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Protein

Serine/threonine-protein kinase ATG1

Gene

ATG1

Organism
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c) (Baker's yeast)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Serine/threonine protein kinase involved in the cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) and found to be essential in autophagy, where it is required for the formation of autophagosomes. Involved in the clearance of protein aggregates which cannot be efficiently cleared by the proteasome. Required for selective autophagic degradation of the nucleus (nucleophagy) as well as for mitophagy which contributes to regulate mitochondrial quantity and quality by eliminating the mitochondria to a basal level to fulfill cellular energy requirements and preventing excess ROS production. Also involved in endoplasmic reticulum-specific autophagic process, in selective removal of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) substrates. Plays a key role in ATG9 and ATG23 cycling through the pre-autophagosomal structure and is necessary to promote ATG18 binding to ATG9 through phosphorylation of ATG9. Finally, ATG1 is also required for the maintenance of cell viability under starvation and for glycogen storage during stationary phase. Plays a role in genome stability through suppression of abnormal mitosis under starvation, and in regulation of filamentous growth.33 Publications

Catalytic activityi

ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.1 Publication

Enzyme regulationi

Activated by hypophosphorylated form of ATG13 (present in nitrogen starvation conditions). Also activated by autophopsphorylation of Thr-226 and inhibited by phosphorylation of Ser-34.2 Publications

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Binding sitei54 – 541ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation
Active sitei172 – 1721Proton acceptorPROSITE-ProRule annotation

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Nucleotide bindingi30 – 389ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation

GO - Molecular functioni

  • ATP binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • protein serine/threonine kinase activity Source: SGD

GO - Biological processi

  • autophagosome assembly Source: SGD
  • autophagy Source: SGD
  • CVT pathway Source: SGD
  • late nucleophagy Source: SGD
  • mitophagy Source: SGD
  • piecemeal microautophagy of nucleus Source: SGD
  • protein autophosphorylation Source: SGD
  • protein phosphorylation Source: SGD
  • reticulophagy Source: SGD
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Kinase, Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Transferase

Keywords - Biological processi

Autophagy, Protein transport, Transport

Keywords - Ligandi

ATP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciYEAST:G3O-30667-MONOMER.
BRENDAi2.7.11.1. 984.

Protein family/group databases

TCDBi9.A.15.1.1. the autophagy-related phagophore-formation transporter (apt) family.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Serine/threonine-protein kinase ATG1Curated (EC:2.7.11.11 Publication)
Alternative name(s):
Autophagy protein 31 Publication
Autophagy-related protein 11 Publication
Cytoplasm to vacuole targeting protein 101 Publication
Gene namesi
Name:ATG11 Publication
Synonyms:APG11 Publication, AUT31 Publication, CVT101 Publication
Ordered Locus Names:YGL180WImported
ORF Names:G1615
OrganismiSaccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c) (Baker's yeast)
Taxonomic identifieri559292 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaFungiDikaryaAscomycotaSaccharomycotinaSaccharomycetesSaccharomycetalesSaccharomycetaceaeSaccharomyces
Proteomesi
  • UP000002311 Componenti: Chromosome VII

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiFungiDB:YGL180W.
SGDiS000003148. ATG1.

Subcellular locationi

  • Cytoplasm
  • Preautophagosomal structure membrane; Peripheral membrane protein

  • Note: Formes punctate structures in starvation conditions only when ATG13 and ATG17 were both present. Localizes to both the isolation membrane (IM) and the vacuole-isolation membrane contact site (VICS) during IM expansion. The IM is a membrane sac generated from the pre-autophagosomal structure that ultimately expands to become a mature autophagosome.

GO - Cellular componenti

  • ATG1/ULK1 kinase complex Source: SGD
  • autophagosome membrane Source: SGD
  • cytosol Source: SGD
  • extrinsic component of autophagosome membrane Source: UniProtKB
  • pre-autophagosomal structure Source: SGD
  • pre-autophagosomal structure membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi34 – 341S → D or E: Impairs kinase activity. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi54 – 541K → A: Defect in the Cvt pathway. 3 Publications
Mutagenesisi102 – 1021M → A: Enables the binding of the inhibitor of the kinase activity 1-NA-PP1. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi211 – 2111D → A: Loss of cell viability under starvation. 2 Publications
Mutagenesisi226 – 2261T → E: Leads to constitutive autophosphorylation activity. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi237 – 2371E → R: Loss of cell viability under starvation. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi429 – 4291Y → A: Impairs interaction with ATG8 and decreases autophagy efficiency; when associated with A-432. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi432 – 4321V → A: Impairs interaction with ATG8 and decreases autophagy efficiency; when associated with A-429. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi508 – 5081S → A: Impairs autophagic activity; when associated with A-515. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi515 – 5151S → A: Impairs autophagic activity; when associated with A-508. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi551 – 5511S → A: Decreases autophagic activity. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi552 – 5521S → A: Decreases autophagic activity. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi621 – 6211S → A: Decreases autophagic activity. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi677 – 6771S → A: Decreases autophagic activity. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi680 – 6801S → A: Decreases autophagic activity. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi683 – 6831S → A: Decreases autophagic activity. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi769 – 7691S → A: Decreases autophagic activity. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi783 – 7831S → A: Decreases autophagic activity. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi884 – 8841N → A: No effect. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi886 – 8861L → G: Cvt pathway specific block. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 897897Serine/threonine-protein kinase ATG1PRO_0000085655Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei34 – 341Phosphoserine1 Publication
Modified residuei129 – 1291Phosphothreonine1 Publication
Modified residuei226 – 2261Phosphothreonine; by autocatalysis1 Publication
Modified residuei304 – 3041Phosphoserine1 Publication
Modified residuei365 – 3651Phosphoserine1 Publication
Modified residuei390 – 3901PhosphoserineCombined sources1 Publication
Modified residuei508 – 5081Phosphoserine; by PKA1 Publication
Modified residuei515 – 5151Phosphoserine; by PKA2 Publications
Modified residuei533 – 5331Phosphoserine1 Publication
Modified residuei551 – 5511Phosphoserine1 Publication
Modified residuei552 – 5521Phosphoserine1 Publication
Modified residuei590 – 5901Phosphothreonine1 Publication
Modified residuei621 – 6211Phosphoserine1 Publication
Modified residuei635 – 6351PhosphoserineCombined sources
Modified residuei638 – 6381PhosphoserineCombined sources
Modified residuei647 – 6471PhosphoserineCombined sources
Modified residuei677 – 6771PhosphoserineCombined sources1 Publication
Modified residuei680 – 6801Phosphoserine1 Publication
Modified residuei683 – 6831Phosphoserine1 Publication
Modified residuei769 – 7691Phosphoserine1 Publication
Modified residuei783 – 7831Phosphoserine1 Publication

Post-translational modificationi

Autophosphorylated at Thr-226 and Ser-390. The phosphorylation state may play a role in the induction of protein degradation upon starvation. Phosphorylation at Thr-226 within the activation loop is required for protein kinase activity whereas phosphorylation at Ser-34 leads to inhibition of kinase activity. Phosphorylation of Ser-508 and Ser-515 by PKA is required to induce autophagy but not for kinase activity.4 Publications

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP53104.
PRIDEiP53104.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP53104.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer. Dimerization requires the presence of ATG13. Forms a ternary complex with ATG13 and ATG17. Interacts also with ATG11.6 Publications

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
ATG11Q125273EBI-2657,EBI-31977
ATG13Q0662813EBI-2657,EBI-36188
ATG19P351932EBI-2657,EBI-29291
ATG8P381823EBI-2657,EBI-2684

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi33074. 426 interactions.
DIPiDIP-1192N.
IntActiP53104. 24 interactions.
MINTiMINT-405956.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP53104.
SMRiP53104. Positions 19-379, 689-894.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Domaini24 – 325302Protein kinasePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni880 – 8867Required for Cvt trafficking

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Motifi429 – 4324LIR

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Compositional biasi542 – 5487Poly-Gln

Domaini

The LIR motif is required for the interaction with ATG8 and for the association of ATG1 with autophagosomes.2 Publications

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. APG1/unc-51/ULK1 subfamily.PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Contains 1 protein kinase domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Phylogenomic databases

GeneTreeiENSGT00820000126991.
HOGENOMiHOG000246715.
InParanoidiP53104.
KOiK08269.
OMAiEKLMYDR.
OrthoDBiEOG092C4IKY.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR011009. Kinase-like_dom.
IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom.
IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS.
IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS.
IPR022708. Ser/Thr_kinase_C.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF12063. DUF3543. 1 hit.
PF00069. Pkinase. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00220. S_TKc. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF56112. SSF56112. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit.
PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit.
PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P53104-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MGDIKNKDHT TSVNHNLMAS AGNYTAEKEI GKGSFATVYR GHLTSDKSQH
60 70 80 90 100
VAIKEVSRAK LKNKKLLENL EIEIAILKKI KHPHIVGLID CERTSTDFYL
110 120 130 140 150
IMEYCALGDL TFLLKRRKEL MENHPLLRTV FEKYPPPSEN HNGLHRAFVL
160 170 180 190 200
SYLQQLASAL KFLRSKNLVH RDIKPQNLLL STPLIGYHDS KSFHELGFVG
210 220 230 240 250
IYNLPILKIA DFGFARFLPN TSLAETLCGS PLYMAPEILN YQKYNAKADL
260 270 280 290 300
WSVGTVVFEM CCGTPPFRAS NHLELFKKIK RANDVITFPS YCNIEPELKE
310 320 330 340 350
LICSLLTFDP AQRIGFEEFF ANKVVNEDLS SYELEDDLPE LESKSKGIVE
360 370 380 390 400
SNMFVSEYLS KQPKSPNSNL AGHQSMADNP AELSDALKNS NILTAPAVKT
410 420 430 440 450
DHTQAVDKKA SNNKYHNSLV SDRSFEREYV VVEKKSVEVN SLADEVAQAG
460 470 480 490 500
FNPNPIKHPT STQNQNVLLN EQFSPNNQQY FQNQGENPRL LRATSSSSGG
510 520 530 540 550
SDGSRRPSLV DRRLSISSLN PSNALSRALG IASTRLFGGA NQQQQQQQIT
560 570 580 590 600
SSPPYSQTLL NSQLFHELTE NIILRIDHLQ HPETLKLDNT NIVSILESLA
610 620 630 640 650
AKAFVVYSYA EVKFSQIVPL STTLKGMANF ENRRSMDSNA IAEEQDSDDA
660 670 680 690 700
EEEDETLKKY KEDCLSTKTF GKGRTLSATS QLSATFNKLP RSEMILLCNE
710 720 730 740 750
AIVLYMKALS ILSKSMQVTS NWWYESQEKS CSLRVNVLVQ WLREKFNECL
760 770 780 790 800
EKADFLRLKI NDLRFKHASE VAENQTLEEK GSSEEPVYLE KLLYDRALEI
810 820 830 840 850
SKMAAHMELK GENLYNCELA YATSLWMLET SLDDDDFTNA YGDYPFKTNI
860 870 880 890
HLKSNDVEDK EKYHSVLDEN DRIIIRKYID SIANRLKILR QKMNHQN
Length:897
Mass (Da):101,717
Last modified:October 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:i7F4C785AA3A7CC46
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X91489 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA62794.1.
D29991 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA21481.1.
Z72702 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA96892.1.
BK006941 Genomic DNA. Translation: DAA07934.1.
PIRiS61137.
RefSeqiNP_011335.1. NM_001181045.1.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblFungiiYGL180W; YGL180W; YGL180W.
GeneIDi852695.
KEGGisce:YGL180W.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X91489 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA62794.1.
D29991 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA21481.1.
Z72702 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA96892.1.
BK006941 Genomic DNA. Translation: DAA07934.1.
PIRiS61137.
RefSeqiNP_011335.1. NM_001181045.1.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP53104.
SMRiP53104. Positions 19-379, 689-894.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi33074. 426 interactions.
DIPiDIP-1192N.
IntActiP53104. 24 interactions.
MINTiMINT-405956.

Protein family/group databases

TCDBi9.A.15.1.1. the autophagy-related phagophore-formation transporter (apt) family.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP53104.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP53104.
PRIDEiP53104.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblFungiiYGL180W; YGL180W; YGL180W.
GeneIDi852695.
KEGGisce:YGL180W.

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiFungiDB:YGL180W.
SGDiS000003148. ATG1.

Phylogenomic databases

GeneTreeiENSGT00820000126991.
HOGENOMiHOG000246715.
InParanoidiP53104.
KOiK08269.
OMAiEKLMYDR.
OrthoDBiEOG092C4IKY.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciYEAST:G3O-30667-MONOMER.
BRENDAi2.7.11.1. 984.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiP53104.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR011009. Kinase-like_dom.
IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom.
IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS.
IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS.
IPR022708. Ser/Thr_kinase_C.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF12063. DUF3543. 1 hit.
PF00069. Pkinase. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00220. S_TKc. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF56112. SSF56112. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit.
PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit.
PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiATG1_YEAST
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P53104
Secondary accession number(s): D6VTX3
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 1996
Last sequence update: October 1, 1996
Last modified: September 7, 2016
This is version 160 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programFungal Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

Present with 1070 molecules/cell in log phase SD medium.1 Publication

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  2. Yeast
    Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae): entries, gene names and cross-references to SGD
  3. Yeast chromosome VII
    Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) chromosome VII: entries and gene names

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.