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Protein

Taste receptor type 2 member 31

Gene

TAS2R31

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 4 out of 5-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Receptor that may play a role in the perception of bitterness and is gustducin-linked. May play a role in sensing the chemical composition of the gastrointestinal content. The activity of this receptor may stimulate alpha gustducin, mediate PLC-beta-2 activation and lead to the gating of TRPM5 (By similarity). Activated by the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame K.By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  • bitter taste receptor activity Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

G-protein coupled receptor, Receptor, Transducer

Keywords - Biological processi

Sensory transduction, Taste

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_18319. Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors).
REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Taste receptor type 2 member 31
Short name:
T2R31
Alternative name(s):
Taste receptor type 2 member 44
Short name:
T2R44
Taste receptor type 2 member 53
Short name:
T2R53
Gene namesi
Name:TAS2R31
Synonyms:TAS2R44
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640 Componentsi: Chromosome 12, Unplaced

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:19113. TAS2R31.

Subcellular locationi

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Topological domaini1 – 22ExtracellularSequence Analysis
Transmembranei3 – 2321Helical; Name=1Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini24 – 5532CytoplasmicSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei56 – 7621Helical; Name=2Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini77 – 10024ExtracellularSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei101 – 12121Helical; Name=3Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini122 – 1265CytoplasmicSequence Analysis
Transmembranei127 – 14721Helical; Name=4Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini148 – 18134ExtracellularSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei182 – 20221Helical; Name=5Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini203 – 22927CytoplasmicSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei230 – 25021Helical; Name=6Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini251 – 2599ExtracellularSequence Analysis
Transmembranei260 – 28021Helical; Name=7Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini281 – 30929CytoplasmicSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST

GO - Cellular componenti

  • integral component of membrane Source: UniProtKB
  • plasma membrane Source: Reactome
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiTAS2R31.
DMDMi338817946.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 309309Taste receptor type 2 member 31PRO_0000082309Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Glycosylationi161 – 1611N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis

Keywords - PTMi

Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP59538.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP59538.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells of the tongue and exclusively in gustducin-positive cells.

Gene expression databases

CleanExiHS_TAS2R44.

Interactioni

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP59538.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119096.
InParanoidiP59538.
KOiK08474.
OMAiCANGFIA.
OrthoDBiEOG7P02JB.
PhylomeDBiP59538.
TreeFamiTF335891.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR007960. T2R.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11394. PTHR11394. 1 hit.
PfamiPF05296. TAS2R. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P59538-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MTTFIPIIFS SVVVVLFVIG NFANGFIALV NSIERVKRQK ISFADQILTA
60 70 80 90 100
LAVSRVGLLW VLLLNWYSTV FNPAFYSVEV RTTAYNVWAV TGHFSNWLAT
110 120 130 140 150
SLSIFYLLKI ANFSNLIFLH LKRRVKSVIL VMLLGPLLFL ACQLFVINMK
160 170 180 190 200
EIVRTKEYEG NLTWKIKLRS AVYLSDATVT TLGNLVPFTL TLLCFLLLIC
210 220 230 240 250
SLCKHLKKMQ LHGKGSQDPS TKVHIKALQT VIFFLLLCAV YFLSIMISVW
260 270 280 290 300
SFGSLENKPV FMFCKAIRFS YPSIHPFILI WGNKKLKQTF LSVLRQVRYW

VKGEKPSSP
Length:309
Mass (Da):35,278
Last modified:June 28, 2011 - v2
Checksum:i56926C025E4C6358
GO

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti35 – 351R → W.
Corresponds to variant rs10845295 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_030684
Natural varianti162 – 1621L → M.2 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs10743938 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_030685
Natural varianti217 – 2171Q → E.
Corresponds to variant rs10845294 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_030686
Natural varianti227 – 2271A → V.1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs10845293 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_030687
Natural varianti240 – 2401V → I.1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs10772423 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_030688
Natural varianti276 – 2761P → R.
Corresponds to variant rs12318612 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_062090

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF494228 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAM19319.1.
AY114090 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAM63540.1.
AY724942 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAU21144.1.
AC018630 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
BC117421 mRNA. Translation: AAI17422.1.
CCDSiCCDS53747.1.
RefSeqiNP_795366.2. NM_176885.2.
UniGeneiHs.688197.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000390675; ENSP00000375093; ENSG00000256436.
ENST00000572376; ENSP00000459810; ENSG00000263097.
GeneIDi259290.
KEGGihsa:259290.
UCSCiuc001qzo.1. human.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF494228 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAM19319.1.
AY114090 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAM63540.1.
AY724942 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAU21144.1.
AC018630 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
BC117421 mRNA. Translation: AAI17422.1.
CCDSiCCDS53747.1.
RefSeqiNP_795366.2. NM_176885.2.
UniGeneiHs.688197.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP59538.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Chemistry

BindingDBiP59538.
ChEMBLiCHEMBL2034804.

Protein family/group databases

GPCRDBiSearch...

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP59538.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiTAS2R31.
DMDMi338817946.

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP59538.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi259290.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000390675; ENSP00000375093; ENSG00000256436.
ENST00000572376; ENSP00000459810; ENSG00000263097.
GeneIDi259290.
KEGGihsa:259290.
UCSCiuc001qzo.1. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi259290.
GeneCardsiGC12M011183.
HGNCiHGNC:19113. TAS2R31.
MIMi612669. gene.
neXtProtiNX_P59538.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119096.
InParanoidiP59538.
KOiK08474.
OMAiCANGFIA.
OrthoDBiEOG7P02JB.
PhylomeDBiP59538.
TreeFamiTF335891.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_18319. Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors).
REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.

Miscellaneous databases

GeneWikiiTAS2R31.
GenomeRNAii259290.
NextBioi93119.
PROiP59538.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

CleanExiHS_TAS2R44.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR007960. T2R.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11394. PTHR11394. 1 hit.
PfamiPF05296. TAS2R. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "The human TAS2R16 receptor mediates bitter taste in response to beta-glucopyranosides."
    Bufe B., Hofmann T., Krautwurst D., Raguse J.-D., Meyerhof W.
    Nat. Genet. 32:397-401(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], VARIANT MET-162.
  2. "Identification and characterization of human taste receptor genes belonging to the TAS2R family."
    Conte C., Ebeling M., Marcuz A., Nef P., Andres-Barquin P.J.
    Cytogenet. Genome Res. 98:45-53(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
  3. "Evolution of bitter taste receptors in humans and apes."
    Fischer A., Gilad Y., Man O., Paeaebo S.
    Mol. Biol. Evol. 22:432-436(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], VARIANTS MET-162; VAL-227 AND ILE-240.
  4. "The finished DNA sequence of human chromosome 12."
    Scherer S.E., Muzny D.M., Buhay C.J., Chen R., Cree A., Ding Y., Dugan-Rocha S., Gill R., Gunaratne P., Harris R.A., Hawes A.C., Hernandez J., Hodgson A.V., Hume J., Jackson A., Khan Z.M., Kovar-Smith C., Lewis L.R.
    , Lozado R.J., Metzker M.L., Milosavljevic A., Miner G.R., Montgomery K.T., Morgan M.B., Nazareth L.V., Scott G., Sodergren E., Song X.-Z., Steffen D., Lovering R.C., Wheeler D.A., Worley K.C., Yuan Y., Zhang Z., Adams C.Q., Ansari-Lari M.A., Ayele M., Brown M.J., Chen G., Chen Z., Clerc-Blankenburg K.P., Davis C., Delgado O., Dinh H.H., Draper H., Gonzalez-Garay M.L., Havlak P., Jackson L.R., Jacob L.S., Kelly S.H., Li L., Li Z., Liu J., Liu W., Lu J., Maheshwari M., Nguyen B.-V., Okwuonu G.O., Pasternak S., Perez L.M., Plopper F.J.H., Santibanez J., Shen H., Tabor P.E., Verduzco D., Waldron L., Wang Q., Williams G.A., Zhang J., Zhou J., Allen C.C., Amin A.G., Anyalebechi V., Bailey M., Barbaria J.A., Bimage K.E., Bryant N.P., Burch P.E., Burkett C.E., Burrell K.L., Calderon E., Cardenas V., Carter K., Casias K., Cavazos I., Cavazos S.R., Ceasar H., Chacko J., Chan S.N., Chavez D., Christopoulos C., Chu J., Cockrell R., Cox C.D., Dang M., Dathorne S.R., David R., Davis C.M., Davy-Carroll L., Deshazo D.R., Donlin J.E., D'Souza L., Eaves K.A., Egan A., Emery-Cohen A.J., Escotto M., Flagg N., Forbes L.D., Gabisi A.M., Garza M., Hamilton C., Henderson N., Hernandez O., Hines S., Hogues M.E., Huang M., Idlebird D.G., Johnson R., Jolivet A., Jones S., Kagan R., King L.M., Leal B., Lebow H., Lee S., LeVan J.M., Lewis L.C., London P., Lorensuhewa L.M., Loulseged H., Lovett D.A., Lucier A., Lucier R.L., Ma J., Madu R.C., Mapua P., Martindale A.D., Martinez E., Massey E., Mawhiney S., Meador M.G., Mendez S., Mercado C., Mercado I.C., Merritt C.E., Miner Z.L., Minja E., Mitchell T., Mohabbat F., Mohabbat K., Montgomery B., Moore N., Morris S., Munidasa M., Ngo R.N., Nguyen N.B., Nickerson E., Nwaokelemeh O.O., Nwokenkwo S., Obregon M., Oguh M., Oragunye N., Oviedo R.J., Parish B.J., Parker D.N., Parrish J., Parks K.L., Paul H.A., Payton B.A., Perez A., Perrin W., Pickens A., Primus E.L., Pu L.-L., Puazo M., Quiles M.M., Quiroz J.B., Rabata D., Reeves K., Ruiz S.J., Shao H., Sisson I., Sonaike T., Sorelle R.P., Sutton A.E., Svatek A.F., Svetz L.A., Tamerisa K.S., Taylor T.R., Teague B., Thomas N., Thorn R.D., Trejos Z.Y., Trevino B.K., Ukegbu O.N., Urban J.B., Vasquez L.I., Vera V.A., Villasana D.M., Wang L., Ward-Moore S., Warren J.T., Wei X., White F., Williamson A.L., Wleczyk R., Wooden H.S., Wooden S.H., Yen J., Yoon L., Yoon V., Zorrilla S.E., Nelson D., Kucherlapati R., Weinstock G., Gibbs R.A.
    Nature 440:346-351(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  5. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Brain.
  6. Cited for: REVIEW.
  7. "Molecular mechanisms of bitter and sweet taste transduction."
    Margolskee R.F.
    J. Biol. Chem. 277:1-4(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: REVIEW.
  8. "Coding of sweet, bitter, and umami tastes: different receptor cells sharing similar signaling pathways."
    Zhang Y., Hoon M.A., Chandrashekar J., Mueller K.L., Cook B., Wu D., Zuker C.S., Ryba N.J.
    Cell 112:293-301(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: REVIEW.
  9. Cited for: ACTIVATION BY SACCHARIN AND ACESULFAME K.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiT2R31_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P59538
Secondary accession number(s): P59547, Q17R84, Q645X5
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 11, 2003
Last sequence update: June 28, 2011
Last modified: June 24, 2015
This is version 103 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

Most taste cells may be activated by a limited number of bitter compounds; individual taste cells can discriminate among bitter stimuli.

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. 7-transmembrane G-linked receptors
    List of 7-transmembrane G-linked receptor entries
  2. Human chromosome 12
    Human chromosome 12: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  3. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  4. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  5. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  6. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.