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Protein

Serine/threonine-protein kinase polo

Gene

polo

Organism
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

May play a role in regulating both nuclear and cytoplasmic aspects of the mitotic cycle.1 Publication

Catalytic activityi

ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Binding sitei54 – 541ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation
Active sitei148 – 1481Proton acceptorPROSITE-ProRule annotation

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Nucleotide bindingi31 – 399ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation

GO - Molecular functioni

  • ATP binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • protein kinase activity Source: FlyBase
  • protein serine/threonine kinase activity Source: FlyBase

GO - Biological processi

  • actomyosin contractile ring assembly Source: FlyBase
  • astral microtubule nucleation Source: FlyBase
  • attachment of mitotic spindle microtubules to kinetochore Source: CACAO
  • cellular protein localization Source: FlyBase
  • centrosome organization Source: FlyBase
  • embryonic heart tube development Source: FlyBase
  • female meiosis II Source: FlyBase
  • female meiotic division Source: FlyBase
  • male germline ring canal formation Source: FlyBase
  • male meiosis Source: FlyBase
  • male meiosis cytokinesis Source: FlyBase
  • meiotic spindle midzone assembly Source: FlyBase
  • mitotic cell cycle Source: FlyBase
  • mitotic nuclear division Source: FlyBase
  • mitotic spindle organization Source: FlyBase
  • negative regulation of neuroblast proliferation Source: FlyBase
  • neurogenesis Source: FlyBase
  • oocyte fate commitment Source: FlyBase
  • phagocytosis Source: FlyBase
  • pronuclear fusion Source: FlyBase
  • pronuclear migration Source: FlyBase
  • protein localization Source: FlyBase
  • protein phosphorylation Source: FlyBase
  • sperm aster formation Source: FlyBase
  • spindle assembly involved in female meiosis II Source: FlyBase
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Kinase, Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Transferase

Keywords - Ligandi

ATP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi2.7.11.21. 1994.
ReactomeiR-DME-156711. Polo-like kinase mediated events.
R-DME-162658. Golgi Cisternae Pericentriolar Stack Reorganization.
R-DME-174178. APC/C:Cdh1 mediated degradation of Cdc20 and other APC/C:Cdh1 targeted proteins in late mitosis/early G1.
R-DME-176412. Phosphorylation of the APC/C.
R-DME-2500257. Resolution of Sister Chromatid Cohesion.
R-DME-2565942. Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition.
R-DME-68884. Mitotic Telophase/Cytokinesis.
R-DME-69273. Cyclin A/B1 associated events during G2/M transition.
SignaLinkiP52304.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Serine/threonine-protein kinase polo (EC:2.7.11.21)
Gene namesi
Name:polo
ORF Names:CG12306
OrganismiDrosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Taxonomic identifieri7227 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaHexapodaInsectaPterygotaNeopteraEndopterygotaDipteraBrachyceraMuscomorphaEphydroideaDrosophilidaeDrosophilaSophophora
Proteomesi
  • UP000000803 Componenti: Chromosome 3L

Organism-specific databases

FlyBaseiFBgn0003124. polo.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • centriole Source: FlyBase
  • centrosome Source: FlyBase
  • condensed chromosome outer kinetochore Source: FlyBase
  • cytoplasm Source: FlyBase
  • kinetochore Source: FlyBase
  • kinetochore microtubule Source: FlyBase
  • microtubule Source: FlyBase
  • midbody Source: FlyBase
  • mitotic spindle midzone Source: FlyBase
  • nuclear envelope Source: FlyBase
  • spindle Source: FlyBase
  • spindle pole Source: FlyBase
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 576576Serine/threonine-protein kinase poloPRO_0000086578Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei182 – 1821Phosphothreonine1 Publication
Modified residuei186 – 1861Phosphothreonine1 Publication
Modified residuei299 – 2991Phosphoserine1 Publication
Modified residuei302 – 3021Phosphothreonine1 Publication
Modified residuei306 – 3061Phosphoserine1 Publication
Modified residuei323 – 3231Phosphothreonine1 Publication
Modified residuei327 – 3271Phosphoserine1 Publication
Modified residuei328 – 3281Phosphothreonine1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP52304.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP52304.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Larval disks, brain and testis.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP52304.
ExpressionAtlasiP52304. differential.
GenevisibleiP52304. DM.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi65494. 38 interactions.
DIPiDIP-18462N.
IntActiP52304. 3 interactions.
MINTiMINT-1562298.
STRINGi7227.FBpp0074608.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP52304.
SMRiP52304. Positions 11-571.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Domaini25 – 277253Protein kinasePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Domaini398 – 46164POLO box 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Domaini496 – 56469POLO box 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CDC5/Polo subfamily.PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Contains 2 POLO box domains.PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Contains 1 protein kinase domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0575. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XQBP. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000062954.
InParanoidiP52304.
KOiK06631.
OMAiKRYMTEH.
OrthoDBiEOG78M01K.
PhylomeDBiP52304.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.30.1120.30. 2 hits.
InterProiIPR011009. Kinase-like_dom.
IPR000959. POLO_box_dom.
IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom.
IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00069. Pkinase. 1 hit.
PF00659. POLO_box. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00220. S_TKc. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF56112. SSF56112. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50078. POLO_BOX. 2 hits.
PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit.
PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P52304-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MAAKPEDKST DIPDRLVDIN QRKTYKRMRF FGKGGFAKCY EIIDVETDDV
60 70 80 90 100
FAGKIVSKKL MIKHNQKEKT AQEITIHRSL NHPNIVKFHN YFEDSQNIYI
110 120 130 140 150
VLELCKKRSM MELHKRRKSI TEFECRYYIY QIIQGVKYLH DNRIIHRDLK
160 170 180 190 200
LGNLFLNDLL HVKIGDFGLA TRIEYEGERK KTLCGTPNYI APEILTKKGH
210 220 230 240 250
SFEVDIWSIG CVMYTLLVGQ PPFETKTLKD TYSKIKKCEY RVPSYLRKPA
260 270 280 290 300
ADMVIAMLQP NPESRPAIGQ LLNFEFLKGS KVPMFLPSSC LTMAPRIGSN
310 320 330 340 350
DTIEDSMHRK PLMEMNGIRP DDTRLESTFL KANLHDAITA SAQVCRHSED
360 370 380 390 400
YRSDIESLYQ QLTNLINGKP RILQGNLGDE NTDPAAQPLF WISKWVDYSD
410 420 430 440 450
KYGFGYQLCD EGIGVMFNDT TKLILLPNQI NVHFIDKDGK ETYMTTTDYC
460 470 480 490 500
KSLDKKMKLL SYFKRYMIEH LVKAGANNVN IESDQISRMP HLHSWFRTTC
510 520 530 540 550
AVVMHLTNGS VQLNFSDHMK LILCPRMSAI TYMDQEKNFR TYRFSTIVEN
560 570
GVSKDLYQKI RYAQEKLRKM LEKMFT
Length:576
Mass (Da):66,974
Last modified:June 1, 2001 - v2
Checksum:i5022B9AC0E888FAD
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti187 – 1871P → A in CAA44963 (PubMed:1660828).Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X63361 mRNA. Translation: CAA44963.1.
AE014296 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF49036.1.
AE014296 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAX52738.1.
AY095028 mRNA. Translation: AAM11356.1.
PIRiS22127.
RefSeqiNP_001014592.1. NM_001014592.2.
NP_524179.2. NM_079455.4.
UniGeneiDm.2513.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0074839; FBpp0074608; FBgn0003124.
FBtr0100318; FBpp0099722; FBgn0003124.
GeneIDi40232.
KEGGidme:Dmel_CG12306.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X63361 mRNA. Translation: CAA44963.1.
AE014296 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF49036.1.
AE014296 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAX52738.1.
AY095028 mRNA. Translation: AAM11356.1.
PIRiS22127.
RefSeqiNP_001014592.1. NM_001014592.2.
NP_524179.2. NM_079455.4.
UniGeneiDm.2513.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP52304.
SMRiP52304. Positions 11-571.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi65494. 38 interactions.
DIPiDIP-18462N.
IntActiP52304. 3 interactions.
MINTiMINT-1562298.
STRINGi7227.FBpp0074608.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP52304.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP52304.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0074839; FBpp0074608; FBgn0003124.
FBtr0100318; FBpp0099722; FBgn0003124.
GeneIDi40232.
KEGGidme:Dmel_CG12306.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi40232.
FlyBaseiFBgn0003124. polo.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0575. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XQBP. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000062954.
InParanoidiP52304.
KOiK06631.
OMAiKRYMTEH.
OrthoDBiEOG78M01K.
PhylomeDBiP52304.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi2.7.11.21. 1994.
ReactomeiR-DME-156711. Polo-like kinase mediated events.
R-DME-162658. Golgi Cisternae Pericentriolar Stack Reorganization.
R-DME-174178. APC/C:Cdh1 mediated degradation of Cdc20 and other APC/C:Cdh1 targeted proteins in late mitosis/early G1.
R-DME-176412. Phosphorylation of the APC/C.
R-DME-2500257. Resolution of Sister Chromatid Cohesion.
R-DME-2565942. Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition.
R-DME-68884. Mitotic Telophase/Cytokinesis.
R-DME-69273. Cyclin A/B1 associated events during G2/M transition.
SignaLinkiP52304.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSipolo. fly.
GenomeRNAii40232.
PROiP52304.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP52304.
ExpressionAtlasiP52304. differential.
GenevisibleiP52304. DM.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.30.1120.30. 2 hits.
InterProiIPR011009. Kinase-like_dom.
IPR000959. POLO_box_dom.
IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom.
IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00069. Pkinase. 1 hit.
PF00659. POLO_box. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00220. S_TKc. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF56112. SSF56112. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50078. POLO_BOX. 2 hits.
PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit.
PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Polo encodes a protein kinase homolog required for mitosis in Drosophila."
    Llamazares S., Moreira A., Tavares A., Girdham C., Spruce B.A., Gonzalez C., Karess R.E., Glover D.M., Sunkel C.E.
    Genes Dev. 5:2153-2165(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], FUNCTION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
    Strain: Canton-S and Oregon-R.
    Tissue: Embryo.
  2. "The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster."
    Adams M.D., Celniker S.E., Holt R.A., Evans C.A., Gocayne J.D., Amanatides P.G., Scherer S.E., Li P.W., Hoskins R.A., Galle R.F., George R.A., Lewis S.E., Richards S., Ashburner M., Henderson S.N., Sutton G.G., Wortman J.R., Yandell M.D.
    , Zhang Q., Chen L.X., Brandon R.C., Rogers Y.-H.C., Blazej R.G., Champe M., Pfeiffer B.D., Wan K.H., Doyle C., Baxter E.G., Helt G., Nelson C.R., Miklos G.L.G., Abril J.F., Agbayani A., An H.-J., Andrews-Pfannkoch C., Baldwin D., Ballew R.M., Basu A., Baxendale J., Bayraktaroglu L., Beasley E.M., Beeson K.Y., Benos P.V., Berman B.P., Bhandari D., Bolshakov S., Borkova D., Botchan M.R., Bouck J., Brokstein P., Brottier P., Burtis K.C., Busam D.A., Butler H., Cadieu E., Center A., Chandra I., Cherry J.M., Cawley S., Dahlke C., Davenport L.B., Davies P., de Pablos B., Delcher A., Deng Z., Mays A.D., Dew I., Dietz S.M., Dodson K., Doup L.E., Downes M., Dugan-Rocha S., Dunkov B.C., Dunn P., Durbin K.J., Evangelista C.C., Ferraz C., Ferriera S., Fleischmann W., Fosler C., Gabrielian A.E., Garg N.S., Gelbart W.M., Glasser K., Glodek A., Gong F., Gorrell J.H., Gu Z., Guan P., Harris M., Harris N.L., Harvey D.A., Heiman T.J., Hernandez J.R., Houck J., Hostin D., Houston K.A., Howland T.J., Wei M.-H., Ibegwam C., Jalali M., Kalush F., Karpen G.H., Ke Z., Kennison J.A., Ketchum K.A., Kimmel B.E., Kodira C.D., Kraft C.L., Kravitz S., Kulp D., Lai Z., Lasko P., Lei Y., Levitsky A.A., Li J.H., Li Z., Liang Y., Lin X., Liu X., Mattei B., McIntosh T.C., McLeod M.P., McPherson D., Merkulov G., Milshina N.V., Mobarry C., Morris J., Moshrefi A., Mount S.M., Moy M., Murphy B., Murphy L., Muzny D.M., Nelson D.L., Nelson D.R., Nelson K.A., Nixon K., Nusskern D.R., Pacleb J.M., Palazzolo M., Pittman G.S., Pan S., Pollard J., Puri V., Reese M.G., Reinert K., Remington K., Saunders R.D.C., Scheeler F., Shen H., Shue B.C., Siden-Kiamos I., Simpson M., Skupski M.P., Smith T.J., Spier E., Spradling A.C., Stapleton M., Strong R., Sun E., Svirskas R., Tector C., Turner R., Venter E., Wang A.H., Wang X., Wang Z.-Y., Wassarman D.A., Weinstock G.M., Weissenbach J., Williams S.M., Woodage T., Worley K.C., Wu D., Yang S., Yao Q.A., Ye J., Yeh R.-F., Zaveri J.S., Zhan M., Zhang G., Zhao Q., Zheng L., Zheng X.H., Zhong F.N., Zhong W., Zhou X., Zhu S.C., Zhu X., Smith H.O., Gibbs R.A., Myers E.W., Rubin G.M., Venter J.C.
    Science 287:2185-2195(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: Berkeley.
  3. Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: Berkeley.
  4. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: Berkeley.
    Tissue: Embryo.
  5. "Phosphoproteome analysis of Drosophila melanogaster embryos."
    Zhai B., Villen J., Beausoleil S.A., Mintseris J., Gygi S.P.
    J. Proteome Res. 7:1675-1682(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT THR-182; THR-186; SER-299; THR-302; SER-306; THR-323; SER-327 AND THR-328, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY.
    Tissue: Embryo.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiPOLO_DROME
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P52304
Secondary accession number(s): A4V258, Q9VWB2
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 1996
Last sequence update: June 1, 2001
Last modified: July 6, 2016
This is version 148 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programDrosophila annotation project

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Drosophila
    Drosophila: entries, gene names and cross-references to FlyBase
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.