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Protein

Cystathionine gamma-synthase 1, chloroplastic

Gene

CGS1

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes the first committed step of methionine (Met) biosynthesis. Catalyzes the formation of L-cystathionine from homoserine esters and L-cysteine, via a gamma-replacement reaction. Substrate preference for cystathionine synthesis is O-phospho-L-homoserine (OPH) > O(4)-succinyl-L-homoserine (OSH) >> O-acetyl-L-homoserine (OAH). Is able, at extremely low rate, to catalyze a gamma-elimination of OPH in the absence of cysteine to produce inorganic phosphate (Pi), 2-oxobutanoate and ammonia.1 Publication

Catalytic activityi

O(4)-succinyl-L-homoserine + L-cysteine = L-cystathionine + succinate.1 Publication

Cofactori

pyridoxal 5'-phosphate1 PublicationNote: Binds 1 pyridoxal 5'-phosphate per subunit.1 Publication

Enzyme regulationi

Inhibited by propargylglycine.1 Publication

Kineticsi

kcat is 30 sec(-1) with L-cysteine as substrate.1 Publication

  1. KM=0.46 mM for L-cysteine1 Publication
  2. KM=2.5 mM for O-phospho-L-homoserine1 Publication

Vmax=33.6 µmol/min/mg enzyme with L-cysteine as substrate1 Publication

pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 7.5.1 Publication

Pathwayi

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. cystathionine gamma-synthase activity Source: TAIR
  2. pyridoxal phosphate binding Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

  1. methionine biosynthetic process Source: TAIR
  2. selenium compound metabolic process Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Transferase

Keywords - Biological processi

Amino-acid biosynthesis, Methionine biosynthesis

Keywords - Ligandi

Pyridoxal phosphate

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT3G01120-MONOMER.
MetaCyc:AT3G01120-MONOMER.
BRENDAi2.5.1.48. 399.
SABIO-RKP55217.
UniPathwayiUPA00051; UER00077.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Cystathionine gamma-synthase 1, chloroplasticCurated (EC:2.5.1.481 Publication)
Short name:
AtCGS1Curated
Alternative name(s):
METHIONINE OVERACCUMULATION 11 Publication
O-succinylhomoserine (thiol)-lyase
Gene namesi
Name:CGS1Curated
Synonyms:CYS1Curated, MTO11 Publication
Ordered Locus Names:At3g01120
ORF Names:T4P13.19
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
ProteomesiUP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 3

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT3G01120.

Subcellular locationi

  1. Plastidchloroplast 1 Publication

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. chloroplast Source: TAIR
  2. chloroplast stroma Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chloroplast, Plastid

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi77 – 771R → H in mto1-4; over-accumulation of soluble methionine. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi78 – 781R → K in mto1-7; over-accumulation of soluble methionine. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi81 – 811S → N in mto1-2; over-accumulation of soluble methionine. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi84 – 841G → D in mto1-3 and mto1-5; over-accumulation of soluble methionine. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi84 – 841G → S in mto1-1; over-accumulation of soluble methionine. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi86 – 861A → V in mto1-6; over-accumulation of soluble methionine. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Transit peptidei1 – 6868Chloroplast1 PublicationAdd
BLAST
Chaini69 – 563495Cystathionine gamma-synthase 1, chloroplasticPRO_0000033455Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei379 – 3791N6-(pyridoxal phosphate)lysineBy similarity

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP55217.
PRIDEiP55217.

Expressioni

Inductioni

Down-regulated by methionine.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatoriP55217.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP55217.
SMRiP55217. Positions 170-563.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Compositional biasi104 – 13633Ala-richSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the trans-sulfuration enzymes family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Transit peptide

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG0626.
HOGENOMiHOG000246415.
InParanoidiP55217.
KOiK01739.
OMAiNAEHGAN.
PhylomeDBiP55217.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.640.10. 1 hit.
3.90.1150.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR000277. Cys/Met-Metab_PyrdxlP-dep_enz.
IPR015424. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase.
IPR015421. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub1.
IPR015422. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub2.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11808. PTHR11808. 1 hit.
PfamiPF01053. Cys_Met_Meta_PP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF53383. SSF53383. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00868. CYS_MET_METAB_PP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P55217-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MAVSSFQCPT IFSSSSISGF QCRSDPDLVG SPVGGSSRRR VHASAGISSS
60 70 80 90 100
FTGDAGLSSR ILRFPPNFVR QLSIKARRNC SNIGVAQIVA AKWSNNPSSA
110 120 130 140 150
LPSAAAAAAT SSASAVSSAA SAAAASSAAA APVAAAPPVV LKSVDEEVVV
160 170 180 190 200
AEEGIREKIG SVQLTDSKHS FLSSDGSLTV HAGERLGRGI VTDAITTPVV
210 220 230 240 250
NTSAYFFKKT AELIDFKEKR SVSFEYGRYG NPTTVVLEDK ISALEGAEST
260 270 280 290 300
LVMASGMCAS TVMLLALVPA GGHIVTTTDC YRKTRIFMEN FLPKLGITVT
310 320 330 340 350
VIDPADIAGL EAAVNEFKVS LFFTESPTNP FLRCVDIELV SKICHKRGTL
360 370 380 390 400
VCIDGTFATP LNQKALALGA DLVVHSATKY IGGHNDVLAG CICGSLKLVS
410 420 430 440 450
EIRNLHHVLG GTLNPNAAYL IIRGMKTLHL RVQQQNSTAF RMAEILEAHP
460 470 480 490 500
KVSHVYYPGL PSHPEHELAK RQMTGFGGVV SFEIDGDIET TIKFVDSLKI
510 520 530 540 550
PYIAPSFGGC ESIVDQPAIM SYWDLPQEER LKYGIKDNLV RFSFGVEDFE
560
DVKADILQAL EAI
Length:563
Mass (Da):59,919
Last modified:June 20, 2002 - v3
Checksum:i4FB902896C062860
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti102 – 1021P → T in CAA64383 (Ref. 4) Curated
Sequence conflicti177 – 1771S → Q in CAA64383 (Ref. 4) Curated
Sequence conflicti547 – 5471E → K in AAM13883 (PubMed:14593172).Curated

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti8 – 81C → S.3 Publications
Natural varianti55 – 551A → G.3 Publications
Natural varianti91 – 911A → G.3 Publications
Natural varianti412 – 4121T → P.3 Publications
Natural varianti459 – 4591G → A.1 Publication

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U43709 mRNA. Translation: AAC49574.1.
U83500 mRNA. Translation: AAB41235.1.
AB010888 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA24699.1.
AF039206 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC25687.1.
X94756 mRNA. Translation: CAA64383.1.
AC008261 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF26162.1.
CP002686 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE73612.1.
AY094438 mRNA. Translation: AAM19810.1.
AY091062 mRNA. Translation: AAM13883.1.
BT002753 mRNA. Translation: AAO22582.1.
X79707 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA56143.1.
PIRiS51579.
S71228.
RefSeqiNP_186761.1. NM_110977.2.
UniGeneiAt.20198.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT3G01120.1; AT3G01120.1; AT3G01120.
GeneIDi821292.
KEGGiath:AT3G01120.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U43709 mRNA. Translation: AAC49574.1.
U83500 mRNA. Translation: AAB41235.1.
AB010888 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA24699.1.
AF039206 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC25687.1.
X94756 mRNA. Translation: CAA64383.1.
AC008261 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF26162.1.
CP002686 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE73612.1.
AY094438 mRNA. Translation: AAM19810.1.
AY091062 mRNA. Translation: AAM13883.1.
BT002753 mRNA. Translation: AAO22582.1.
X79707 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA56143.1.
PIRiS51579.
S71228.
RefSeqiNP_186761.1. NM_110977.2.
UniGeneiAt.20198.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP55217.
SMRiP55217. Positions 170-563.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP55217.
PRIDEiP55217.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT3G01120.1; AT3G01120.1; AT3G01120.
GeneIDi821292.
KEGGiath:AT3G01120.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT3G01120.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG0626.
HOGENOMiHOG000246415.
InParanoidiP55217.
KOiK01739.
OMAiNAEHGAN.
PhylomeDBiP55217.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00051; UER00077.
BioCyciARA:AT3G01120-MONOMER.
MetaCyc:AT3G01120-MONOMER.
BRENDAi2.5.1.48. 399.
SABIO-RKP55217.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiP55217.

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatoriP55217.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.640.10. 1 hit.
3.90.1150.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR000277. Cys/Met-Metab_PyrdxlP-dep_enz.
IPR015424. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase.
IPR015421. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub1.
IPR015422. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub2.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11808. PTHR11808. 1 hit.
PfamiPF01053. Cys_Met_Meta_PP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF53383. SSF53383. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00868. CYS_MET_METAB_PP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Cloning and analysis of the gene for cystathionine gamma-synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Kim J., Leustek T.
    Plant Mol. Biol. 32:1117-1124(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], VARIANTS SER-8; GLY-55; GLY-91 AND ALA-459.
    Strain: cv. Landsberg erecta.
  2. "Cystathionine gamma-synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana: purification and biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme overexpressed in Escherichia coli."
    Ravanel S., Gakiere B., Job D., Douce R.
    Biochem. J. 331:639-648(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 69-76, FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, COFACTOR, ENZYME REGULATION, BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES.
  3. "Nucleotide sequence polymorphisms in the cystathionine gamma-synthase gene of Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Kim J., Chiba Y., Yamamoto A., Naito S., Leustek T.
    Plant Gene Register PGR99-087
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], VARIANTS SER-8; GLY-55; GLY-91 AND PRO-412.
    Strain: cv. Columbia and cv. Landsberg erecta.
  4. Lessard P., Kreis M., Thomas M.
    Submitted (DEC-1995) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  5. "Sequence and analysis of chromosome 3 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Salanoubat M., Lemcke K., Rieger M., Ansorge W., Unseld M., Fartmann B., Valle G., Bloecker H., Perez-Alonso M., Obermaier B., Delseny M., Boutry M., Grivell L.A., Mache R., Puigdomenech P., De Simone V., Choisne N., Artiguenave F.
    , Robert C., Brottier P., Wincker P., Cattolico L., Weissenbach J., Saurin W., Quetier F., Schaefer M., Mueller-Auer S., Gabel C., Fuchs M., Benes V., Wurmbach E., Drzonek H., Erfle H., Jordan N., Bangert S., Wiedelmann R., Kranz H., Voss H., Holland R., Brandt P., Nyakatura G., Vezzi A., D'Angelo M., Pallavicini A., Toppo S., Simionati B., Conrad A., Hornischer K., Kauer G., Loehnert T.-H., Nordsiek G., Reichelt J., Scharfe M., Schoen O., Bargues M., Terol J., Climent J., Navarro P., Collado C., Perez-Perez A., Ottenwaelder B., Duchemin D., Cooke R., Laudie M., Berger-Llauro C., Purnelle B., Masuy D., de Haan M., Maarse A.C., Alcaraz J.-P., Cottet A., Casacuberta E., Monfort A., Argiriou A., Flores M., Liguori R., Vitale D., Mannhaupt G., Haase D., Schoof H., Rudd S., Zaccaria P., Mewes H.-W., Mayer K.F.X., Kaul S., Town C.D., Koo H.L., Tallon L.J., Jenkins J., Rooney T., Rizzo M., Walts A., Utterback T., Fujii C.Y., Shea T.P., Creasy T.H., Haas B., Maiti R., Wu D., Peterson J., Van Aken S., Pai G., Militscher J., Sellers P., Gill J.E., Feldblyum T.V., Preuss D., Lin X., Nierman W.C., Salzberg S.L., White O., Venter J.C., Fraser C.M., Kaneko T., Nakamura Y., Sato S., Kato T., Asamizu E., Sasamoto S., Kimura T., Idesawa K., Kawashima K., Kishida Y., Kiyokawa C., Kohara M., Matsumoto M., Matsuno A., Muraki A., Nakayama S., Nakazaki N., Shinpo S., Takeuchi C., Wada T., Watanabe A., Yamada M., Yasuda M., Tabata S.
    Nature 408:820-822(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  6. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
    Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  7. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
    Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
    , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
    Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  8. "Gene density and organization in a small region of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome."
    le Guen L., Thomas M., Kreis M.
    Mol. Gen. Genet. 245:390-396(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] OF 340-563, VARIANT PRO-412.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  9. "Evidence for autoregulation of cystathionine gamma-synthase mRNA stability in Arabidopsis."
    Chiba Y., Ishikawa M., Kijima F., Tyson R.H., Kim J., Yamamoto A., Nambara E., Leustek T., Wallsgrove R.M., Naito S.
    Science 286:1371-1374(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INDUCTION, MUTAGENESIS OF ARG-77; SER-81 AND GLY-84.
  10. "Identification of a short highly conserved amino acid sequence as the functional region required for posttranscriptional autoregulation of the cystathionine gamma-synthase gene in Arabidopsis."
    Ominato K., Akita H., Suzuki A., Kijima F., Yoshino T., Yoshino M., Chiba Y., Onouchi H., Naito S.
    J. Biol. Chem. 277:36380-36386(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: MUTAGENESIS OF ARG-78 AND ALA-86.
  11. "The N-terminal cleavable pre-sequence encoded in the first exon of cystathionine gamma-synthase contains two different functional domains for chloroplast targeting and regulation of gene expression."
    Hagiwara-Komoda Y., Sugiyama T., Yamashita Y., Onouchi H., Naito S.
    Plant Cell Physiol. 55:1779-1792(2014) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiCGS1_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P55217
Secondary accession number(s): P92944, P93038, Q42550
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 1996
Last sequence update: June 20, 2002
Last modified: April 29, 2015
This is version 121 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

A DNA region of the first exon coding for a conserved motif of 11 amino acids in CGS1 (positions 77-87) is required for post-transcriptional autoregulation and acts in cis to down-regulate its own mRNA stability in response to excess methionine. This conserved motif is dispensable for CGS enzymatic activity and only found in plant CGSs (PubMed:10558994, PubMed:12121993). It is unclear whether the transit peptide cleavage site is between Phe-68 and Val-69 (PubMed:9531508) or Ala-90 and Ala-91 (PubMed:25146485).4 Publications

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.