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Protein

Placenta growth factor

Gene

PGF

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Growth factor active in angiogenesis and endothelial cell growth, stimulating their proliferation and migration. It binds to the receptor FLT1/VEGFR-1. Isoform PlGF-2 binds NRP1/neuropilin-1 and NRP2/neuropilin-2 in a heparin-dependent manner. Also promotes cell tumor growth.1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionDevelopmental protein, Growth factor, Heparin-binding, Mitogen
Biological processAngiogenesis, Differentiation

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-194313. VEGF ligand-receptor interactions.
R-HSA-195399. VEGF binds to VEGFR leading to receptor dimerization.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Placenta growth factor
Short name:
PlGF
Gene namesi
Name:PGF
Synonyms:PGFL, PLGF
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 14

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000119630.13.
HGNCiHGNC:8893. PGF.

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi5228.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000119630.
PharmGKBiPA33231.

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL1697671.
DrugBankiDB08885. Aflibercept.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiPGF.
DMDMi17380553.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 181 PublicationAdd BLAST18
ChainiPRO_000002342019 – 221Placenta growth factorAdd BLAST203

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Glycosylationi33N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Disulfide bondi52 ↔ 94
Disulfide bondi77Interchain
Disulfide bondi83 ↔ 128
Disulfide bondi86Interchain
Disulfide bondi87 ↔ 130
Glycosylationi101N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1

Post-translational modificationi

N-glycosylated.

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP49763.
PeptideAtlasiP49763.
PRIDEiP49763.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP49763.
PhosphoSitePlusiP49763.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

While the three isoforms are present in most placental tissues, PlGF-2 is specific to early (8 week) placenta and only PlGF-1 is found in the colon and mammary carcinomas.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000119630.
CleanExiHS_PGF.
ExpressionAtlasiP49763. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP49763. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA041624.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Antiparallel homodimer; disulfide-linked. Also found as heterodimer with VEGFA/VEGF. Isoform PlGF-3 is found both as homodimer and as monomer.

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
FLT1P179482EBI-1037633,EBI-1026718

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi111249. 4 interactors.
DIPiDIP-5752N.
IntActiP49763. 2 interactors.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000451040.

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiP49763.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1221
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Helixi43 – 50Combined sources8
Beta strandi51 – 60Combined sources10
Helixi62 – 64Combined sources3
Beta strandi65 – 67Combined sources3
Beta strandi73 – 84Combined sources12
Beta strandi92 – 108Combined sources17
Beta strandi111 – 113Combined sources3
Beta strandi116 – 131Combined sources16

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1FZVX-ray2.00A/B19-221[»]
1RV6X-ray2.45V/W37-136[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP49763.
SMRiP49763.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP49763.

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni193 – 213Heparin-bindingCuratedAdd BLAST21

Domaini

Isoform PlGF-2 contains a basic insert which acts as a cell retention signal.

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IY55. Eukaryota.
ENOG410YNR0. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00730000110791.
HOGENOMiHOG000230896.
InParanoidiP49763.
KOiK16859.
OMAiRCECRPL.
OrthoDBiEOG091G0G6M.
PhylomeDBiP49763.
TreeFamiTF319554.

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00135. PDGF. 1 hit.
Gene3Di2.10.90.10. 1 hit.
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR029034. Cystine-knot_cytokine.
IPR023581. PD_growth_factor_CS.
IPR000072. PDGF/VEGF_dom.
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00341. PDGF. 1 hit.
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00141. PDGF. 1 hit.
SUPFAMiSSF57501. SSF57501. 1 hit.
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00249. PDGF_1. 1 hit.
PS50278. PDGF_2. 1 hit.

Sequences (4)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 4 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform PlGF-31 Publication (identifier: P49763-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: PlGF-203

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MPVMRLFPCF LQLLAGLALP AVPPQQWALS AGNGSSEVEV VPFQEVWGRS
60 70 80 90 100
YCRALERLVD VVSEYPSEVE HMFSPSCVSL LRCTGCCGDE NLHCVPVETA
110 120 130 140 150
NVTMQLLKIR SGDRPSYVEL TFSQHVRCEC RHSPGRQSPD MPGDFRADAP
160 170 180 190 200
SFLPPRRSLP MLFRMEWGCA LTGSQSAVWP SSPVPEEIPR MHPGRNGKKQ
210 220
QRKPLREKMK PERCGDAVPR R
Length:221
Mass (Da):24,789
Last modified:November 16, 2001 - v2
Checksum:iD364C6A73C1C6987
GO
Isoform PlGF-11 Publication (identifier: P49763-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: PlGF-131

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     132-203: Missing.

Show »
Length:149
Mass (Da):16,725
Checksum:i0E69DC4F84518352
GO
Isoform PlGF-21 Publication (identifier: P49763-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: PlGF-152

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     132-203: Missing.
     213-213: R → RRRPKGRGKRRREKQRPTDCHL

Show »
Length:170
Mass (Da):19,338
Checksum:i02CDE4CC54A09637
GO
Isoform PlGF-41 Publication (identifier: P49763-4) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: PlGF-224

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     213-213: R → RRRPKGRGKRRREKQRPTDCHL

Show »
Length:242
Mass (Da):27,402
Checksum:i36B9A050834CC152
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAB25832 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous translation. Wrong choice of frame.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti91N → D in AAB30462 (PubMed:8148155).Curated1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_004644132 – 203Missing in isoform PlGF-1 and isoform PlGF-2. 3 PublicationsAdd BLAST72
Alternative sequenceiVSP_004645213R → RRRPKGRGKRRREKQRPTDC HL in isoform PlGF-2 and isoform PlGF-4. 2 Publications1 Publication1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X54936 mRNA. Translation: CAA38698.1.
S72960 mRNA. Translation: AAB30462.2.
AC006530 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAD30179.1.
BC001422 mRNA. Translation: AAH01422.1.
BC007789 mRNA. Translation: AAH07789.1.
BC007255 mRNA. Translation: AAH07255.1.
S57152 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB25832.2. Sequence problems.
CCDSiCCDS55932.1. [P49763-2]
CCDS9835.1. [P49763-3]
PIRiA41236.
RefSeqiNP_001193941.1. NM_001207012.1. [P49763-2]
NP_002623.2. NM_002632.5. [P49763-3]
UniGeneiHs.252820.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000405431; ENSP00000385365; ENSG00000119630. [P49763-1]
ENST00000553716; ENSP00000451413; ENSG00000119630. [P49763-2]
ENST00000555567; ENSP00000451040; ENSG00000119630. [P49763-3]
GeneIDi5228.
KEGGihsa:5228.
UCSCiuc001xrb.4. human. [P49763-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiPLGF_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P49763
Secondary accession number(s): Q07101, Q9BV78, Q9Y6S8
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 1996
Last sequence update: November 16, 2001
Last modified: September 27, 2017
This is version 165 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 14
    Human chromosome 14: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  3. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  4. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families