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Protein

Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-4

Gene

GNG4

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. signal transducer activity Source: UniProtKB-KW

GO - Biological processi

  1. cellular response to glucagon stimulus Source: Reactome
  2. energy reserve metabolic process Source: Reactome
  3. G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: InterPro
  4. negative regulation of cell growth Source: BHF-UCL
  5. regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway Source: ProtInc
  6. small molecule metabolic process Source: Reactome
  7. synaptic transmission Source: Reactome
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Transducer

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_15457. G-protein activation.
REACT_1665. Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation.
REACT_18274. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion.
REACT_18283. G alpha (q) signalling events.
REACT_18339. Adrenaline,noradrenaline inhibits insulin secretion.
REACT_18377. Glucagon-type ligand receptors.
REACT_18407. G alpha (12/13) signalling events.
REACT_19140. ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 1.
REACT_19145. G beta:gamma signalling through PLC beta.
REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.
REACT_19290. G beta:gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma.
REACT_19327. G alpha (s) signalling events.
REACT_19333. G alpha (z) signalling events.
REACT_20647. Thromboxane signalling through TP receptor.
REACT_20653. ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12.
REACT_21254. Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors.
REACT_21384. Thrombin signalling through proteinase activated receptors (PARs).
REACT_23946. Prostacyclin signalling through prostacyclin receptor.
REACT_24023. Vasopressin regulates renal water homeostasis via Aquaporins.
REACT_25004. Inhibition of voltage gated Ca2+ channels via Gbeta/gamma subunits.
REACT_263982. Ca2+ pathway.
REACT_75831. Activation of G protein gated Potassium channels.
SignaLinkiP50150.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-4
Gene namesi
Name:GNG4
Synonyms:GNGT4
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:4407. GNG4.

Subcellular locationi

Cell membrane Curated; Lipid-anchor Curated; Cytoplasmic side Curated

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. extracellular vesicular exosome Source: UniProtKB
  2. heterotrimeric G-protein complex Source: InterPro
  3. plasma membrane Source: Reactome
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

PharmGKBiPA28786.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 7272Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-4PRO_0000012621Add
BLAST
Propeptidei73 – 753Removed in mature formPRO_0000012622

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei72 – 721Cysteine methyl ester1 Publication
Lipidationi72 – 721S-geranylgeranyl cysteine1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Lipoprotein, Methylation, Prenylation

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP50150.
PaxDbiP50150.
PeptideAtlasiP50150.
PRIDEiP50150.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP50150.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Brain, kidney, pancreas, skeletal muscle and faintly in cardiac muscle.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP50150.
CleanExiHS_GNG4.
ExpressionAtlasiP50150. baseline and differential.
GenevestigatoriP50150.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma. Interacts with beta-1 and beta-2, but not with beta-3.

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
Kcnk2Q920B63EBI-6395970,EBI-6530063From a different organism.

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi109048. 13 interactions.
IntActiP50150. 1 interaction.
MINTiMINT-5004317.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000355556.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP50150.
SMRiP50150. Positions 12-71.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the G protein gamma family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG319015.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119218.
HOVERGENiHBG014983.
InParanoidiP50150.
KOiK04541.
OMAiAYCEAHI.
OrthoDBiEOG7H1JP7.
PhylomeDBiP50150.
TreeFamiTF319909.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di4.10.260.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR015898. G-protein_gamma-like_dom.
IPR001770. Gprotein-gamma.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR13809. PTHR13809. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00631. G-gamma. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00321. GPROTEING.
SMARTiSM00224. GGL. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48670. SSF48670. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50058. G_PROTEIN_GAMMA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P50150-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MKEGMSNNST TSISQARKAV EQLKMEACMD RVKVSQAAAD LLAYCEAHVR
60 70
EDPLIIPVPA SENPFREKKF FCTIL
Length:75
Mass (Da):8,389
Last modified:October 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:i42FAEF4728F83FF5
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U31382 mRNA. Translation: AAC50204.1.
AF493872 mRNA. Translation: AAM12586.1.
BC022485 mRNA. Translation: AAH22485.1.
CCDSiCCDS1607.1.
PIRiI39157.
RefSeqiNP_001092191.1. NM_001098721.1.
NP_001092192.1. NM_001098722.1.
NP_004476.1. NM_004485.3.
XP_006711824.1. XM_006711761.1.
XP_006711825.1. XM_006711762.1.
UniGeneiHs.159711.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000366597; ENSP00000355556; ENSG00000168243.
ENST00000366598; ENSP00000355557; ENSG00000168243.
ENST00000391854; ENSP00000375727; ENSG00000168243.
ENST00000450593; ENSP00000398629; ENSG00000168243.
ENST00000484517; ENSP00000482192; ENSG00000168243.
GeneIDi2786.
KEGGihsa:2786.
UCSCiuc001hxe.4. human.

Polymorphism databases

DMDMi1730219.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U31382 mRNA. Translation: AAC50204.1.
AF493872 mRNA. Translation: AAM12586.1.
BC022485 mRNA. Translation: AAH22485.1.
CCDSiCCDS1607.1.
PIRiI39157.
RefSeqiNP_001092191.1. NM_001098721.1.
NP_001092192.1. NM_001098722.1.
NP_004476.1. NM_004485.3.
XP_006711824.1. XM_006711761.1.
XP_006711825.1. XM_006711762.1.
UniGeneiHs.159711.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP50150.
SMRiP50150. Positions 12-71.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi109048. 13 interactions.
IntActiP50150. 1 interaction.
MINTiMINT-5004317.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000355556.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP50150.

Polymorphism databases

DMDMi1730219.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP50150.
PaxDbiP50150.
PeptideAtlasiP50150.
PRIDEiP50150.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi2786.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000366597; ENSP00000355556; ENSG00000168243.
ENST00000366598; ENSP00000355557; ENSG00000168243.
ENST00000391854; ENSP00000375727; ENSG00000168243.
ENST00000450593; ENSP00000398629; ENSG00000168243.
ENST00000484517; ENSP00000482192; ENSG00000168243.
GeneIDi2786.
KEGGihsa:2786.
UCSCiuc001hxe.4. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi2786.
GeneCardsiGC01M235710.
HGNCiHGNC:4407. GNG4.
MIMi604388. gene.
neXtProtiNX_P50150.
PharmGKBiPA28786.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG319015.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119218.
HOVERGENiHBG014983.
InParanoidiP50150.
KOiK04541.
OMAiAYCEAHI.
OrthoDBiEOG7H1JP7.
PhylomeDBiP50150.
TreeFamiTF319909.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_15457. G-protein activation.
REACT_1665. Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation.
REACT_18274. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion.
REACT_18283. G alpha (q) signalling events.
REACT_18339. Adrenaline,noradrenaline inhibits insulin secretion.
REACT_18377. Glucagon-type ligand receptors.
REACT_18407. G alpha (12/13) signalling events.
REACT_19140. ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 1.
REACT_19145. G beta:gamma signalling through PLC beta.
REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.
REACT_19290. G beta:gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma.
REACT_19327. G alpha (s) signalling events.
REACT_19333. G alpha (z) signalling events.
REACT_20647. Thromboxane signalling through TP receptor.
REACT_20653. ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12.
REACT_21254. Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors.
REACT_21384. Thrombin signalling through proteinase activated receptors (PARs).
REACT_23946. Prostacyclin signalling through prostacyclin receptor.
REACT_24023. Vasopressin regulates renal water homeostasis via Aquaporins.
REACT_25004. Inhibition of voltage gated Ca2+ channels via Gbeta/gamma subunits.
REACT_263982. Ca2+ pathway.
REACT_75831. Activation of G protein gated Potassium channels.
SignaLinkiP50150.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiGNG4. human.
GenomeRNAii2786.
NextBioi10975.
PROiP50150.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP50150.
CleanExiHS_GNG4.
ExpressionAtlasiP50150. baseline and differential.
GenevestigatoriP50150.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di4.10.260.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR015898. G-protein_gamma-like_dom.
IPR001770. Gprotein-gamma.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR13809. PTHR13809. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00631. G-gamma. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00321. GPROTEING.
SMARTiSM00224. GGL. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48670. SSF48670. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50058. G_PROTEIN_GAMMA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Isolation of cDNA clones encoding eight different human G protein gamma subunits, including three novel forms designated the gamma 4, gamma 10, and gamma 11 subunits."
    Ray K., Kunsch C., Bonner L.M., Robishaw J.D.
    J. Biol. Chem. 270:21765-21771(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], ISOPRENYLATION AT CYS-72, METHYLATION AT CYS-72.
  2. "cDNA clones of human proteins involved in signal transduction sequenced by the Guthrie cDNA resource center (www.cdna.org)."
    Puhl H.L. III, Ikeda S.R., Aronstam R.S.
    Submitted (FEB-2002) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
  3. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Brain.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGBG4_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P50150
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 1996
Last sequence update: October 1, 1996
Last modified: April 1, 2015
This is version 139 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 1
    Human chromosome 1: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.