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Protein

Taste receptor type 2 member 38

Gene

TAS2R38

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 4 out of 5-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Receptor that may play a role in the perception of bitterness and is gustducin-linked. May play a role in sensing the chemical composition of the gastrointestinal content. The activity of this receptor may stimulate alpha gustducin, mediate PLC-beta-2 activation and lead to the gating of TRPM5 (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  • bitter taste receptor activity Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

G-protein coupled receptor, Receptor, Transducer

Keywords - Biological processi

Sensory transduction, Taste

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_18319. Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors).
REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Taste receptor type 2 member 38
Short name:
T2R38
Alternative name(s):
PTC bitter taste receptor
Taste receptor type 2 member 61
Short name:
T2R61
Gene namesi
Name:TAS2R38
Synonyms:PTC
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 7

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:9584. TAS2R38.

Subcellular locationi

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Topological domaini1 – 1717ExtracellularSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei18 – 3821Helical; Name=1Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini39 – 5517CytoplasmicSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei56 – 7621Helical; Name=2Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini77 – 9418ExtracellularSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei95 – 11521Helical; Name=3Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini116 – 14227CytoplasmicSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei143 – 16321Helical; Name=4Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini164 – 19027ExtracellularSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei191 – 21121Helical; Name=5Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini212 – 25140CytoplasmicSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei252 – 27221Helical; Name=6Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini273 – 2764ExtracellularSequence Analysis
Transmembranei277 – 29721Helical; Name=7Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini298 – 33336CytoplasmicSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST

GO - Cellular componenti

  • integral component of membrane Source: UniProtKB
  • plasma membrane Source: CACAO
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

MIMi171200. phenotype.
PharmGKBiPA33936.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiTAS2R38.
DMDMi68068016.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 333333Taste receptor type 2 member 38PRO_0000082273Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Glycosylationi89 – 891N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
Glycosylationi178 – 1781N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis

Keywords - PTMi

Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP59533.
PRIDEiP59533.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP59533.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells of the tongue and exclusively in gustducin-positive cells.

Gene expression databases

CleanExiHS_TAS2R38.
GenevisibleiP59533. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA043862.
HPA054366.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9606.ENSP00000448219.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP59533.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG43295.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119096.
HOGENOMiHOG000041379.
HOVERGENiHBG098741.
InParanoidiP59533.
KOiK08474.
OMAiHMRTMKV.
OrthoDBiEOG7J447B.
PhylomeDBiP59533.
TreeFamiTF335891.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR007960. T2R.
IPR030050. TAS2R38.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11394. PTHR11394. 1 hit.
PTHR11394:SF52. PTHR11394:SF52. 1 hit.
PfamiPF05296. TAS2R. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P59533-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MLTLTRIRTV SYEVRSTFLF ISVLEFAVGF LTNAFVFLVN FWDVVKRQAL
60 70 80 90 100
SNSDCVLLCL SISRLFLHGL LFLSAIQLTH FQKLSEPLNH SYQAIIMLWM
110 120 130 140 150
IANQANLWLA ACLSLLYCSK LIRFSHTFLI CLASWVSRKI SQMLLGIILC
160 170 180 190 200
SCICTVLCVW CFFSRPHFTV TTVLFMNNNT RLNWQIKDLN LFYSFLFCYL
210 220 230 240 250
WSVPPFLLFL VSSGMLTVSL GRHMRTMKVY TRNSRDPSLE AHIKALKSLV
260 270 280 290 300
SFFCFFVISS CAAFISVPLL ILWRDKIGVM VCVGIMAACP SGHAAILISG
310 320 330
NAKLRRAVMT ILLWAQSSLK VRADHKADSR TLC
Length:333
Mass (Da):37,892
Last modified:June 21, 2005 - v3
Checksum:iE3B5EDD5AB99994C
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti186 – 1861I → N in AAM19322 (PubMed:12379855).Curated

Polymorphismi

Variations in TAS2R38 are associated with the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC tasting) [MIMi:171200]; also called thiourea tasting. The ability to taste the substance PTC and a number of related substances is genetically controlled. Genetic studies have demonstrated complex inheritance for this trait. For some people (and some chimpanzees also), the chemical PTC tastes very bitter. For others, it is tasteless. Actually, substantial variation in taste sensitivity exists in human. Five haplotypes arising from three coding SNPs in the TAS2R38 gene are associated with distinct phenotypes of PTC taste sensitivity.

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti49 – 491A → P.1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs713598 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_017860
Natural varianti262 – 2621A → V.5 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs1726866 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_017861
Natural varianti296 – 2961I → V.1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs10246939 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_017862

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF494231 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAM19322.1.
AY114095 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAM63545.1.
AY258598 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAP14667.1.
AY724960 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAU21156.1.
CH236950 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAL24011.1.
CH471070 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW83993.1.
BC104933 mRNA. Translation: AAI04934.1.
BC104937 mRNA. Translation: AAI04938.1.
CCDSiCCDS34765.1.
RefSeqiNP_789787.4. NM_176817.4.
UniGeneiHs.647085.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000547270; ENSP00000448219; ENSG00000257138.
GeneIDi5726.
KEGGihsa:5726.
UCSCiuc003vwx.1. human.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

Protein Spotlight

A tail of protection - Issue 119 of July 2010

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF494231 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAM19322.1.
AY114095 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAM63545.1.
AY258598 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAP14667.1.
AY724960 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAU21156.1.
CH236950 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAL24011.1.
CH471070 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW83993.1.
BC104933 mRNA. Translation: AAI04934.1.
BC104937 mRNA. Translation: AAI04938.1.
CCDSiCCDS34765.1.
RefSeqiNP_789787.4. NM_176817.4.
UniGeneiHs.647085.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP59533.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9606.ENSP00000448219.

Protein family/group databases

GPCRDBiSearch...

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP59533.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiTAS2R38.
DMDMi68068016.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP59533.
PRIDEiP59533.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000547270; ENSP00000448219; ENSG00000257138.
GeneIDi5726.
KEGGihsa:5726.
UCSCiuc003vwx.1. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi5726.
GeneCardsiGC07M141672.
H-InvDBHIX0033729.
HGNCiHGNC:9584. TAS2R38.
HPAiHPA043862.
HPA054366.
MIMi171200. phenotype.
607751. gene.
neXtProtiNX_P59533.
PharmGKBiPA33936.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG43295.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119096.
HOGENOMiHOG000041379.
HOVERGENiHBG098741.
InParanoidiP59533.
KOiK08474.
OMAiHMRTMKV.
OrthoDBiEOG7J447B.
PhylomeDBiP59533.
TreeFamiTF335891.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_18319. Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors).
REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.

Miscellaneous databases

GeneWikiiTAS2R38.
GenomeRNAii5726.
NextBioi22262.
PROiP59533.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

CleanExiHS_TAS2R38.
GenevisibleiP59533. HS.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR007960. T2R.
IPR030050. TAS2R38.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11394. PTHR11394. 1 hit.
PTHR11394:SF52. PTHR11394:SF52. 1 hit.
PfamiPF05296. TAS2R. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "The human TAS2R16 receptor mediates bitter taste in response to beta-glucopyranosides."
    Bufe B., Hofmann T., Krautwurst D., Raguse J.-D., Meyerhof W.
    Nat. Genet. 32:397-401(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], VARIANT VAL-262.
  2. "Identification and characterization of human taste receptor genes belonging to the TAS2R family."
    Conte C., Ebeling M., Marcuz A., Nef P., Andres-Barquin P.J.
    Cytogenet. Genome Res. 98:45-53(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
  3. "Positional cloning of the human quantitative trait locus underlying taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide."
    Kim U.-K., Jorgenson E., Coon H., Leppert M., Risch N., Drayna D.T.
    Science 299:1221-1225(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], VARIANTS PRO-49 AND VAL-296.
  4. "Evolution of bitter taste receptors in humans and apes."
    Fischer A., Gilad Y., Man O., Paeaebo S.
    Mol. Biol. Evol. 22:432-436(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], VARIANT VAL-262.
  5. "Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology."
    Scherer S.W., Cheung J., MacDonald J.R., Osborne L.R., Nakabayashi K., Herbrick J.-A., Carson A.R., Parker-Katiraee L., Skaug J., Khaja R., Zhang J., Hudek A.K., Li M., Haddad M., Duggan G.E., Fernandez B.A., Kanematsu E., Gentles S.
    , Christopoulos C.C., Choufani S., Kwasnicka D., Zheng X.H., Lai Z., Nusskern D.R., Zhang Q., Gu Z., Lu F., Zeesman S., Nowaczyk M.J., Teshima I., Chitayat D., Shuman C., Weksberg R., Zackai E.H., Grebe T.A., Cox S.R., Kirkpatrick S.J., Rahman N., Friedman J.M., Heng H.H.Q., Pelicci P.G., Lo-Coco F., Belloni E., Shaffer L.G., Pober B., Morton C.C., Gusella J.F., Bruns G.A.P., Korf B.R., Quade B.J., Ligon A.H., Ferguson H., Higgins A.W., Leach N.T., Herrick S.R., Lemyre E., Farra C.G., Kim H.-G., Summers A.M., Gripp K.W., Roberts W., Szatmari P., Winsor E.J.T., Grzeschik K.-H., Teebi A., Minassian B.A., Kere J., Armengol L., Pujana M.A., Estivill X., Wilson M.D., Koop B.F., Tosi S., Moore G.E., Boright A.P., Zlotorynski E., Kerem B., Kroisel P.M., Petek E., Oscier D.G., Mould S.J., Doehner H., Doehner K., Rommens J.M., Vincent J.B., Venter J.C., Li P.W., Mural R.J., Adams M.D., Tsui L.-C.
    Science 300:767-772(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA], VARIANT VAL-262.
  6. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA], VARIANT VAL-262.
  7. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA], VARIANT VAL-262.
  8. Cited for: REVIEW.
  9. "Molecular mechanisms of bitter and sweet taste transduction."
    Margolskee R.F.
    J. Biol. Chem. 277:1-4(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: REVIEW.
  10. "Coding of sweet, bitter, and umami tastes: different receptor cells sharing similar signaling pathways."
    Zhang Y., Hoon M.A., Chandrashekar J., Mueller K.L., Cook B., Wu D., Zuker C.S., Ryba N.J.
    Cell 112:293-301(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: REVIEW.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiT2R38_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P59533
Secondary accession number(s): A4D1U6
, P59552, Q2M3E8, Q645W3, Q86UK3
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 11, 2003
Last sequence update: June 21, 2005
Last modified: July 22, 2015
This is version 116 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

Most taste cells may be activated by a limited number of bitter compounds; individual taste cells can discriminate among bitter stimuli.

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. 7-transmembrane G-linked receptors
    List of 7-transmembrane G-linked receptor entries
  2. Human chromosome 7
    Human chromosome 7: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  3. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  4. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  5. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  6. Protein Spotlight
    Protein Spotlight articles and cited UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries
  7. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.