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Protein

Period circadian protein homolog 3

Gene

PER3

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Originally described as a core component of the circadian clock. The circadian clock, an internal time-keeping system, regulates various physiological processes through the generation of approximately 24 hour circadian rhythms in gene expression, which are translated into rhythms in metabolism and behavior. It is derived from the Latin roots 'circa' (about) and 'diem' (day) and acts as an important regulator of a wide array of physiological functions including metabolism, sleep, body temperature, blood pressure, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, and renal function. Consists of two major components: the central clock, residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, and the peripheral clocks that are present in nearly every tissue and organ system. Both the central and peripheral clocks can be reset by environmental cues, also known as Zeitgebers (German for 'timegivers'). The predominant Zeitgeber for the central clock is light, which is sensed by retina and signals directly to the SCN. The central clock entrains the peripheral clocks through neuronal and hormonal signals, body temperature and feeding-related cues, aligning all clocks with the external light/dark cycle. Circadian rhythms allow an organism to achieve temporal homeostasis with its environment at the molecular level by regulating gene expression to create a peak of protein expression once every 24 hours to control when a particular physiological process is most active with respect to the solar day. Transcription and translation of core clock components (CLOCK, NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1, ARNTL2/BMAL2, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1 and CRY2) plays a critical role in rhythm generation, whereas delays imposed by post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important for determining the period (tau) of the rhythms (tau refers to the period of a rhythm and is the length, in time, of one complete cycle). A diurnal rhythm is synchronized with the day/night cycle, while the ultradian and infradian rhythms have a period shorter and longer than 24 hours, respectively. Disruptions in the circadian rhythms contribute to the pathology of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, metabolic syndromes and aging. A transcription/translation feedback loop (TTFL) forms the core of the molecular circadian clock mechanism. Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the form of a heterodimer and activate the transcription of core clock genes and clock-controlled genes (involved in key metabolic processes), harboring E-box elements (5'-CACGTG-3') within their promoters. The core clock genes: PER1/2/3 and CRY1/2 which are transcriptional repressors form the negative limb of the feedback loop and interact with the CLOCK|NPAS2-ARNTL/BMAL1|ARNTL2/BMAL2 heterodimer inhibiting its activity and thereby negatively regulating their own expression. This heterodimer also activates nuclear receptors NR1D1, NR1D2, RORA, RORB and RORG, which form a second feedback loop and which activate and repress ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription, respectively. Has a redundant role with the other PER proteins PER1 and PER2 and is not essential for the circadian rhythms maintenance. In contrast, plays an important role in sleep-wake timing and sleep homeostasis probably through the transcriptional regulation of sleep homeostasis-related genes, without influencing circadian parameters. Can bind heme.5 Publications

GO - Biological processi

  • circadian regulation of gene expression Source: InterPro
  • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter Source: UniProtKB
  • protein stabilization Source: UniProtKB
  • regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, sleep Source: UniProtKB
  • transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Biological processi

Biological rhythms, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciZFISH:ENSG00000049246-MONOMER.
SIGNORiP56645.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Period circadian protein homolog 3
Short name:
hPER3
Alternative name(s):
Cell growth-inhibiting gene 13 protein
Circadian clock protein PERIOD 3
Gene namesi
Name:PER3
ORF Names:GIG13
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:8847. PER3.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • cytoplasm Source: UniProtKB
  • nucleus Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Involvement in diseasei

Advanced sleep phase syndrome, familial, 3 (FASPS3)1 Publication
The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionA disorder characterized by very early sleep onset and offset. Individuals are 'morning larks' with a 4 hours advance of the sleep, temperature and melatonin rhythms.
See also OMIM:616882
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_076416414 – 416PVH → AVR in FASPS3; decreased stability; decreased protein abundance. 1 Publication3

Keywords - Diseasei

Disease mutation

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi8863.
MIMi616882. phenotype.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000049246.
PharmGKBiPA33186.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiPER3.
DMDMi317373535.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00001626331 – 1201Period circadian protein homolog 3Add BLAST1201

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei919PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei994PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei1053PhosphoserineCombined sources1

Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylation by CSNK1E is weak and appears to require association with PER1 and translocation to the nucleus.By similarity
Ubiquitinated.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

EPDiP56645.
MaxQBiP56645.
PaxDbiP56645.
PeptideAtlasiP56645.
PRIDEiP56645.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP56645.
PhosphoSitePlusiP56645.

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000049246.
CleanExiHS_PER3.
ExpressionAtlasiP56645. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP56645. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA019530.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer. Component of the circadian core oscillator, which includes the CRY proteins, CLOCK or NPAS2, ARTNL/BMAL1 or ARTNL2/BMAL2, CSNK1D and/or CSNK1E, TIMELESS and the PER proteins. Interacts directly with PER1, PER2, CRY1, CRY2, and TIMELESS; interaction with CRY1 and CRY2 is weak and not rhythmic. Interacts with FBXW11 and BTRC.1 Publication

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
CHEK2O960172EBI-2827813,EBI-1180783

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi114386. 11 interactors.
IntActiP56645. 9 interactors.
MINTiMINT-8052823.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000355031.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP56645.
SMRiP56645.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini121 – 188PAS 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST68
Domaini262 – 328PAS 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST67
Domaini337 – 380PACAdd BLAST44
Repeati965 – 9821Add BLAST18
Repeati983 – 10002Add BLAST18
Repeati1001 – 10183Add BLAST18
Repeati1019 – 10364Add BLAST18
Repeati1037 – 10545Add BLAST18

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni555 – 760CSNK1E binding domainBy similarityAdd BLAST206
Regioni965 – 10545 X 18 AA tandem repeats of S-[HP]-[AP]-T-[AT]-[GST]-[ATV]-L-S-[MT]-G-[LS]-P-P-[MRS]-[EKR]-[NST]-PAdd BLAST90
Regioni1123 – 1201CRY binding domainBy similarityAdd BLAST79

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Motifi55 – 64Nuclear export signal 1By similarity10
Motifi403 – 412Nuclear export signal 3By similarity10
Motifi729 – 745Nuclear localization signalBy similarityAdd BLAST17
Motifi925 – 932Nuclear export signal 2By similarity8

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Compositional biasi567 – 570Poly-Ser4
Compositional biasi750 – 753Poly-Ser4
Compositional biasi769 – 895Pro-richAdd BLAST127
Compositional biasi962 – 1081Ser-richAdd BLAST120

Sequence similaritiesi

Contains 2 PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) domains.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3753. Eukaryota.
ENOG410Y118. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00510000046467.
HOVERGENiHBG008167.
InParanoidiP56645.
KOiK02633.
OMAiFKHVGLT.
OrthoDBiEOG091G00PA.
PhylomeDBiP56645.
TreeFamiTF318445.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR000014. PAS.
IPR013655. PAS_fold_3.
IPR015524. Per_circ_prot_3.
IPR022728. Period_circadian-like_C.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11269:SF13. PTHR11269:SF13. 2 hits.
PfamiPF08447. PAS_3. 1 hit.
PF12114. Period_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00091. PAS. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF55785. SSF55785. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50112. PAS. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: P56645-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MPRGEAPGPG RRGAKDEALG EESGERWSPE FHLQRKLADS SHSEQQDRNR
60 70 80 90 100
VSEELIMVVQ EMKKYFPSER RNKPSTLDAL NYALRCVHSV QANSEFFQIL
110 120 130 140 150
SQNGAPQADV SMYSLEELAT IASEHTSKNT DTFVAVFSFL SGRLVHISEQ
160 170 180 190 200
AALILNRKKD VLASSHFVDL LAPQDMRVFY AHTARAQLPF WNNWTQRAAR
210 220 230 240 250
YECAPVKPFF CRIRGGEDRK QEKCHSPFRI IPYLIHVHHP AQPELESEPC
260 270 280 290 300
CLTVVEKIHS GYEAPRIPVN KRIFTTTHTP GCVFLEVDEK AVPLLGYLPQ
310 320 330 340 350
DLIGTSILSY LHPEDRSLMV AIHQKVLKYA GHPPFEHSPI RFCTQNGDYI
360 370 380 390 400
ILDSSWSSFV NPWSRKISFI IGRHKVRTSP LNEDVFATKI KKMNDNDKDI
410 420 430 440 450
TELQEQIYKL LLQPVHVSVS SGYGSLGSSG SQEQLVSIAS SSEASGHRVE
460 470 480 490 500
ETKAEQMTLQ QVYASVNKIK NLGQQLYIES MTKSSFKPVT GTRTEPNGGG
510 520 530 540 550
ECKTFTSFHQ TLKNNSVYTE PCEDLRNDEH SPSYQQINCI DSVIRYLKSY
560 570 580 590 600
NIPALKRKCI SCTNTTSSSS EEDKQNHKAD DVQALQAGLQ IPAIPKSEMP
610 620 630 640 650
TNGRSIDTGG GAPQILSTAM LSLGSGISQC GYSSTIVHVP PPETARDATL
660 670 680 690 700
FCEPWTLNMQ PAPLTSEEFK HVGLTAAVLS AHTQKEEQNY VDKFREKILS
710 720 730 740 750
SPYSSYLQQE SRSKAKYSYF QGDSTSKQTR SAGCRKGKHK RKKLPEPPDS
760 770 780 790 800
SSSNTGSGPR RGAHQNAQPC CPSAASSPHT SSPTFPPAAM VPSQAPYLVP
810 820 830 840 850
AFPLPAATSP GREYAAPGTA PEGLHGLPLS EGLQPYPAFP FPYLDTFMTV
860 870 880 890 900
FLPDPPVCPL LSPSFLPCPF LGATASSAIS PSMSSAMSPT LDPPPSVTSQ
910 920 930 940 950
RREEEKWEAQ SEGHPFITSR SSSPLQLNLL QEEMPRPSES PDQMRRNTCP
960 970 980 990 1000
QTEYCVTGNN GSESSPATTG ALSTGSPPRE NPSHPTASAL STGSPPMKNP
1010 1020 1030 1040 1050
SHPTASALST GSPPMKNPSH PTASTLSMGL PPSRTPSHPT ATVLSTGSPP
1060 1070 1080 1090 1100
SESPSRTGSA ASGSSDSSIY LTSSVYSSKI SQNGQQSQDV QKKETFPNVA
1110 1120 1130 1140 1150
EEPIWRMIRQ TPERILMTYQ VPERVKEVVL KEDLEKLESM RQQQPQFSHG
1160 1170 1180 1190 1200
QKEELAKVYN WIQSQTVTQE IDIQACVTCE NEDSADGAAT SCGQVLVEDS

C
Length:1,201
Mass (Da):131,888
Last modified:January 11, 2011 - v4
Checksum:i8129C4246EDD1816
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: P56645-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     197-197: R → RA
     499-499: G → GGESANGG
     954-954: Y → YQ

Show »
Length:1,210
Mass (Da):132,660
Checksum:iD63BD326292813F6
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence BAB32925 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally shortened.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti943Q → R in BAB32925 (PubMed:11306557).Curated1

Polymorphismi

The number of repeats of 18 amino acids in positions 966 to 1055 is polymorphic and varies among at least 2 different alleles. Alleles corresponding in size to a 4 (PER3.4) and 5 (PER3.5) repeats have been described. The sequence shown is that of allele PER3.5. In most populations around 10% of individuals are homozygous for the 5-repeat (PER3.5), whereas approximately 50% are homozygous for the 4-repeat (PER3.4). In some populations in Papua New Guinea the prevalence of the various genotypes appears to be reversed. These repeats and polymorphism are not present in non-primate mammals. Homozygosity for PER3.5 is more likely to show morning preference, whereas homozygosity for the PER3.4 associates with evening preferences. PER3.5 homozygous show vulnerability to sleep loss with a greater cognitive decline in response to total sleep deprivation (PubMed:11306557, PubMed:17346965, PubMed:19716732, PubMed:24439663, PubMed:24577121).5 Publications

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_076416414 – 416PVH → AVR in FASPS3; decreased stability; decreased protein abundance. 1 Publication3
Natural variantiVAR_076417414P → A.1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs150812083dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_076418416H → R.1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs139315125dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025532639V → G Associated with delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). 2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant rs10462020dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_022428827L → P.1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs228696dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_015514856P → A.1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs228697dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_0710491001 – 1018Missing Associated with eveningness and better cognitive performance during sleep deprivation experiments. 4 PublicationsCorresponds to variant rs57875989dbSNPEnsembl.Add BLAST18
Natural variantiVAR_0287281007A → T.Corresponds to variant rs1776342dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_0287291010T → I.Corresponds to variant rs12033719dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_0255331028M → T Only found in PER3.4 allele. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs2640909dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_0287301081S → C.Corresponds to variant rs2640905dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_0255341149H → R.1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs10462021dbSNPEnsembl.1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_040326197R → RA in isoform 2. 1 Publication1
Alternative sequenceiVSP_040327499G → GGESANGG in isoform 2. 1 Publication1
Alternative sequenceiVSP_040328954Y → YQ in isoform 2. 1 Publication1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB047521 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB63250.1.
AB047530 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB63251.1.
AB047531 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB63252.1.
AB047532 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB63253.1.
AB047533 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB63254.1.
AB047534 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB63255.1.
AB047686 mRNA. Translation: BAB32925.2. Different initiation.
AL157954 mRNA. Translation: CAB76084.1.
AY493418 mRNA. Translation: AAS72879.1.
Z98884 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAI21435.1.
Z98884 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAI21436.1.
CCDSiCCDS72695.1. [P56645-2]
CCDS89.1. [P56645-1]
RefSeqiNP_001276790.1. NM_001289861.1.
NP_001276791.1. NM_001289862.1. [P56645-2]
NP_001276792.1. NM_001289863.1.
NP_001276793.1. NM_001289864.1.
NP_058515.1. NM_016831.2. [P56645-1]
UniGeneiHs.162200.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000361923; ENSP00000355031; ENSG00000049246. [P56645-1]
ENST00000377532; ENSP00000366755; ENSG00000049246. [P56645-2]
ENST00000613533; ENSP00000482093; ENSG00000049246. [P56645-2]
GeneIDi8863.
KEGGihsa:8863.
UCSCiuc001aop.5. human. [P56645-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB047521 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB63250.1.
AB047530 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB63251.1.
AB047531 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB63252.1.
AB047532 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB63253.1.
AB047533 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB63254.1.
AB047534 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB63255.1.
AB047686 mRNA. Translation: BAB32925.2. Different initiation.
AL157954 mRNA. Translation: CAB76084.1.
AY493418 mRNA. Translation: AAS72879.1.
Z98884 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAI21435.1.
Z98884 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAI21436.1.
CCDSiCCDS72695.1. [P56645-2]
CCDS89.1. [P56645-1]
RefSeqiNP_001276790.1. NM_001289861.1.
NP_001276791.1. NM_001289862.1. [P56645-2]
NP_001276792.1. NM_001289863.1.
NP_001276793.1. NM_001289864.1.
NP_058515.1. NM_016831.2. [P56645-1]
UniGeneiHs.162200.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP56645.
SMRiP56645.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi114386. 11 interactors.
IntActiP56645. 9 interactors.
MINTiMINT-8052823.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000355031.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP56645.
PhosphoSitePlusiP56645.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiPER3.
DMDMi317373535.

Proteomic databases

EPDiP56645.
MaxQBiP56645.
PaxDbiP56645.
PeptideAtlasiP56645.
PRIDEiP56645.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi8863.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000361923; ENSP00000355031; ENSG00000049246. [P56645-1]
ENST00000377532; ENSP00000366755; ENSG00000049246. [P56645-2]
ENST00000613533; ENSP00000482093; ENSG00000049246. [P56645-2]
GeneIDi8863.
KEGGihsa:8863.
UCSCiuc001aop.5. human. [P56645-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi8863.
DisGeNETi8863.
GeneCardsiPER3.
HGNCiHGNC:8847. PER3.
HPAiHPA019530.
MIMi603427. gene.
616882. phenotype.
neXtProtiNX_P56645.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000049246.
PharmGKBiPA33186.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3753. Eukaryota.
ENOG410Y118. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00510000046467.
HOVERGENiHBG008167.
InParanoidiP56645.
KOiK02633.
OMAiFKHVGLT.
OrthoDBiEOG091G00PA.
PhylomeDBiP56645.
TreeFamiTF318445.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciZFISH:ENSG00000049246-MONOMER.
SIGNORiP56645.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiPER3. human.
GeneWikiiPER3.
GenomeRNAii8863.
PROiP56645.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000049246.
CleanExiHS_PER3.
ExpressionAtlasiP56645. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP56645. HS.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR000014. PAS.
IPR013655. PAS_fold_3.
IPR015524. Per_circ_prot_3.
IPR022728. Period_circadian-like_C.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11269:SF13. PTHR11269:SF13. 2 hits.
PfamiPF08447. PAS_3. 1 hit.
PF12114. Period_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00091. PAS. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF55785. SSF55785. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50112. PAS. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiPER3_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P56645
Secondary accession number(s): Q5H8X4
, Q5H8X5, Q969K6, Q96S77, Q96S78, Q9C0J3, Q9NSP9, Q9UGU8
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 15, 1999
Last sequence update: January 11, 2011
Last modified: November 2, 2016
This is version 152 of the entry and version 4 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 1
    Human chromosome 1: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.