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Protein

Glycogen synthase kinase-3

Gene

gskA

Organism
Dictyostelium discoideum (Slime mold)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

During cellular differentiation, may mediate an extracellular cyclic AMP stimulated signal transduction pathway that regulates prespore and prestalk B-cell proportions through inhibition of stalk cell formation and induction of prespore cell differentiation. The cAMP receptor carC appears to activate gskA via the tyrosine kinases zakA and zak2, to stimulate prespore differentiation, while carD appears to negatively regulate gskA, to promote prestalk formation.7 Publications

Catalytic activityi

ATP + [tau protein] = ADP + [tau protein] phosphate.3 Publications

Cofactori

Mg2+1 Publication

Enzyme regulationi

Inhibited by lithium. Lithium inhibition is competitive with respect to magnesium but non-competitive with respect to the peptide substrate.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Binding sitei85ATP1
Active sitei179Proton acceptorPROSITE-ProRule annotation1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Nucleotide bindingi62 – 70ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation9

GO - Molecular functioni

  • ATP binding Source: UniProtKB
  • protein serine/threonine kinase activity Source: dictyBase
  • tau-protein kinase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC

GO - Biological processi

  • aggregation involved in sorocarp development Source: dictyBase
  • cAMP-mediated signaling Source: dictyBase
  • cell differentiation Source: dictyBase
  • chemotaxis to cAMP Source: dictyBase
  • chemotaxis to folate Source: dictyBase
  • culmination involved in sorocarp development Source: UniProtKB
  • mitotic cytokinesis Source: dictyBase
  • multicellular organism development Source: UniProtKB
  • peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation Source: dictyBase
  • phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling Source: dictyBase
  • positive regulation of gene expression Source: dictyBase
  • positive regulation of protein export from nucleus Source: dictyBase
  • protein phosphorylation Source: UniProtKB
  • regulation of aggregation involved in sorocarp development Source: dictyBase
  • regulation of cell adhesion Source: dictyBase
  • regulation of GTPase activity Source: dictyBase
  • regulation of myosin II filament assembly Source: dictyBase
  • regulation of positive chemotaxis to cAMP Source: dictyBase
  • regulation of protein kinase activity Source: dictyBase
  • regulation of protein localization to cell cortex Source: dictyBase
  • signal transduction Source: dictyBase
  • sorocarp morphogenesis Source: dictyBase
  • spindle elongation Source: dictyBase
  • sporulation resulting in formation of a cellular spore Source: UniProtKB
  • TOR signaling Source: dictyBase
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Kinase, Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Transferase

Keywords - Ligandi

ATP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi2.7.11.26. 1939.
ReactomeiR-DDI-3371453. Regulation of HSF1-mediated heat shock response.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (EC:2.7.11.26)
Short name:
GSK-3
Gene namesi
Name:gskA
Synonyms:gsk3
ORF Names:DDB_G0272110
OrganismiDictyostelium discoideum (Slime mold)
Taxonomic identifieri44689 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaAmoebozoaMycetozoaDictyosteliidaDictyostelium
Proteomesi
  • UP000002195 Componentsi: Chromosome 2, Unassembled WGS sequence

Organism-specific databases

dictyBaseiDDB_G0272110. gskA.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • mitotic spindle Source: dictyBase
Complete GO annotation...

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Cells grow normally in both axenic medium and with bacteria. Under starvation conditions, mutants lacking gskA aggregate more quickly and form smaller mounds than wild type, fail to form slugs and take longer than wild type to reach culmination. At culmination, mutants lacking gskA form abnormal fruiting bodies characterized by an unusually large mound-like basal disk. Prestalk B (pstB) cells are formed at the expense of prespore cells, and the proportion of gskA null cells that differentiate into spores is greatly reduced when compared to wild-type cells.2 Publications

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi85K → M: Inactive kinase. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi86K → M: Inactive kinase. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi214Y → F: Not phosphorylated or activated by zakA. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi220Y → F: Not phosphorylated or activated by zakA. 1 Publication1

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL2311226.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00000859831 – 467Glycogen synthase kinase-3Add BLAST467

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei214Phosphotyrosine; by zakA1 Publication1
Modified residuei220Phosphotyrosine; by zakA1 Publication1

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP51136.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP51136.

Expressioni

Developmental stagei

Expressed in growing cells and throughout development. Levels increase during mound formation (12 hours) and peak at approximately twice the level seen in growing cells before decreasing again at the start of culmination (16 hours).1 Publication

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi44689.DDB0185150.

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiP51136.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP51136.
SMRiP51136.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini56 – 339Protein kinasePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST284

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Compositional biasi28 – 41Ser-richAdd BLAST14
Compositional biasi399 – 450Ser-richAdd BLAST52
Compositional biasi444 – 464Thr-richAdd BLAST21

Sequence similaritiesi

Contains 1 protein kinase domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0658. Eukaryota.
COG0515. LUCA.
InParanoidiP51136.
KOiK03083.
OMAiPVEICAH.
PhylomeDBiP51136.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR011009. Kinase-like_dom.
IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom.
IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS.
IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00069. Pkinase. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00220. S_TKc. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF56112. SSF56112. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit.
PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit.
PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P51136-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MSSKDQILEK DKKETDDNGN KKTTTTTSSS SSSSSSSKPR SNKFDKVIIK
60 70 80 90 100
SNGVCYITEG VIGNGSFGVV TQAIVADTKE VVAIKKVLQD QRYKNRELQI
110 120 130 140 150
MKMLNHINIV SLKNSFYTSD NDEVYLNLVL EYVPDTVYRV SRHYSMSKQP
160 170 180 190 200
VPNIFVKLYI YQLCRSINYI HSLGICHRDI KPQNLLLDTS TSTLKLCDFG
210 220 230 240 250
SAKILIKGET NVSYICSRHY RAPELIFGST NYTTTIDVWS LGCVLAELLL
260 270 280 290 300
GQPLFPGENG IDQLVEIIKV LGTPTKEQIH AMNPYYTSFK FPEIKANPWP
310 320 330 340 350
RVFKAKDVPA ESIDLISKIL LYDPSSRLKP VEICAHPFFD ELRDPKTCLP
360 370 380 390 400
DGKPLPPLFN FTIAEQTSIG PKLAKTLIPS HAMNQIELPS PLFPNLAISS
410 420 430 440 450
SNQSSSSNSN ANVSSNLNSH SASPSTTSSS SSTPNSIPVQ SPSTTNTTSS
460
TTNNTTTTTT TTTTSNH
Length:467
Mass (Da):51,483
Last modified:May 10, 2004 - v2
Checksum:iEF6C00122B90C61D
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L34674 mRNA. Translation: AAA65968.2.
AAFI02000008 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAL71207.1.
PIRiA55476.
RefSeqiXP_645156.1. XM_640064.1.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblProtistsiEAL71207; EAL71207; DDB_G0272110.
GeneIDi8618327.
KEGGiddi:DDB_G0272110.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L34674 mRNA. Translation: AAA65968.2.
AAFI02000008 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAL71207.1.
PIRiA55476.
RefSeqiXP_645156.1. XM_640064.1.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP51136.
SMRiP51136.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi44689.DDB0185150.

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiP51136.
ChEMBLiCHEMBL2311226.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP51136.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP51136.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblProtistsiEAL71207; EAL71207; DDB_G0272110.
GeneIDi8618327.
KEGGiddi:DDB_G0272110.

Organism-specific databases

dictyBaseiDDB_G0272110. gskA.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0658. Eukaryota.
COG0515. LUCA.
InParanoidiP51136.
KOiK03083.
OMAiPVEICAH.
PhylomeDBiP51136.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi2.7.11.26. 1939.
ReactomeiR-DDI-3371453. Regulation of HSF1-mediated heat shock response.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiP51136.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR011009. Kinase-like_dom.
IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom.
IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS.
IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00069. Pkinase. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00220. S_TKc. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF56112. SSF56112. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit.
PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit.
PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGSK3_DICDI
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P51136
Secondary accession number(s): Q55A28, Q86KY0
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 1996
Last sequence update: May 10, 2004
Last modified: November 30, 2016
This is version 121 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Dictyostelium discoideum
    Dictyostelium discoideum: entries, gene names and cross-references to dictyBase
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.