Skip Header

You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser.

P51136

- GSK3_DICDI

UniProt

P51136 - GSK3_DICDI

(max 400 entries)x

Your basket is currently empty.

Select item(s) and click on "Add to basket" to create your own collection here
(400 entries max)

Protein

Glycogen synthase kinase-3

Gene

gskA

Organism
Dictyostelium discoideum (Slime mold)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

During cellular differentiation, may mediate an extracellular cyclic AMP stimulated signal transduction pathway that regulates prespore and prestalk B-cell proportions through inhibition of stalk cell formation and induction of prespore cell differentiation. The cAMP receptor carC appears to activate gskA via the tyrosine kinases zakA and zak2, to stimulate prespore differentiation, while carD appears to negatively regulate gskA, to promote prestalk formation.7 Publications

Catalytic activityi

ATP + [tau protein] = ADP + [tau protein] phosphate.3 Publications

Cofactori

Magnesium.1 Publication

Enzyme regulationi

Inhibited by lithium. Lithium inhibition is competitive with respect to magnesium but non-competitive with respect to the peptide substrate.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Binding sitei85 – 851ATP
Active sitei179 – 1791Proton acceptorPROSITE-ProRule annotation

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Nucleotide bindingi62 – 709ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. ATP binding Source: UniProtKB
  2. protein serine/threonine kinase activity Source: dictyBase
  3. tau-protein kinase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC

GO - Biological processi

  1. aggregation involved in sorocarp development Source: dictyBase
  2. cAMP-mediated signaling Source: dictyBase
  3. cell differentiation Source: dictyBase
  4. chemotaxis to cAMP Source: dictyBase
  5. chemotaxis to folate Source: dictyBase
  6. culmination involved in sorocarp development Source: UniProtKB
  7. mitotic cytokinesis Source: dictyBase
  8. multicellular organismal development Source: UniProtKB
  9. peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation Source: dictyBase
  10. phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling Source: dictyBase
  11. positive regulation of gene expression Source: dictyBase
  12. positive regulation of protein export from nucleus Source: dictyBase
  13. protein phosphorylation Source: UniProtKB
  14. regulation of aggregation involved in sorocarp development Source: dictyBase
  15. regulation of cell adhesion Source: dictyBase
  16. regulation of myosin II filament assembly Source: dictyBase
  17. regulation of positive chemotaxis to cAMP Source: dictyBase
  18. regulation of protein kinase activity Source: dictyBase
  19. regulation of Ras GTPase activity Source: dictyBase
  20. signal transduction Source: dictyBase
  21. sorocarp morphogenesis Source: dictyBase
  22. spindle elongation Source: dictyBase
  23. sporulation resulting in formation of a cellular spore Source: UniProtKB
  24. TOR signaling Source: dictyBase
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Kinase, Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Transferase

Keywords - Ligandi

ATP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi2.7.11.26. 1939.
ReactomeiREACT_218739. XBP1(S) activates chaperone genes.
REACT_227492. Regulation of HSF1-mediated heat shock response.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (EC:2.7.11.26)
Short name:
GSK-3
Gene namesi
Name:gskA
Synonyms:gsk3
ORF Names:DDB_G0272110
OrganismiDictyostelium discoideum (Slime mold)
Taxonomic identifieri44689 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaAmoebozoaMycetozoaDictyosteliidaDictyostelium
ProteomesiUP000002195: Chromosome 2, UP000002195: Unassembled WGS sequence

Organism-specific databases

dictyBaseiDDB_G0272110. gskA.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. mitotic spindle Source: dictyBase
Complete GO annotation...

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Cells grow normally in both axenic medium and with bacteria. Under starvation conditions, mutants lacking gskA aggregate more quickly and form smaller mounds than wild type, fail to form slugs and take longer than wild type to reach culmination. At culmination, mutants lacking gskA form abnormal fruiting bodies characterized by an unusually large mound-like basal disk. Prestalk B (pstB) cells are formed at the expense of prespore cells, and the proportion of gskA null cells that differentiate into spores is greatly reduced when compared to wild-type cells.2 Publications

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi85 – 851K → M: Inactive kinase. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi86 – 861K → M: Inactive kinase. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi214 – 2141Y → F: Not phosphorylated or activated by zakA. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi220 – 2201Y → F: Not phosphorylated or activated by zakA. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 467467Glycogen synthase kinase-3PRO_0000085983Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei214 – 2141Phosphotyrosine; by zakA1 Publication
Modified residuei220 – 2201Phosphotyrosine; by zakA1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Expressioni

Developmental stagei

Expressed in growing cells and throughout development. Levels increase during mound formation (12 hours) and peak at approximately twice the level seen in growing cells before decreasing again at the start of culmination (16 hours).1 Publication

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi44689.DDB_0185150.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP51136.
SMRiP51136. Positions 54-385.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Domaini56 – 339284Protein kinasePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Compositional biasi28 – 4114Ser-richAdd
BLAST
Compositional biasi399 – 45052Ser-richAdd
BLAST
Compositional biasi444 – 46421Thr-richAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Contains 1 protein kinase domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG0515.
InParanoidiP51136.
KOiK03083.
OMAiMELCAHE.
PhylomeDBiP51136.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR011009. Kinase-like_dom.
IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom.
IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS.
IPR002290. Ser/Thr_dual-sp_kinase.
IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00069. Pkinase. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00220. S_TKc. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF56112. SSF56112. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit.
PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit.
PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P51136-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MSSKDQILEK DKKETDDNGN KKTTTTTSSS SSSSSSSKPR SNKFDKVIIK
60 70 80 90 100
SNGVCYITEG VIGNGSFGVV TQAIVADTKE VVAIKKVLQD QRYKNRELQI
110 120 130 140 150
MKMLNHINIV SLKNSFYTSD NDEVYLNLVL EYVPDTVYRV SRHYSMSKQP
160 170 180 190 200
VPNIFVKLYI YQLCRSINYI HSLGICHRDI KPQNLLLDTS TSTLKLCDFG
210 220 230 240 250
SAKILIKGET NVSYICSRHY RAPELIFGST NYTTTIDVWS LGCVLAELLL
260 270 280 290 300
GQPLFPGENG IDQLVEIIKV LGTPTKEQIH AMNPYYTSFK FPEIKANPWP
310 320 330 340 350
RVFKAKDVPA ESIDLISKIL LYDPSSRLKP VEICAHPFFD ELRDPKTCLP
360 370 380 390 400
DGKPLPPLFN FTIAEQTSIG PKLAKTLIPS HAMNQIELPS PLFPNLAISS
410 420 430 440 450
SNQSSSSNSN ANVSSNLNSH SASPSTTSSS SSTPNSIPVQ SPSTTNTTSS
460
TTNNTTTTTT TTTTSNH
Length:467
Mass (Da):51,483
Last modified:May 10, 2004 - v2
Checksum:iEF6C00122B90C61D
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
Links Updated
L34674 mRNA. Translation: AAA65968.2.
AAFI02000008 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAL71207.1.
PIRiA55476.
RefSeqiXP_645156.1. XM_640064.1.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblProtistsiDDB0185150; DDB0185150; DDB_G0272110.
GeneIDi8618327.
KEGGiddi:DDB_G0272110.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
Links Updated
L34674 mRNA. Translation: AAA65968.2 .
AAFI02000008 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAL71207.1 .
PIRi A55476.
RefSeqi XP_645156.1. XM_640064.1.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortali P51136.
SMRi P51136. Positions 54-385.
ModBasei Search...
MobiDBi Search...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi 44689.DDB_0185150.

Chemistry

ChEMBLi CHEMBL2311226.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblProtistsi DDB0185150 ; DDB0185150 ; DDB_G0272110 .
GeneIDi 8618327.
KEGGi ddi:DDB_G0272110.

Organism-specific databases

dictyBasei DDB_G0272110. gskA.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGi COG0515.
InParanoidi P51136.
KOi K03083.
OMAi MELCAHE.
PhylomeDBi P51136.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi 2.7.11.26. 1939.
Reactomei REACT_218739. XBP1(S) activates chaperone genes.
REACT_227492. Regulation of HSF1-mediated heat shock response.

Family and domain databases

InterProi IPR011009. Kinase-like_dom.
IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom.
IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS.
IPR002290. Ser/Thr_dual-sp_kinase.
IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS.
[Graphical view ]
Pfami PF00069. Pkinase. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
SMARTi SM00220. S_TKc. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
SUPFAMi SSF56112. SSF56112. 1 hit.
PROSITEi PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit.
PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit.
PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
ProtoNeti Search...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Glycogen synthase kinase 3 regulates cell fate in Dictyostelium."
    Harwood A.J., Plyte S.E., Woodgett J., Strutt H., Kay R.R.
    Cell 80:139-148(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], FUNCTION, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE.
    Strain: AX2.
  2. Harwood A.J., Plyte S.E., Woodgett J., Strutt H., Kay R.R.
    Submitted (DEC-2003) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: SEQUENCE REVISION.
  3. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: AX4.
  4. "The genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum."
    Eichinger L., Pachebat J.A., Gloeckner G., Rajandream M.A., Sucgang R., Berriman M., Song J., Olsen R., Szafranski K., Xu Q., Tunggal B., Kummerfeld S., Madera M., Konfortov B.A., Rivero F., Bankier A.T., Lehmann R., Hamlin N.
    , Davies R., Gaudet P., Fey P., Pilcher K., Chen G., Saunders D., Sodergren E.J., Davis P., Kerhornou A., Nie X., Hall N., Anjard C., Hemphill L., Bason N., Farbrother P., Desany B., Just E., Morio T., Rost R., Churcher C.M., Cooper J., Haydock S., van Driessche N., Cronin A., Goodhead I., Muzny D.M., Mourier T., Pain A., Lu M., Harper D., Lindsay R., Hauser H., James K.D., Quiles M., Madan Babu M., Saito T., Buchrieser C., Wardroper A., Felder M., Thangavelu M., Johnson D., Knights A., Loulseged H., Mungall K.L., Oliver K., Price C., Quail M.A., Urushihara H., Hernandez J., Rabbinowitsch E., Steffen D., Sanders M., Ma J., Kohara Y., Sharp S., Simmonds M.N., Spiegler S., Tivey A., Sugano S., White B., Walker D., Woodward J.R., Winckler T., Tanaka Y., Shaulsky G., Schleicher M., Weinstock G.M., Rosenthal A., Cox E.C., Chisholm R.L., Gibbs R.A., Loomis W.F., Platzer M., Kay R.R., Williams J.G., Dear P.H., Noegel A.A., Barrell B.G., Kuspa A.
    Nature 435:43-57(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: AX4.
  5. "Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway: a molecular mechanism for lithium action."
    Hedgepeth C.M., Conrad L.J., Zhang J., Huang H.-C., Lee V.M.Y., Klein P.S.
    Dev. Biol. 185:82-91(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, INHIBITION BY LITHIUM.
  6. "Autonomous and nonautonomous regulation of axis formation by antagonistic signaling via 7-span cAMP receptors and GSK3 in Dictyostelium."
    Ginsburg G.T., Kimmel A.R.
    Genes Dev. 11:2112-2123(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  7. "An assay for glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) for use in crude cell extracts."
    Ryves W.J., Fryer L., Dale T., Harwood A.J.
    Anal. Biochem. 264:124-127(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, INHIBITION BY LITHIUM.
  8. "The novel tyrosine kinase ZAK1 activates GSK3 to direct cell fate specification."
    Kim L., Liu J., Kimmel A.R.
    Cell 99:399-408(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  9. "Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is regulated during Dictyostelium development via the serpentine receptor cAR3."
    Plyte S.E., O'Donovan E., Woodgett J.R., Harwood A.J.
    Development 126:325-333(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
  10. "Lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 by competition for magnesium."
    Ryves W.J., Harwood A.J.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 280:720-725(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, COFACTOR REQUIREMENT, INHIBITION BY LITHIUM.
  11. "Receptor-dependent and tyrosine phosphatase-mediated inhibition of GSK3 regulates cell fate choice."
    Kim L., Harwood A.J., Kimmel A.R.
    Dev. Cell 3:523-532(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, MUTAGENESIS OF LYS-85; LYS-86; TYR-214 AND TYR-220, PHOSPHORYLATION AT TYR-214 AND TYR-220.
  12. "GSK3 is a multifunctional regulator of Dictyostelium development."
    Schilde C., Araki T., Williams H., Harwood A.J., Williams J.G.
    Development 131:4555-4565(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE.
  13. "Combinatorial cell-specific regulation of GSK3 directs cell differentiation and polarity in Dictyostelium."
    Kim L., Brzostowski J., Majithia A., Lee N.S., McMains V., Kimmel A.R.
    Development 138:421-430(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGSK3_DICDI
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P51136
Secondary accession number(s): Q55A28, Q86KY0
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 1996
Last sequence update: May 10, 2004
Last modified: October 29, 2014
This is version 105 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Dictyostelium discoideum
    Dictyostelium discoideum: entries, gene names and cross-references to dictyBase
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3