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Protein

Glucagon

Gene

Gcg

Organism
Mus musculus (Mouse)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (By similarity).By similarity
GLP-1 is a potent stimulator of glucose-dependent insulin release. Play important roles on gastric motility and the suppression of plasma glucagon levels. May be involved in the suppression of satiety and stimulation of glucose disposal in peripheral tissues, independent of the actions of insulin. Have growth-promoting activities on intestinal epithelium. May also regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) via effects on LH, TSH, CRH, oxytocin, and vasopressin secretion. Increases islet mass through stimulation of islet neogenesis and pancreatic beta cell proliferation (By similarity).By similarity
GLP-2 stimulates intestinal growth and up-regulates villus height in the small intestine, concomitant with increased crypt cell proliferation and decreased enterocyte apoptosis. The gastrointestinal tract, from the stomach to the colon is the principal target for GLP-2 action. Plays a key role in nutrient homeostasis, enhancing nutrient assimilation through enhanced gastrointestinal function, as well as increasing nutrient disposal. Stimulates intestinal glucose transport and decreases mucosal permeability (By similarity).By similarity
Oxyntomodulin significantly reduces food intake.By similarity
Glicentin may modulate gastric acid secretion and gastro-pyloro-duodenal activity.1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

  • adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: GO_Central
  • negative regulation of apoptotic process Source: UniProtKB
  • negative regulation of execution phase of apoptosis Source: MGI
  • negative regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of calcium ion import Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of cAMP biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of gluconeogenesis by positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter Source: MGI
  • positive regulation of histone H3-K4 methylation Source: MGI
  • positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of protein binding Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of protein kinase activity Source: UniProtKB
  • protein kinase A signaling Source: UniProtKB
  • regulation of insulin secretion Source: MGI
  • response to starvation Source: GO_Central
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Hormone

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-MMU-163359. Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation.
R-MMU-381676. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion.
R-MMU-381771. Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1).
R-MMU-416476. G alpha (q) signalling events.
R-MMU-418555. G alpha (s) signalling events.
R-MMU-420092. Glucagon-type ligand receptors.
R-MMU-422085. Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Glucagon
Cleaved into the following 8 chains:
Oxyntomodulin
Short name:
OXM
Short name:
OXY
Glucagon-like peptide 1
Short name:
GLP-1
Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-37)
Short name:
GLP-1(7-37)
Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36)
Short name:
GLP-1(7-36)
Glucagon-like peptide 2
Short name:
GLP-2
Gene namesi
Name:Gcg
OrganismiMus musculus (Mouse)
Taxonomic identifieri10090 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaSciurognathiMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeMusMus
Proteomesi
  • UP000000589 Componenti: Chromosome 2

Organism-specific databases

MGIiMGI:95674. Gcg.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • cytoplasm Source: UniProtKB
  • extracellular space Source: MGI
  • secretory granule lumen Source: Reactome
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 20By similarityAdd BLAST20
PeptideiPRO_000001127321 – 89GlicentinBy similarityAdd BLAST69
PeptideiPRO_000001127421 – 50Glicentin-related polypeptideBy similarityAdd BLAST30
PeptideiPRO_000001127553 – 89OxyntomodulinBy similarityAdd BLAST37
PeptideiPRO_000001127653 – 81GlucagonBy similarityAdd BLAST29
PropeptideiPRO_000001127784 – 89By similarity6
PeptideiPRO_000001127892 – 128Glucagon-like peptide 1By similarityAdd BLAST37
PeptideiPRO_000001127998 – 128Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-37)By similarityAdd BLAST31
PeptideiPRO_000001128098 – 127Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36)By similarityAdd BLAST30
PropeptideiPRO_0000011281131 – 145By similarityAdd BLAST15
PeptideiPRO_0000011282146 – 178Glucagon-like peptide 2By similarityAdd BLAST33

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei54PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei105PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei108PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei127Arginine amideBy similarity1
Modified residuei150PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei152PhosphoserineCombined sources1

Post-translational modificationi

Proglucagon is post-translationally processed in a tissue-specific manner in pancreatic A cells and intestinal L cells. In pancreatic A cells, the major bioactive hormone is glucagon cleaved by PCSK2/PC2. In the intestinal L cells PCSK1/PC1 liberates GLP-1, GLP-2, glicentin and oxyntomodulin. GLP-1 is further N-terminally truncated by post-translational processing in the intestinal L cells resulting in GLP-1(7-37) GLP-1-(7-36)amide. The C-terminal amidation is neither important for the metabolism of GLP-1 nor for its effects on the endocrine pancreas (By similarity).By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sitei52 – 53Cleavage; by PCSK22
Sitei83 – 84Cleavage; by PCSK1 and PCSK22
Sitei91 – 92Cleavage; by PCSK12
Sitei97 – 98Cleavage; by PCSK12
Sitei130 – 131Cleavage; by PCSK12
Sitei145 – 146Cleavage; by PCSK12

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP55095.
PaxDbiP55095.
PRIDEiP55095.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP55095.
PhosphoSitePlusiP55095.

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBP55095.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Glucagon is secreted in the A cells of the islets of Langerhans. GLP-1, GLP-2, oxyntomodulin and glicentin are secreted from enteroendocrine cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are also secreted in selected neurons in the brain.

Inductioni

Glucagon release is stimulated by hypoglycemia and inhibited by hyperglycemia, insulin, and somatostatin. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are induced in response to nutrient ingestion (By similarity).By similarity

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSMUSG00000000394.
CleanExiMM_GCG.
ExpressionAtlasiP55095. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP55095. MM.

Interactioni

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000099794.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP55095.
SMRiP55095.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the glucagon family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IKZ8. Eukaryota.
ENOG4111VKC. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000005372.
HOGENOMiHOG000231876.
HOVERGENiHBG003010.
InParanoidiP55095.
KOiK05259.
OMAiKMKSIYF.
OrthoDBiEOG091G0PJK.
PhylomeDBiP55095.
TreeFamiTF332333.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR015550. Glucagon.
IPR000532. Glucagon_GIP_secretin_VIP.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11418:SF0. PTHR11418:SF0. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00123. Hormone_2. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00275. GLUCAGON.
SMARTiSM00070. GLUCA. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00260. GLUCAGON. 4 hits.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P55095-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MKTIYFVAGL LIMLVQGSWQ HALQDTEENP RSFPASQTEA HEDPDEMNED
60 70 80 90 100
KRHSQGTFTS DYSKYLDSRR AQDFVQWLMN TKRNRNNIAK RHDEFERHAE
110 120 130 140 150
GTFTSDVSSY LEGQAAKEFI AWLVKGRGRR DFPEEVAIAE ELGRRHADGS
160 170 180
FSDEMSTILD NLATRDFINW LIQTKITDKK
Length:180
Mass (Da):20,906
Last modified:October 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:i595AA6DD9A589950
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
Z46845 mRNA. Translation: CAA86902.1.
AF276754 mRNA. Translation: AAK96898.1.
AK007911 mRNA. Translation: BAB25344.1.
AK148544 mRNA. Translation: BAE28612.1.
BC012975 mRNA. Translation: AAH12975.1.
CCDSiCCDS16066.1.
PIRiA57294.
RefSeqiNP_032126.1. NM_008100.4.
UniGeneiMm.45494.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000102733; ENSMUSP00000099794; ENSMUSG00000000394.
GeneIDi14526.
KEGGimmu:14526.
UCSCiuc008jvj.1. mouse.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
Z46845 mRNA. Translation: CAA86902.1.
AF276754 mRNA. Translation: AAK96898.1.
AK007911 mRNA. Translation: BAB25344.1.
AK148544 mRNA. Translation: BAE28612.1.
BC012975 mRNA. Translation: AAH12975.1.
CCDSiCCDS16066.1.
PIRiA57294.
RefSeqiNP_032126.1. NM_008100.4.
UniGeneiMm.45494.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP55095.
SMRiP55095.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000099794.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP55095.
PhosphoSitePlusiP55095.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP55095.
PaxDbiP55095.
PRIDEiP55095.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000102733; ENSMUSP00000099794; ENSMUSG00000000394.
GeneIDi14526.
KEGGimmu:14526.
UCSCiuc008jvj.1. mouse.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi2641.
MGIiMGI:95674. Gcg.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IKZ8. Eukaryota.
ENOG4111VKC. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000005372.
HOGENOMiHOG000231876.
HOVERGENiHBG003010.
InParanoidiP55095.
KOiK05259.
OMAiKMKSIYF.
OrthoDBiEOG091G0PJK.
PhylomeDBiP55095.
TreeFamiTF332333.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-MMU-163359. Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation.
R-MMU-381676. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion.
R-MMU-381771. Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1).
R-MMU-416476. G alpha (q) signalling events.
R-MMU-418555. G alpha (s) signalling events.
R-MMU-420092. Glucagon-type ligand receptors.
R-MMU-422085. Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiGcg. mouse.
PMAP-CutDBP55095.
PROiP55095.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSMUSG00000000394.
CleanExiMM_GCG.
ExpressionAtlasiP55095. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP55095. MM.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR015550. Glucagon.
IPR000532. Glucagon_GIP_secretin_VIP.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11418:SF0. PTHR11418:SF0. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00123. Hormone_2. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00275. GLUCAGON.
SMARTiSM00070. GLUCA. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00260. GLUCAGON. 4 hits.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGLUC_MOUSE
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P55095
Secondary accession number(s): Q3UFE9
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 1996
Last sequence update: October 1, 1996
Last modified: November 2, 2016
This is version 136 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. MGD cross-references
    Mouse Genome Database (MGD) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.