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P49840

- GSK3A_HUMAN

UniProt

P49840 - GSK3A_HUMAN

Protein

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 alpha

Gene

GSK3A

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli
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    • History
      Entry version 147 (01 Oct 2014)
      Sequence version 2 (01 Dec 2000)
      Previous versions | rss
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    Functioni

    Constitutively active protein kinase that acts as a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis, Wnt signaling and regulation of transcription factors and microtubules, by phosphorylating and inactivating glycogen synthase (GYS1 or GYS2), CTNNB1/beta-catenin, APC and AXIN1. Requires primed phosphorylation of the majority of its substrates. Contributes to insulin regulation of glycogen synthesis by phosphorylating and inhibiting GYS1 activity and hence glycogen synthesis. Regulates glycogen metabolism in liver, but not in muscle. May also mediate the development of insulin resistance by regulating activation of transcription factors. In Wnt signaling, regulates the level and transcriptional activity of nuclear CTNNB1/beta-catenin. Facilitates amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and the generation of APP-derived amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer disease. May be involved in the regulation of replication in pancreatic beta-cells. Is necessary for the establishment of neuronal polarity and axon outgrowth. Through phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1, may control cell apoptosis in response to growth factors deprivation.2 Publications

    Catalytic activityi

    ATP + [tau protein] = ADP + [tau protein] phosphate.
    ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.

    Enzyme regulationi

    Activated by phosphorylation at Tyr-279. In response to insulin, inhibited by phosphorylation at Ser-21 by PKB/AKT1; phosphorylation at this site causes a conformational change, preventing access of substrates to the active site. Inhibited by lithium.2 Publications

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Binding sitei148 – 1481ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation
    Active sitei244 – 2441Proton acceptorPROSITE-ProRule annotation

    Regions

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Nucleotide bindingi125 – 1339ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. ATP binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
    2. protein binding Source: IntAct
    3. protein kinase A catalytic subunit binding Source: BHF-UCL
    4. protein serine/threonine kinase activity Source: BHF-UCL
    5. tau-protein kinase activity Source: UniProtKB

    GO - Biological processi

    1. activation of signaling protein activity involved in unfolded protein response Source: Reactome
    2. cardiac left ventricle morphogenesis Source: BHF-UCL
    3. cellular protein metabolic process Source: Reactome
    4. cellular response to insulin stimulus Source: BHF-UCL
    5. cellular response to interleukin-3 Source: UniProtKB
    6. endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response Source: Reactome
    7. epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway Source: Reactome
    8. extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand Source: UniProtKB
    9. Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway Source: Reactome
    10. fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway Source: Reactome
    11. glycogen metabolic process Source: UniProtKB-KW
    12. innate immune response Source: Reactome
    13. insulin receptor signaling pathway Source: BHF-UCL
    14. negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway Source: UniProtKB
    15. negative regulation of cell growth involved in cardiac muscle cell development Source: BHF-UCL
    16. negative regulation of glucose import Source: BHF-UCL
    17. negative regulation of glycogen (starch) synthase activity Source: UniProtKB
    18. negative regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
    19. negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway Source: BHF-UCL
    20. negative regulation of TOR signaling Source: BHF-UCL
    21. negative regulation of transferase activity Source: BHF-UCL
    22. negative regulation of type B pancreatic cell development Source: UniProtKB
    23. negative regulation of UDP-glucose catabolic process Source: UniProtKB
    24. nervous system development Source: UniProtKB-KW
    25. neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway Source: Reactome
    26. phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling Source: Reactome
    27. positive regulation of adrenergic receptor signaling pathway Source: BHF-UCL
    28. positive regulation of cAMP biosynthetic process Source: BHF-UCL
    29. positive regulation of glycogen (starch) synthase activity Source: BHF-UCL
    30. positive regulation of heart contraction Source: BHF-UCL
    31. positive regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization involved in apoptotic signaling pathway Source: UniProtKB
    32. positive regulation of protein catabolic process Source: BHF-UCL
    33. proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process Source: UniProtKB
    34. protein phosphorylation Source: BHF-UCL
    35. regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure Source: BHF-UCL
    36. Wnt signaling pathway Source: UniProtKB-KW

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Kinase, Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Signal transduction inhibitor, Transferase

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Carbohydrate metabolism, Glycogen metabolism, Neurogenesis, Wnt signaling pathway

    Keywords - Ligandi

    ATP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    ReactomeiREACT_12564. AKT phosphorylates targets in the cytosol.
    REACT_147727. Constitutive PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer.
    REACT_18273. XBP1(S) activates chaperone genes.
    SignaLinkiP49840.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 alpha (EC:2.7.11.26)
    Short name:
    GSK-3 alpha
    Alternative name(s):
    Serine/threonine-protein kinase GSK3A (EC:2.7.11.1)
    Gene namesi
    Name:GSK3A
    OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
    Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
    ProteomesiUP000005640: Chromosome 19

    Organism-specific databases

    HGNCiHGNC:4616. GSK3A.

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. beta-catenin destruction complex Source: UniProtKB
    2. cytosol Source: BHF-UCL

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Keywords - Diseasei

    Alzheimer disease, Diabetes mellitus

    Organism-specific databases

    PharmGKBiPA29008.

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Initiator methioninei1 – 11Removed2 Publications
    Chaini2 – 483482Glycogen synthase kinase-3 alphaPRO_0000085978Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Modified residuei2 – 21N-acetylserine2 Publications
    Modified residuei2 – 21Phosphoserine2 Publications
    Modified residuei21 – 211Phosphoserine; by PKB/AKT1By similarity
    Modified residuei72 – 721Phosphoserine1 Publication
    Modified residuei77 – 771Phosphoserine1 Publication
    Modified residuei97 – 971Phosphoserine1 Publication
    Modified residuei279 – 2791PhosphotyrosineBy similarity

    Post-translational modificationi

    Phosphorylated by AKT1 at Ser-21: upon insulin-mediated signaling, the activated PKB/AKT1 protein kinase phosphorylates and desactivates GSK3A, resulting in the dephosphorylation and activation of GYS1. Activated by phosphorylation at Tyr-279.2 Publications

    Keywords - PTMi

    Acetylation, Phosphoprotein

    Proteomic databases

    MaxQBiP49840.
    PaxDbiP49840.
    PeptideAtlasiP49840.
    PRIDEiP49840.

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSiteiP49840.

    Expressioni

    Gene expression databases

    ArrayExpressiP49840.
    BgeeiP49840.
    CleanExiHS_GSK3A.
    GenevestigatoriP49840.

    Organism-specific databases

    HPAiCAB004422.
    HPA028423.

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Monomer. Interacts with ARRB2 By similarity. Interacts with AXIN1 and CTNNB1/beta-catenin.By similarity1 Publication

    Binary interactionsi

    WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
    AXIN1O151692EBI-1044067,EBI-710484
    DEAF1O753982EBI-1044067,EBI-718185
    HSP90AB1P082382EBI-1044067,EBI-352572
    LRP6O755812EBI-1044067,EBI-910915
    ZDHHC17Q8IUH53EBI-1044067,EBI-524753

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi109186. 50 interactions.
    IntActiP49840. 36 interactions.
    MINTiMINT-1688290.
    STRINGi9606.ENSP00000222330.

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBe
    RCSB PDB
    PDBj
    Links Updated
    EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    2DFMmodel-A98-449[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliP49840.
    SMRiP49840. Positions 99-446.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Domains and Repeats

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Domaini119 – 403285Protein kinasePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
    BLAST

    Compositional bias

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Compositional biasi3 – 8381Gly-richAdd
    BLAST

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Contains 1 protein kinase domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiCOG0515.
    HOGENOMiHOG000233017.
    HOVERGENiHBG014652.
    InParanoidiP49840.
    KOiK08822.
    OMAiFDELRCP.
    OrthoDBiEOG7TF78V.
    PhylomeDBiP49840.
    TreeFamiTF101104.

    Family and domain databases

    InterProiIPR011009. Kinase-like_dom.
    IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom.
    IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS.
    IPR002290. Ser/Thr_dual-sp_kinase_dom.
    IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00069. Pkinase. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SMARTiSM00220. S_TKc. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF56112. SSF56112. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit.
    PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit.
    PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    P49840-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    « Hide

    MSGGGPSGGG PGGSGRARTS SFAEPGGGGG GGGGGPGGSA SGPGGTGGGK    50
    ASVGAMGGGV GASSSGGGPG GSGGGGSGGP GAGTSFPPPG VKLGRDSGKV 100
    TTVVATLGQG PERSQEVAYT DIKVIGNGSF GVVYQARLAE TRELVAIKKV 150
    LQDKRFKNRE LQIMRKLDHC NIVRLRYFFY SSGEKKDELY LNLVLEYVPE 200
    TVYRVARHFT KAKLTIPILY VKVYMYQLFR SLAYIHSQGV CHRDIKPQNL 250
    LVDPDTAVLK LCDFGSAKQL VRGEPNVSYI CSRYYRAPEL IFGATDYTSS 300
    IDVWSAGCVL AELLLGQPIF PGDSGVDQLV EIIKVLGTPT REQIREMNPN 350
    YTEFKFPQIK AHPWTKVFKS RTPPEAIALC SSLLEYTPSS RLSPLEACAH 400
    SFFDELRCLG TQLPNNRPLP PLFNFSAGEL SIQPSLNAIL IPPHLRSPAG 450
    TTTLTPSSQA LTETPTSSDW QSTDATPTLT NSS 483
    Length:483
    Mass (Da):50,981
    Last modified:December 1, 2000 - v2
    Checksum:iF18C012C03B7D786
    GO

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Sequence conflicti449 – 4491A → S in AAA62432. 1 PublicationCurated

    Natural variant

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Natural varianti109 – 1091Q → E.
    Corresponds to variant rs35978177 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_051625
    Natural varianti461 – 4611L → F.1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs35454502 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_040539

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    L40027 mRNA. Translation: AAA62432.1.
    D63424 mRNA. Translation: BAA23608.1.
    AC006486 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAD11986.1.
    BC027984 mRNA. Translation: AAH27984.1.
    BC051865 mRNA. Translation: AAH51865.1.
    CCDSiCCDS12599.1.
    RefSeqiNP_063937.2. NM_019884.2.
    UniGeneiHs.466828.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENST00000222330; ENSP00000222330; ENSG00000105723.
    ENST00000453535; ENSP00000412663; ENSG00000105723.
    GeneIDi2931.
    KEGGihsa:2931.
    UCSCiuc002otb.1. human.

    Polymorphism databases

    DMDMi12644292.

    Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

    Polymorphism

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    L40027 mRNA. Translation: AAA62432.1 .
    D63424 mRNA. Translation: BAA23608.1 .
    AC006486 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAD11986.1 .
    BC027984 mRNA. Translation: AAH27984.1 .
    BC051865 mRNA. Translation: AAH51865.1 .
    CCDSi CCDS12599.1.
    RefSeqi NP_063937.2. NM_019884.2.
    UniGenei Hs.466828.

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBe
    RCSB PDB
    PDBj
    Links Updated
    Entry Method Resolution (Å) Chain Positions PDBsum
    2DFM model - A 98-449 [» ]
    ProteinModelPortali P49840.
    SMRi P49840. Positions 99-446.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi 109186. 50 interactions.
    IntActi P49840. 36 interactions.
    MINTi MINT-1688290.
    STRINGi 9606.ENSP00000222330.

    Chemistry

    BindingDBi P49840.
    ChEMBLi CHEMBL2850.
    GuidetoPHARMACOLOGYi 2029.

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSitei P49840.

    Polymorphism databases

    DMDMi 12644292.

    Proteomic databases

    MaxQBi P49840.
    PaxDbi P49840.
    PeptideAtlasi P49840.
    PRIDEi P49840.

    Protocols and materials databases

    DNASUi 2931.
    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembli ENST00000222330 ; ENSP00000222330 ; ENSG00000105723 .
    ENST00000453535 ; ENSP00000412663 ; ENSG00000105723 .
    GeneIDi 2931.
    KEGGi hsa:2931.
    UCSCi uc002otb.1. human.

    Organism-specific databases

    CTDi 2931.
    GeneCardsi GC19M042734.
    HGNCi HGNC:4616. GSK3A.
    HPAi CAB004422.
    HPA028423.
    MIMi 606784. gene.
    neXtProti NX_P49840.
    PharmGKBi PA29008.
    GenAtlasi Search...

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGi COG0515.
    HOGENOMi HOG000233017.
    HOVERGENi HBG014652.
    InParanoidi P49840.
    KOi K08822.
    OMAi FDELRCP.
    OrthoDBi EOG7TF78V.
    PhylomeDBi P49840.
    TreeFami TF101104.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    Reactomei REACT_12564. AKT phosphorylates targets in the cytosol.
    REACT_147727. Constitutive PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer.
    REACT_18273. XBP1(S) activates chaperone genes.
    SignaLinki P49840.

    Miscellaneous databases

    ChiTaRSi GSK3A. human.
    GeneWikii GSK3A.
    GenomeRNAii 2931.
    NextBioi 11615.
    PROi P49840.
    SOURCEi Search...

    Gene expression databases

    ArrayExpressi P49840.
    Bgeei P49840.
    CleanExi HS_GSK3A.
    Genevestigatori P49840.

    Family and domain databases

    InterProi IPR011009. Kinase-like_dom.
    IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom.
    IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS.
    IPR002290. Ser/Thr_dual-sp_kinase_dom.
    IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS.
    [Graphical view ]
    Pfami PF00069. Pkinase. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    SMARTi SM00220. S_TKc. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    SUPFAMi SSF56112. SSF56112. 1 hit.
    PROSITEi PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit.
    PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit.
    PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. "Glycogen synthase kinase 3 and dorsoventral patterning in Xenopus embryos."
      He X., Saint-Jeannet J.P., Woodgett J.R., Varmus H.E., Dawid I.B.
      Submitted (MAR-1995) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
      Tissue: Foreskin.
    2. "Isolation of cDNA clones for human glycogen synthase kinase 3alpha."
      Hoshino T., Kondo K., Ishiguro K., Takashima A., Imahori K.
      Submitted (NOV-1997) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
      Tissue: Brain.
    3. "The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19."
      Grimwood J., Gordon L.A., Olsen A.S., Terry A., Schmutz J., Lamerdin J.E., Hellsten U., Goodstein D., Couronne O., Tran-Gyamfi M., Aerts A., Altherr M., Ashworth L., Bajorek E., Black S., Branscomb E., Caenepeel S., Carrano A.V.
      , Caoile C., Chan Y.M., Christensen M., Cleland C.A., Copeland A., Dalin E., Dehal P., Denys M., Detter J.C., Escobar J., Flowers D., Fotopulos D., Garcia C., Georgescu A.M., Glavina T., Gomez M., Gonzales E., Groza M., Hammon N., Hawkins T., Haydu L., Ho I., Huang W., Israni S., Jett J., Kadner K., Kimball H., Kobayashi A., Larionov V., Leem S.-H., Lopez F., Lou Y., Lowry S., Malfatti S., Martinez D., McCready P.M., Medina C., Morgan J., Nelson K., Nolan M., Ovcharenko I., Pitluck S., Pollard M., Popkie A.P., Predki P., Quan G., Ramirez L., Rash S., Retterer J., Rodriguez A., Rogers S., Salamov A., Salazar A., She X., Smith D., Slezak T., Solovyev V., Thayer N., Tice H., Tsai M., Ustaszewska A., Vo N., Wagner M., Wheeler J., Wu K., Xie G., Yang J., Dubchak I., Furey T.S., DeJong P., Dickson M., Gordon D., Eichler E.E., Pennacchio L.A., Richardson P., Stubbs L., Rokhsar D.S., Myers R.M., Rubin E.M., Lucas S.M.
      Nature 428:529-535(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    4. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
      The MGC Project Team
      Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
      Tissue: Eye and Pancreas.
    5. "Potential role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 in skeletal muscle insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes."
      Nikoulina S.E., Ciaraldi T.P., Mudaliar S., Mohideen P., Carter L., Henry R.R.
      Diabetes 49:263-271(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: ASSOCIATION WITH DIABETES MELLITUS.
    6. "GSK-3alpha regulates production of Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta peptides."
      Phiel C.J., Wilson C.A., Lee V.M., Klein P.S.
      Nature 423:435-439(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: ASSOCIATION WITH ALZHEIMER DISEASE, FUNCTION.
    7. "GSK3alpha exhibits beta-catenin and tau directed kinase activities that are modulated by Wnt."
      Asuni A.A., Hooper C., Reynolds C.H., Lovestone S., Anderton B.H., Killick R.
      Eur. J. Neurosci. 24:3387-3392(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION IN WNT SIGNALING, INTERACTION WITH AXIN1 AND CTNNB1/BETA-CATENIN.
    8. "Glycogen synthase kinase-3: properties, functions, and regulation."
      Ali A., Hoeflich K.P., Woodgett J.R.
      Chem. Rev. 101:2527-2540(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: REVIEW ON FUNCTION, ENZYME REGULATION.
    9. "The role of GSK3 in glucose homeostasis and the development of insulin resistance."
      Lee J., Kim M.S.
      Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 77:S49-S57(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: REVIEW ON FUNCTION.
    10. "Kinase-selective enrichment enables quantitative phosphoproteomics of the kinome across the cell cycle."
      Daub H., Olsen J.V., Bairlein M., Gnad F., Oppermann F.S., Korner R., Greff Z., Keri G., Stemmann O., Mann M.
      Mol. Cell 31:438-448(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-2 AND SER-72, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
      Tissue: Cervix carcinoma.
    11. Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
      Tissue: Cervix carcinoma.
    12. "Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach."
      Gauci S., Helbig A.O., Slijper M., Krijgsveld J., Heck A.J., Mohammed S.
      Anal. Chem. 81:4493-4501(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: ACETYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-2, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
    13. Cited for: REVIEW ON FUNCTION, ENZYME REGULATION.
    14. Cited for: ACETYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-2, PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-2; SER-77 AND SER-97, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS], CLEAVAGE OF INITIATOR METHIONINE [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
    15. "Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of T cell receptor signaling reveals system-wide modulation of protein-protein interactions."
      Mayya V., Lundgren D.H., Hwang S.-I., Rezaul K., Wu L., Eng J.K., Rodionov V., Han D.K.
      Sci. Signal. 2:RA46-RA46(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
      Tissue: Leukemic T-cell.
    16. Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
    17. "Patterns of somatic mutation in human cancer genomes."
      Greenman C., Stephens P., Smith R., Dalgliesh G.L., Hunter C., Bignell G., Davies H., Teague J., Butler A., Stevens C., Edkins S., O'Meara S., Vastrik I., Schmidt E.E., Avis T., Barthorpe S., Bhamra G., Buck G.
      , Choudhury B., Clements J., Cole J., Dicks E., Forbes S., Gray K., Halliday K., Harrison R., Hills K., Hinton J., Jenkinson A., Jones D., Menzies A., Mironenko T., Perry J., Raine K., Richardson D., Shepherd R., Small A., Tofts C., Varian J., Webb T., West S., Widaa S., Yates A., Cahill D.P., Louis D.N., Goldstraw P., Nicholson A.G., Brasseur F., Looijenga L., Weber B.L., Chiew Y.-E., DeFazio A., Greaves M.F., Green A.R., Campbell P., Birney E., Easton D.F., Chenevix-Trench G., Tan M.-H., Khoo S.K., Teh B.T., Yuen S.T., Leung S.Y., Wooster R., Futreal P.A., Stratton M.R.
      Nature 446:153-158(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] PHE-461.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiGSK3A_HUMAN
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P49840
    Secondary accession number(s): O14959
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 1996
    Last sequence update: December 1, 2000
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 147 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
    DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

    Miscellaneousi

    Miscellaneous

    Higher expression and activity of GSK3A are found in the skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis) of patients with type 2 diabetes (PubMed:10868943). Several potent GSK3 (GSK3A and GSK3B) inhibitors have been identified and characterized in preclinical models for treatments of type 2 diabetes (PubMed:19366350).2 Publications

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Human chromosome 19
      Human chromosome 19: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
    2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
      List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
      Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    4. MIM cross-references
      Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    5. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    6. Human and mouse protein kinases
      Human and mouse protein kinases: classification and index
    7. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

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