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P59533 (T2R38_HUMAN) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified February 19, 2014. Version 107. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (7) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Web links·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Taste receptor type 2 member 38

Short name=T2R38
Alternative name(s):
PTC bitter taste receptor
Taste receptor type 2 member 61
Short name=T2R61
Gene names
Name:TAS2R38
Synonyms:PTC
OrganismHomo sapiens (Human) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo

Protein attributes

Sequence length333 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Protein existenceEvidence at transcript level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Receptor that may play a role in the perception of bitterness and is gustducin-linked. May play a role in sensing the chemical composition of the gastrointestinal content. The activity of this receptor may stimulate alpha gustducin, mediate PLC-beta-2 activation and lead to the gating of TRPM5 By similarity.

Subcellular location

Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Tissue specificity

Expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells of the tongue and exclusively in gustducin-positive cells.

Polymorphism

Variations in TAS2R38 are associated with the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC tasting) [MIM:171200]; also called thiourea tasting. The ability to taste the substance PTC and a number of related substances is genetically controlled. Genetic studies have demonstrated complex inheritance for this trait. For some people (and some chimpanzees also), the chemical PTC tastes very bitter. For others, it is tasteless. Actually, substantial variation in taste sensitivity exists in human. Five haplotypes arising from three coding SNPs in the TAS2R38 gene are associated with distinct phenotypes of PTC taste sensitivity.

Miscellaneous

Most taste cells may be activated by a limited number of bitter compounds; individual taste cells can discriminate among bitter stimuli.

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor T2R family.

Ontologies

Keywords
   Biological processSensory transduction
Taste
   Cellular componentMembrane
   Coding sequence diversityPolymorphism
   DomainTransmembrane
Transmembrane helix
   Molecular functionG-protein coupled receptor
Receptor
Transducer
   PTMGlycoprotein
   Technical termComplete proteome
Reference proteome
Gene Ontology (GO)
   Biological_processsensory perception of taste

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

   Cellular_componentintegral component of membrane

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

plasma membrane

Traceable author statement. Source: Reactome

   Molecular_functionG-protein coupled receptor activity

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

Complete GO annotation...

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Chain1 – 333333Taste receptor type 2 member 38
PRO_0000082273

Regions

Topological domain1 – 1717Extracellular Potential
Transmembrane18 – 3821Helical; Name=1; Potential
Topological domain39 – 5517Cytoplasmic Potential
Transmembrane56 – 7621Helical; Name=2; Potential
Topological domain77 – 9418Extracellular Potential
Transmembrane95 – 11521Helical; Name=3; Potential
Topological domain116 – 14227Cytoplasmic Potential
Transmembrane143 – 16321Helical; Name=4; Potential
Topological domain164 – 19027Extracellular Potential
Transmembrane191 – 21121Helical; Name=5; Potential
Topological domain212 – 25140Cytoplasmic Potential
Transmembrane252 – 27221Helical; Name=6; Potential
Topological domain273 – 2764Extracellular Potential
Transmembrane277 – 29721Helical; Name=7; Potential
Topological domain298 – 33336Cytoplasmic Potential

Amino acid modifications

Glycosylation891N-linked (GlcNAc...) Potential
Glycosylation1781N-linked (GlcNAc...) Potential

Natural variations

Natural variant491A → P. Ref.3
Corresponds to variant rs713598 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_017860
Natural variant2621A → V. Ref.1 Ref.4 Ref.5 Ref.6 Ref.7
Corresponds to variant rs1726866 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_017861
Natural variant2961I → V. Ref.3
Corresponds to variant rs10246939 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_017862

Experimental info

Sequence conflict1861I → N in AAM19322. Ref.1

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
P59533 [UniParc].

Last modified June 21, 2005. Version 3.
Checksum: E3B5EDD5AB99994C

FASTA33337,892
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MLTLTRIRTV SYEVRSTFLF ISVLEFAVGF LTNAFVFLVN FWDVVKRQAL SNSDCVLLCL 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
SISRLFLHGL LFLSAIQLTH FQKLSEPLNH SYQAIIMLWM IANQANLWLA ACLSLLYCSK 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
LIRFSHTFLI CLASWVSRKI SQMLLGIILC SCICTVLCVW CFFSRPHFTV TTVLFMNNNT 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
RLNWQIKDLN LFYSFLFCYL WSVPPFLLFL VSSGMLTVSL GRHMRTMKVY TRNSRDPSLE 

       250        260        270        280        290        300 
AHIKALKSLV SFFCFFVISS CAAFISVPLL ILWRDKIGVM VCVGIMAACP SGHAAILISG 

       310        320        330 
NAKLRRAVMT ILLWAQSSLK VRADHKADSR TLC 

« Hide

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"The human TAS2R16 receptor mediates bitter taste in response to beta-glucopyranosides."
Bufe B., Hofmann T., Krautwurst D., Raguse J.-D., Meyerhof W.
Nat. Genet. 32:397-401(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], VARIANT VAL-262.
[2]"Identification and characterization of human taste receptor genes belonging to the TAS2R family."
Conte C., Ebeling M., Marcuz A., Nef P., Andres-Barquin P.J.
Cytogenet. Genome Res. 98:45-53(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
[3]"Positional cloning of the human quantitative trait locus underlying taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide."
Kim U.-K., Jorgenson E., Coon H., Leppert M., Risch N., Drayna D.T.
Science 299:1221-1225(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], VARIANTS PRO-49 AND VAL-296.
[4]"Evolution of bitter taste receptors in humans and apes."
Fischer A., Gilad Y., Man O., Paeaebo S.
Mol. Biol. Evol. 22:432-436(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], VARIANT VAL-262.
[5]"Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology."
Scherer S.W., Cheung J., MacDonald J.R., Osborne L.R., Nakabayashi K., Herbrick J.-A., Carson A.R., Parker-Katiraee L., Skaug J., Khaja R., Zhang J., Hudek A.K., Li M., Haddad M., Duggan G.E., Fernandez B.A., Kanematsu E., Gentles S. expand/collapse author list , Christopoulos C.C., Choufani S., Kwasnicka D., Zheng X.H., Lai Z., Nusskern D.R., Zhang Q., Gu Z., Lu F., Zeesman S., Nowaczyk M.J., Teshima I., Chitayat D., Shuman C., Weksberg R., Zackai E.H., Grebe T.A., Cox S.R., Kirkpatrick S.J., Rahman N., Friedman J.M., Heng H.H.Q., Pelicci P.G., Lo-Coco F., Belloni E., Shaffer L.G., Pober B., Morton C.C., Gusella J.F., Bruns G.A.P., Korf B.R., Quade B.J., Ligon A.H., Ferguson H., Higgins A.W., Leach N.T., Herrick S.R., Lemyre E., Farra C.G., Kim H.-G., Summers A.M., Gripp K.W., Roberts W., Szatmari P., Winsor E.J.T., Grzeschik K.-H., Teebi A., Minassian B.A., Kere J., Armengol L., Pujana M.A., Estivill X., Wilson M.D., Koop B.F., Tosi S., Moore G.E., Boright A.P., Zlotorynski E., Kerem B., Kroisel P.M., Petek E., Oscier D.G., Mould S.J., Doehner H., Doehner K., Rommens J.M., Vincent J.B., Venter J.C., Li P.W., Mural R.J., Adams M.D., Tsui L.-C.
Science 300:767-772(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA], VARIANT VAL-262.
[6]Mural R.J., Istrail S., Sutton G., Florea L., Halpern A.L., Mobarry C.M., Lippert R., Walenz B., Shatkay H., Dew I., Miller J.R., Flanigan M.J., Edwards N.J., Bolanos R., Fasulo D., Halldorsson B.V., Hannenhalli S., Turner R. expand/collapse author list , Yooseph S., Lu F., Nusskern D.R., Shue B.C., Zheng X.H., Zhong F., Delcher A.L., Huson D.H., Kravitz S.A., Mouchard L., Reinert K., Remington K.A., Clark A.G., Waterman M.S., Eichler E.E., Adams M.D., Hunkapiller M.W., Myers E.W., Venter J.C.
Submitted (JUL-2005) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA], VARIANT VAL-262.
[7]"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
The MGC Project Team
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA], VARIANT VAL-262.
[8]"Receptors for bitter and sweet taste."
Montmayeur J.-P., Matsunami H.
Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 12:366-371(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
[9]"Molecular mechanisms of bitter and sweet taste transduction."
Margolskee R.F.
J. Biol. Chem. 277:1-4(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
[10]"Coding of sweet, bitter, and umami tastes: different receptor cells sharing similar signaling pathways."
Zhang Y., Hoon M.A., Chandrashekar J., Mueller K.L., Cook B., Wu D., Zuker C.S., Ryba N.J.
Cell 112:293-301(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Web resources

Protein Spotlight

A tail of protection - Issue 119 of July 2010

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
AF494231 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAM19322.1.
AY114095 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAM63545.1.
AY258598 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAP14667.1.
AY724960 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAU21156.1.
CH236950 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAL24011.1.
CH471070 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW83993.1.
BC104933 mRNA. Translation: AAI04934.1.
BC104937 mRNA. Translation: AAI04938.1.
RefSeqNP_789787.4. NM_176817.4.
UniGeneHs.647085.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortalP59533.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING9606.ENSP00000331291.

Protein family/group databases

GPCRDBSearch...

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteP59533.

Polymorphism databases

DMDM68068016.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbP59533.
PRIDEP59533.

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblENST00000547270; ENSP00000448219; ENSG00000257138.
ENST00000567903; ENSP00000455619; ENSG00000260696.
GeneID5726.
KEGGhsa:5726.
UCSCuc003vwx.1. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTD5726.
GeneCardsGC07M141672.
H-InvDBHIX0033729.
HGNCHGNC:9584. TAS2R38.
HPAHPA043862.
HPA054366.
MIM171200. phenotype.
607751. gene.
neXtProtNX_P59533.
PharmGKBPA33936.
GenAtlasSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGNOG43295.
HOGENOMHOG000041379.
HOVERGENHBG098741.
InParanoidP59533.
KOK08474.
OMAHMRTMKV.
OrthoDBEOG7J447B.
PhylomeDBP59533.
TreeFamTF335891.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeREACT_111102. Signal Transduction.

Gene expression databases

ArrayExpressP59533.
CleanExHS_TAS2R38.
GenevestigatorP59533.

Family and domain databases

InterProIPR007960. TAS2_rcpt.
[Graphical view]
PfamPF05296. TAS2R. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

GeneWikiTAS2R38.
GenomeRNAi5726.
NextBio22262.
PROP59533.
SOURCESearch...

Entry information

Entry nameT2R38_HUMAN
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: P59533
Secondary accession number(s): A4D1U6 expand/collapse secondary AC list , P59552, Q2M3E8, Q645W3, Q86UK3
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 11, 2003
Last sequence update: June 21, 2005
Last modified: February 19, 2014
This is version 107 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

Protein Spotlight

Protein Spotlight articles and cited UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

MIM cross-references

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

Human chromosome 7

Human chromosome 7: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM

7-transmembrane G-linked receptors

List of 7-transmembrane G-linked receptor entries