Beta strandi23 – 253Combined sources
Beta strandi35 – 373Combined sources
Beta strandi45 – 528Combined sources
Beta strandi55 – 639Combined sources
Beta strandi72 – 787Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1COENMR-A22-83[»]
1V6PX-ray0.87A/B22-83[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP60770.
SMRiP60770. Positions 22-83.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP60770.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

HOVERGENiHBG006553.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR003571. Snake_3FTx.
IPR018354. Snake_toxin_con_site.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00087. Toxin_1. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00272. SNAKE_TOXIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P60770-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MKTLLLTLLV VTIVCLDLGY TLECHNQQSS QTPTTTGCSG GETNCYKKRW
60 70 80
RDHRGYRTER GCGCPSVKNG IEINCCTTDR CNN
Length:83
Mass (Da):9,262
Last modified:April 13, 2004 - v1
Checksum:i4DD6077C92717052
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti2 – 21K → E in AAG43384 (Ref. 4) Curated
Sequence conflicti52 – 521D → Y in CAB43097 (PubMed:10512733).Curated
Sequence conflicti66 – 661S → I in AAG43384 (Ref. 4) Curated
Sequence conflicti73 – 731I → S in AAG43384 (Ref. 4) Curated
Sequence conflicti79 – 802DR → G in CAB43097 (PubMed:10512733).Curated

Mass spectrometryi

Molecular mass is 6952 Da from positions 22 - 83. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U58519 mRNA. Translation: AAB03221.1.
U58520 mRNA. Translation: AAB03222.1.
U58521 mRNA. Translation: AAB03223.1.
U77490 mRNA. Translation: AAB36930.1.
U77491 mRNA. Translation: AAB36931.1.
U77492 mRNA. Translation: AAB36932.1.
U42582 mRNA. Translation: AAB01538.1.
Y12492 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA73097.2.
AF161797 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAG43384.1.
AJ239050 mRNA. Translation: CAB43097.1.
AY471578 mRNA. Translation: AAR33035.1.
PIRiJC5769. N1NJ1F.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U58519 mRNA. Translation: AAB03221.1.
U58520 mRNA. Translation: AAB03222.1.
U58521 mRNA. Translation: AAB03223.1.
U77490 mRNA. Translation: AAB36930.1.
U77491 mRNA. Translation: AAB36931.1.
U77492 mRNA. Translation: AAB36932.1.
U42582 mRNA. Translation: AAB01538.1.
Y12492 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA73097.2.
AF161797 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAG43384.1.
AJ239050 mRNA. Translation: CAB43097.1.
AY471578 mRNA. Translation: AAR33035.1.
PIRiJC5769. N1NJ1F.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1COENMR-A22-83[»]
1V6PX-ray0.87A/B22-83[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP60770.
SMRiP60770. Positions 22-83.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

HOVERGENiHBG006553.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP60770.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR003571. Snake_3FTx.
IPR018354. Snake_toxin_con_site.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00087. Toxin_1. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00272. SNAKE_TOXIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

  1. Chu R.C., Yang C.-C.
    Submitted (MAY-1996) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
    Tissue: Venom gland.
  2. "Genomic structures of cardiotoxin 4 and cobrotoxin from Naja naja atra (Taiwan cobra)."
    Chang L.-S., Lin J., Chou Y.-C., Hong E.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 239:756-762(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    Tissue: Liver.
  3. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], MUTAGENESIS OF GLU-59 AND LYS-68.
    Tissue: Venom gland.
  4. Qin C., Zhiyong H., Yi G., Shengli Y.
    Submitted (JUN-1999) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    Tissue: Venom gland.
  5. "The atomic resolution crystal structure of atratoxin determined by single wavelength anomalous diffraction phasing."
    Lou X., Liu Q., Tu X., Wang J., Teng M., Niu L., Schuller D.J., Huang Q., Hao Q.
    J. Biol. Chem. 279:39094-39104(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 22-49 AND 69-83, SEQUENCE REVISION.
    Tissue: Venom and Venom gland.
  6. "The amino acid sequence of cobrotoxin."
    Yang C.-C., Yang H.J., Huang J.S.
    Biochim. Biophys. Acta 188:65-77(1969) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 22-83, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
    Tissue: Venom.
  7. "Cobra venom cardiotoxin (cytotoxin) isoforms and neurotoxin: comparative potency of protein kinase C inhibition and cancer cell cytotoxicity and modes of enzyme inhibition."
    Chiou S.-H., Raynor R.L., Zheng B., Chambers T.C., Kuo J.F.
    Biochemistry 32:2062-2067(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 22-83.
    Tissue: Venom.
  8. "Purification, N-terminal sequencing, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of atratoxin, a new short-chain alpha-neurotoxin from the venom of Naja naja atra."
    Tu X., Huang Q., Lou X., Teng M., Niu L.
    Acta Crystallogr. D 58:839-842(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 22-36, MASS SPECTROMETRY.
  9. "The position of disulfide bonds in cobrotoxin."
    Yang C.-C., Yang H.J., Chiu R.H.C.
    Biochim. Biophys. Acta 214:355-363(1970) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: DISULFIDE BONDS.
  10. "Two-dimensional NMR studies and secondary structure of cobrotoxin in aqueous solution."
    Yu C., Lee C.-S., Chuang L.-C., Shei Y.-R., Wang C.Y.
    Eur. J. Biochem. 193:789-799(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR, DISULFIDE BONDS.
  11. "Solution conformation of cobrotoxin: a nuclear magnetic resonance and hybrid distance geometry-dynamical simulated annealing study."
    Yu C., Bhaskaran R., Chuang L.-C., Yang C.-C.
    Biochemistry 32:2131-2136(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR, DISULFIDE BONDS.

Entry informationi

Entry namei3S1CB_NAJAT
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P60770
Secondary accession number(s): O13079
, P01430, Q675L7, Q9DE57, Q9W6X0
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: April 13, 2004
Last modified: October 14, 2015
This is version 72 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
Annotation programAnimal Toxin Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Direct protein sequencing

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.