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Protein

High mobility group protein B2

Gene

Hmgb2

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Multifunctional protein with various roles in different cellular compartments. May act in a redox sensitive manner. In the nucleus is an abundant chromatin-associated non-histone protein involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling and V(D)J recombination and probably other processes (By similarity). Binds DNA with a preference to non-canonical DNA structures such as single-stranded DNA. Can bent DNA and enhance DNA flexibility by looping thus providing a mechanism to promote activities on various gene promoters by enhancing transcription factor binding and/or bringing distant regulatory sequences into close proximity. Involved in V(D)J recombination by acting as a cofactor of the RAG complex: acts by stimulating cleavage and RAG protein binding at the 23 bp spacer of conserved recombination signal sequences (RSS). Proposed to be involved in the innate immune response to nucleic acids by acting as a cytoplasmic promiscuous immunogenic DNA/RNA sensor which cooperates with subsequent discriminative sensing by specific pattern recognition receptors. In the extracellular compartment acts as a chemokine. Promotes proliferation and migration of endothelial cells implicating AGER/RAGE. Has antimicrobial activity in gastrointestinal epithelial tissues. Involved in inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus coupled with proinflammatory activity. May play a role in germ cell differentiation. Involved in modulation of neurogenesis probably by regulation of neural stem proliferation. Involved in articular cartilage surface maintenance implicating LEF1 and the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway (By similarity).By similarity

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
DNA bindingi9 – 79HMG box 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST71
DNA bindingi95 – 163HMG box 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST69

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionDNA-binding
Biological processChemotaxis, DNA recombination, Immunity, Inflammatory response, Innate immunity, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-RNO-211227 Activation of DNA fragmentation factor

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
High mobility group protein B2
Alternative name(s):
High mobility group protein 2
Short name:
HMG-2
Gene namesi
Name:Hmgb2
Synonyms:Hmg2
OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaMyomorphaMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
Proteomesi
  • UP000002494 Componentsi: Chromosome 11, Chromosome 16

Organism-specific databases

RGDi69291 Hmgb2

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chromosome, Cytoplasm, Nucleus, Secreted

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00000485371 – 210High mobility group protein B2Add BLAST210

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei3N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei8N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei12N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Disulfide bondi23 ↔ 45In disulfide HMGB2; alternateBy similarity
Modified residuei23Cysteine sulfonic acid (-SO3H); alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei28N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei29N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei30N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei35PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei43N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei45Cysteine sulfonic acid (-SO3H); alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei90N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei100PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei106Cysteine sulfonic acid (-SO3H)By similarity1
Modified residuei114N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei127N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei128N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei141N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei172N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei173N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei182N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei183N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei184N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1

Post-translational modificationi

Reduction/oxidation of cysteine residues Cys-23, Cys-45 and Cys-106 and a possible intramolecular disulfide bond involving Cys-23 and Cys-45 give rise to different redox forms with specific functional activities in various cellular compartments: 1- fully reduced HMGB2 (HMGB2C23hC45hC106h), 2- disulfide HMGB2 (HMGB2C23-C45C106h) and 3- sulfonyl HMGB2 (HMGB2C23soC45soC106so).By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Disulfide bond, Oxidation, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP52925
PRIDEiP52925

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP52925
PhosphoSitePlusiP52925

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSRNOG00000013167
GenevisibleiP52925 RN

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with POU2F2, POU2F1 and POU3F1. Component of the RAG complex composed of core components RAG1 and RAG2, and associated component HMGB1 or HMGB2. Component of the SET complex, composed of at least ANP32A, APEX1, HMGB2, NME1, SET and TREX1. Directly interacts with SET. Interacts with LEF1.By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  • nucleosomal histone binding Source: RGD
  • transcription factor binding Source: AgBase

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000039358

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP52925
SMRiP52925
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni165 – 180Required for chemotactic activityBy similarityAdd BLAST16

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Compositional biasi186 – 210Asp/Glu-rich (acidic)Add BLAST25

Domaini

Both, HMG box 1 and HMG box 2, show antimicrobial activity.By similarity

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the HMGB family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0381 Eukaryota
COG5648 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119164
HOGENOMiHOG000197861
HOVERGENiHBG009000
InParanoidiP52925
KOiK11295
OMAiADDTWRA
OrthoDBiEOG091G0P81
PhylomeDBiP52925
TreeFamiTF105371

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.30.10, 2 hits
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR009071 HMG_box_dom
IPR036910 HMG_box_dom_sf
IPR017967 HMG_boxA_CS
IPR031075 HMGB2
PANTHERiPTHR13711:SF181 PTHR13711:SF181, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00505 HMG_box, 1 hit
PF09011 HMG_box_2, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00398 HMG, 2 hits
SUPFAMiSSF47095 SSF47095, 2 hits
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00353 HMG_BOX_1, 1 hit
PS50118 HMG_BOX_2, 2 hits

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P52925-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MGKGDPNKPR GKMSSYAFFV QTCREEHKKK HPDSSVNFAE FSKKCSERWK
60 70 80 90 100
TMSAKEKSKF EDLAKSDKAR YDREMKNYVP PKGDKKGKKK DPNAPKRPPS
110 120 130 140 150
AFFLFCSEHR PKIKSEHPGL SIGDTAKKLG EMWSEQSAKD KQPYEQKAAK
160 170 180 190 200
LKEKYEKDIA AYRAKGKSEV GKKGPGRPTG SKKKNEPEDE EEEEEEEDDE
210
DEEEEDEDEE
Length:210
Mass (Da):24,159
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v2
Checksum:i3B5CBAF61415C6F3
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
D84418 mRNA Translation: BAA12350.1
BC078866 mRNA Translation: AAH78866.1
BC089854 mRNA Translation: AAH89854.1
BC107455 mRNA Translation: AAI07456.1
RefSeqiNP_001316810.1, NM_001329881.1
NP_058883.1, NM_017187.2
XP_017455541.1, XM_017600052.1
UniGeneiRn.218982
Rn.2874

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000017635; ENSRNOP00000017635; ENSRNOG00000013167
ENSRNOT00000046874; ENSRNOP00000039358; ENSRNOG00000033321
GeneIDi29395
498072
KEGGirno:29395
rno:498072
UCSCiRGD:69291 rat

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiHMGB2_RAT
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P52925
Secondary accession number(s): Q5FVP0
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 1996
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: May 23, 2018
This is version 149 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

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