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Protein

Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2

Gene

GNG2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  • G-protein beta-subunit binding Source: UniProtKB
  • signal transducer activity Source: UniProtKB-KW

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Transducer

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_15457. G-protein activation.
REACT_1665. Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation.
REACT_18274. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion.
REACT_18283. G alpha (q) signalling events.
REACT_18339. Adrenaline,noradrenaline inhibits insulin secretion.
REACT_18377. Glucagon-type ligand receptors.
REACT_18407. G alpha (12/13) signalling events.
REACT_19140. ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 1.
REACT_19145. G beta:gamma signalling through PLC beta.
REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.
REACT_19290. G beta:gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma.
REACT_19327. G alpha (s) signalling events.
REACT_19333. G alpha (z) signalling events.
REACT_20647. Thromboxane signalling through TP receptor.
REACT_20653. ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12.
REACT_21254. Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors.
REACT_21384. Thrombin signalling through proteinase activated receptors (PARs).
REACT_23946. Prostacyclin signalling through prostacyclin receptor.
REACT_24023. Vasopressin regulates renal water homeostasis via Aquaporins.
REACT_25004. Inhibition of voltage gated Ca2+ channels via Gbeta/gamma subunits.
REACT_263982. Ca2+ pathway.
REACT_75831. Activation of G protein gated Potassium channels.
SignaLinkiP59768.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2
Alternative name(s):
G gamma-I
Gene namesi
Name:GNG2
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 14

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:4404. GNG2.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

PharmGKBiPA28784.

Chemistry

DrugBankiDB01159. Halothane.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGNG2.
DMDMi32699499.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Initiator methioninei1 – 11Removed2 Publications
Chaini2 – 6867Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2PRO_0000012611Add
BLAST
Propeptidei69 – 713Removed in mature formBy similarityPRO_0000012612

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei2 – 21N-acetylalanine2 Publications
Modified residuei68 – 681Cysteine methyl esterBy similarity
Lipidationi68 – 681S-geranylgeranyl cysteineBy similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Lipoprotein, Methylation, Prenylation

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP59768.
PaxDbiP59768.
PeptideAtlasiP59768.
PRIDEiP59768.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP59768.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in fetal tissues, including testis, adrenal gland, brain, white blood cells and brain.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP59768.
CleanExiHS_GNG2.
ExpressionAtlasiP59768. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP59768. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB018380.
HPA003534.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma (By similarity). The heterodimer formed by GNB1 and GNG2 interacts with PTH1R (via C-terminus).By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi119933. 27 interactions.
DIPiDIP-33949N.
IntActiP59768. 2 interactions.
MINTiMINT-8189453.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000334448.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
71
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Helixi9 – 2315Combined sources
Helixi30 – 4415Combined sources
Helixi45 – 473Combined sources
Turni49 – 513Combined sources
Turni56 – 583Combined sources
Beta strandi60 – 623Combined sources
Turni63 – 664Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
4KFMX-ray3.45G1-68[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP59768.
SMRiP59768. Positions 8-64.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP59768.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the G protein gamma family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG298292.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119218.
HOVERGENiHBG014983.
InParanoidiP59768.
KOiK07826.
PhylomeDBiP59768.
TreeFamiTF319909.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di4.10.260.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR015898. G-protein_gamma-like_dom.
IPR001770. Gprotein-gamma.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR13809. PTHR13809. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00631. G-gamma. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00321. GPROTEING.
SMARTiSM00224. GGL. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48670. SSF48670. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50058. G_PROTEIN_GAMMA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P59768-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MASNNTASIA QARKLVEQLK MEANIDRIKV SKAAADLMAY CEAHAKEDPL
60 70
LTPVPASENP FREKKFFCAI L
Length:71
Mass (Da):7,850
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v2
Checksum:iEDB74E4135E7A37A
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF493870 mRNA. Translation: AAM12584.1.
AL832878 mRNA. Translation: CAI46198.1.
CH471078 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW65663.1.
BC020774 mRNA. Translation: AAH20774.1.
BC060856 mRNA. Translation: AAH60856.1.
CCDSiCCDS32082.1.
PIRiJC7290. GNG2.
RefSeqiNP_001230702.1. NM_001243773.1.
NP_001230703.1. NM_001243774.1.
NP_444292.1. NM_053064.4.
XP_006720236.1. XM_006720173.2.
XP_011535147.1. XM_011536845.1.
XP_011535148.1. XM_011536846.1.
UniGeneiHs.187772.
Hs.709082.
Hs.723399.
Hs.741081.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000335281; ENSP00000334448; ENSG00000186469.
ENST00000554736; ENSP00000452014; ENSG00000186469.
ENST00000555472; ENSP00000451102; ENSG00000186469.
ENST00000556752; ENSP00000451576; ENSG00000186469.
ENST00000556766; ENSP00000451231; ENSG00000186469.
ENST00000615906; ENSP00000484021; ENSG00000186469.
GeneIDi54331.
KEGGihsa:54331.
UCSCiuc001wzi.3. human.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF493870 mRNA. Translation: AAM12584.1.
AL832878 mRNA. Translation: CAI46198.1.
CH471078 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW65663.1.
BC020774 mRNA. Translation: AAH20774.1.
BC060856 mRNA. Translation: AAH60856.1.
CCDSiCCDS32082.1.
PIRiJC7290. GNG2.
RefSeqiNP_001230702.1. NM_001243773.1.
NP_001230703.1. NM_001243774.1.
NP_444292.1. NM_053064.4.
XP_006720236.1. XM_006720173.2.
XP_011535147.1. XM_011536845.1.
XP_011535148.1. XM_011536846.1.
UniGeneiHs.187772.
Hs.709082.
Hs.723399.
Hs.741081.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
4KFMX-ray3.45G1-68[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP59768.
SMRiP59768. Positions 8-64.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi119933. 27 interactions.
DIPiDIP-33949N.
IntActiP59768. 2 interactions.
MINTiMINT-8189453.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000334448.

Chemistry

DrugBankiDB01159. Halothane.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP59768.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGNG2.
DMDMi32699499.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP59768.
PaxDbiP59768.
PeptideAtlasiP59768.
PRIDEiP59768.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000335281; ENSP00000334448; ENSG00000186469.
ENST00000554736; ENSP00000452014; ENSG00000186469.
ENST00000555472; ENSP00000451102; ENSG00000186469.
ENST00000556752; ENSP00000451576; ENSG00000186469.
ENST00000556766; ENSP00000451231; ENSG00000186469.
ENST00000615906; ENSP00000484021; ENSG00000186469.
GeneIDi54331.
KEGGihsa:54331.
UCSCiuc001wzi.3. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi54331.
GeneCardsiGC14P052292.
HGNCiHGNC:4404. GNG2.
HPAiCAB018380.
HPA003534.
MIMi606981. gene.
neXtProtiNX_P59768.
PharmGKBiPA28784.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG298292.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119218.
HOVERGENiHBG014983.
InParanoidiP59768.
KOiK07826.
PhylomeDBiP59768.
TreeFamiTF319909.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_15457. G-protein activation.
REACT_1665. Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation.
REACT_18274. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion.
REACT_18283. G alpha (q) signalling events.
REACT_18339. Adrenaline,noradrenaline inhibits insulin secretion.
REACT_18377. Glucagon-type ligand receptors.
REACT_18407. G alpha (12/13) signalling events.
REACT_19140. ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 1.
REACT_19145. G beta:gamma signalling through PLC beta.
REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.
REACT_19290. G beta:gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma.
REACT_19327. G alpha (s) signalling events.
REACT_19333. G alpha (z) signalling events.
REACT_20647. Thromboxane signalling through TP receptor.
REACT_20653. ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12.
REACT_21254. Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors.
REACT_21384. Thrombin signalling through proteinase activated receptors (PARs).
REACT_23946. Prostacyclin signalling through prostacyclin receptor.
REACT_24023. Vasopressin regulates renal water homeostasis via Aquaporins.
REACT_25004. Inhibition of voltage gated Ca2+ channels via Gbeta/gamma subunits.
REACT_263982. Ca2+ pathway.
REACT_75831. Activation of G protein gated Potassium channels.
SignaLinkiP59768.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiGNG2. human.
EvolutionaryTraceiP59768.
GeneWikiiGNG2.
GenomeRNAii54331.
NextBioi56571.
PROiP59768.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP59768.
CleanExiHS_GNG2.
ExpressionAtlasiP59768. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP59768. HS.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di4.10.260.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR015898. G-protein_gamma-like_dom.
IPR001770. Gprotein-gamma.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR13809. PTHR13809. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00631. G-gamma. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00321. GPROTEING.
SMARTiSM00224. GGL. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48670. SSF48670. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50058. G_PROTEIN_GAMMA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Cloning, characterization, and mapping of the gene encoding the human G protein gamma 2 subunit."
    Modarressi M.H., Taylor K.E., Wolfe J.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 272:610-615(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  2. "cDNA clones of human proteins involved in signal transduction sequenced by the Guthrie cDNA resource center (www.cdna.org)."
    Puhl H.L. III, Ikeda S.R., Aronstam R.S.
    Submitted (MAR-2002) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
  3. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Lymph node.
  4. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  5. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Brain and Skin.
  6. "Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach."
    Gauci S., Helbig A.O., Slijper M., Krijgsveld J., Heck A.J., Mohammed S.
    Anal. Chem. 81:4493-4501(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: ACETYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT ALA-2, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS], CLEAVAGE OF INITIATOR METHIONINE [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
  7. Cited for: ACETYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT ALA-2, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS], CLEAVAGE OF INITIATOR METHIONINE [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
  8. "Structure of the parathyroid hormone receptor C terminus bound to the G-protein dimer Gbeta1gamma2."
    Johnston C.A., Kimple A.J., Giguere P.M., Siderovski D.P.
    Structure 16:1086-1094(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (3.0 ANGSTROMS) IN COMPLEXES WITH GNB1 AND PTH1R.
  9. Cited for: RETRACTION.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGBG2_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P59768
Secondary accession number(s): Q5JPE2, Q6P9A9
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 11, 2003
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: July 22, 2015
This is version 129 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 14
    Human chromosome 14: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  3. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  4. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.