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Protein

Transcriptional repressor CTCF

Gene

CTCF

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Chromatin binding factor that binds to DNA sequence specific sites. Involved in transcriptional regulation by binding to chromatin insulators and preventing interaction between promoter and nearby enhancers and silencers. Acts as transcriptional repressor binding to promoters of vertebrate MYC gene and BAG1 gene. Also binds to the PLK and PIM1 promoters. Acts as a transcriptional activator of APP. Regulates APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and controls MHC class II gene expression. Plays an essential role in oocyte and preimplantation embryo development by activating or repressing transcription. Seems to act as tumor suppressor. Plays a critical role in the epigenetic regulation. Participates in the allele-specific gene expression at the imprinted IGF2/H19 gene locus. On the maternal allele, binding within the H19 imprinting control region (ICR) mediates maternally inherited higher-order chromatin conformation to restrict enhancer access to IGF2. Plays a critical role in gene silencing over considerable distances in the genome. Preferentially interacts with unmethylated DNA, preventing spreading of CpG methylation and maintaining methylation-free zones. Inversely, binding to target sites is prevented by CpG methylation. Plays a important role in chromatin remodeling. Can dimerize when it is bound to different DNA sequences, mediating long-range chromatin looping. Mediates interchromosomal association between IGF2/H19 and WSB1/NF1 and may direct distant DNA segments to a common transcription factory. Causes local loss of histone acetylation and gain of histone methylation in the beta-globin locus, without affecting transcription. When bound to chromatin, it provides an anchor point for nucleosomes positioning. Seems to be essential for homologous X-chromosome pairing. May participate with Tsix in establishing a regulatable epigenetic switch for X chromosome inactivation. May play a role in preventing the propagation of stable methylation at the escape genes from X- inactivation. Involved in sister chromatid cohesion. Associates with both centromeres and chromosomal arms during metaphase and required for cohesin localization to CTCF sites. Regulates asynchronous replication of IGF2/H19. Plays a role in the recruitment of CENPE to the pericentromeric/centromeric regions of the chromosome during mitosis (PubMed:26321640).11 Publications

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Zinc fingeri266 – 288C2H2-type 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST23
Zinc fingeri294 – 316C2H2-type 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST23
Zinc fingeri322 – 345C2H2-type 3PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST24
Zinc fingeri351 – 373C2H2-type 4PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST23
Zinc fingeri379 – 401C2H2-type 5PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST23
Zinc fingeri407 – 430C2H2-type 6PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST24
Zinc fingeri437 – 460C2H2-type 7PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST24
Zinc fingeri467 – 489C2H2-type 8PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST23
Zinc fingeri495 – 517C2H2-type 9PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST23
Zinc fingeri523 – 546C2H2-type 10PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST24
Zinc fingeri555 – 577C2H2-type 11; atypicalPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST23

GO - Molecular functioni

  • chromatin insulator sequence binding Source: UniProtKB
  • RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding Source: NTNU_SB
  • sequence-specific DNA binding Source: UniProtKB
  • transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific binding Source: Ensembl
  • transcriptional repressor activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding Source: NTNU_SB
  • transcription corepressor activity Source: ProtInc
  • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding Source: UniProtKB
  • transcription regulatory region DNA binding Source: UniProtKB
  • zinc ion binding Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

  • chromatin modification Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • chromosome segregation Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • DNA methylation Source: Ensembl
  • maintenance of DNA methylation Source: Ensembl
  • negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB
  • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter Source: NTNU_SB
  • nucleosome positioning Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of gene expression Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB
  • protein localization to chromosome, centromeric region Source: UniProtKB
  • regulation of centromeric sister chromatid cohesion Source: UniProtKB
  • regulation of gene expression, epigenetic Source: UniProtKB
  • regulation of gene expression by genetic imprinting Source: Ensembl
  • regulation of histone acetylation Source: Ensembl
  • regulation of histone methylation Source: Ensembl
  • regulation of molecular function, epigenetic Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Activator, Chromatin regulator, Repressor

Keywords - Biological processi

Chromosome partition, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Keywords - Ligandi

DNA-binding, Metal-binding, Zinc

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciZFISH:ENSG00000102974-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-HSA-5617472. Activation of anterior HOX genes in hindbrain development during early embryogenesis.
SignaLinkiP49711.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Transcriptional repressor CTCF
Alternative name(s):
11-zinc finger protein
CCCTC-binding factor
CTCFL paralog
Gene namesi
Name:CTCF
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 16

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:13723. CTCF.

Subcellular locationi

  • Nucleusnucleoplasm By similarity
  • Chromosome 1 Publication
  • Chromosomecentromere 1 Publication

  • Note: May translocate to the nucleolus upon cell differentiation. Associates with both centromeres and chromosomal arms during metaphase. Associates with the H19 ICR in mitotic chromosomes. May be preferentially excluded from heterochromatin during interphase.

GO - Cellular componenti

  • chromosome, centromeric region Source: UniProtKB
  • condensed chromosome Source: UniProtKB
  • nucleolus Source: UniProtKB
  • nucleoplasm Source: UniProtKB
  • nucleus Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Centromere, Chromosome, Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Involvement in diseasei

Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 21 (MRD21)1 Publication
The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionA disorder characterized by significantly below average general intellectual functioning associated with impairments in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period. Additional MRD21 features include short stature, microcephaly, and developmental delay.
See also OMIM:615502
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_070776567R → W in MRD21. 1 Publication1

Keywords - Diseasei

Disease mutation, Mental retardation, Tumor suppressor

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi10664.
MalaCardsiCTCF.
MIMi615502. phenotype.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000102974.
Orphaneti363611. Intellectual disability-feeding difficulties-developmental delay-microcephaly syndrome.
PharmGKBiPA26998.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiCTCF.
DMDMi1706179.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00000472281 – 727Transcriptional repressor CTCFAdd BLAST727

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei1N-acetylmethionineCombined sources1
Cross-linki74Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in SUMO)By similarity
Modified residuei289PhosphothreonineCombined sources1
Modified residuei317PhosphothreonineCombined sources1
Modified residuei374PhosphothreonineCombined sources1
Modified residuei402PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei609PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei610PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei612PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Cross-linki689Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in SUMO2)Combined sources

Post-translational modificationi

Sumoylated on Lys-74 and Lys-689; sumoylation of CTCF contributes to the repressive function of CTCF on the MYC P2 promoter.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Isopeptide bond, Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

EPDiP49711.
MaxQBiP49711.
PaxDbiP49711.
PeptideAtlasiP49711.
PRIDEiP49711.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP49711.
PhosphoSitePlusiP49711.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Ubiquitous. Absent in primary spermatocytes.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000102974.
CleanExiHS_CTCF.
GenevisibleiP49711. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB062550.
CAB068181.
CAB068182.
HPA004122.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with CHD8 (PubMed:16949368). Interacts with LLPH (By similarity). Interacts with CENPE (PubMed:26321640).By similarity2 Publications

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
HDLBPQ003414EBI-932887,EBI-1049478
KDM5BQ9UGL18EBI-932887,EBI-2514978
ZMYM4Q5VZL53EBI-932887,EBI-2514659

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi115906. 51 interactors.
DIPiDIP-35252N.
IntActiP49711. 23 interactors.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000264010.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1727
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Beta strandi406 – 408Combined sources3
Turni410 – 412Combined sources3
Beta strandi415 – 417Combined sources3
Helixi419 – 429Combined sources11
Beta strandi430 – 433Combined sources4
Beta strandi435 – 438Combined sources4
Beta strandi440 – 443Combined sources4
Beta strandi445 – 448Combined sources4
Helixi449 – 458Combined sources10
Beta strandi526 – 529Combined sources4
Beta strandi531 – 534Combined sources4
Helixi535 – 544Combined sources10
Beta strandi558 – 560Combined sources3
Beta strandi563 – 565Combined sources3
Helixi567 – 576Combined sources10

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1X6HNMR-A515-587[»]
2CT1NMR-A399-462[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP49711.
SMRiP49711.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP49711.

Family & Domainsi

Domaini

The 11 zinc fingers are highly conserved among vertebrates, exhibiting almost identical amino acid sequences. Different subsets or combination of individual zinc fingers gives the ability to CTCF to recognize multiple DNA target sites.

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the CTCF zinc-finger protein family.Curated
Contains 11 C2H2-type zinc fingers.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Zinc finger

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Zinc fingeri266 – 288C2H2-type 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST23
Zinc fingeri294 – 316C2H2-type 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST23
Zinc fingeri322 – 345C2H2-type 3PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST24
Zinc fingeri351 – 373C2H2-type 4PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST23
Zinc fingeri379 – 401C2H2-type 5PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST23
Zinc fingeri407 – 430C2H2-type 6PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST24
Zinc fingeri437 – 460C2H2-type 7PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST24
Zinc fingeri467 – 489C2H2-type 8PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST23
Zinc fingeri495 – 517C2H2-type 9PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST23
Zinc fingeri523 – 546C2H2-type 10PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST24
Zinc fingeri555 – 577C2H2-type 11; atypicalPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST23

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat, Zinc-finger

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1721. Eukaryota.
COG5048. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000063079.
HOGENOMiHOG000276534.
HOVERGENiHBG000350.
InParanoidiP49711.
OMAiGVQMVMM.
OrthoDBiEOG091G06B4.
PhylomeDBiP49711.
TreeFamiTF106430.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.30.160.60. 9 hits.
InterProiIPR007087. Znf_C2H2.
IPR015880. Znf_C2H2-like.
IPR013087. Znf_C2H2/integrase_DNA-bd.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00355. ZnF_C2H2. 11 hits.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00028. ZINC_FINGER_C2H2_1. 8 hits.
PS50157. ZINC_FINGER_C2H2_2. 11 hits.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: P49711-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MEGDAVEAIV EESETFIKGK ERKTYQRRRE GGQEEDACHL PQNQTDGGEV
60 70 80 90 100
VQDVNSSVQM VMMEQLDPTL LQMKTEVMEG TVAPEAEAAV DDTQIITLQV
110 120 130 140 150
VNMEEQPINI GELQLVQVPV PVTVPVATTS VEELQGAYEN EVSKEGLAES
160 170 180 190 200
EPMICHTLPL PEGFQVVKVG ANGEVETLEQ GELPPQEDPS WQKDPDYQPP
210 220 230 240 250
AKKTKKTKKS KLRYTEEGKD VDVSVYDFEE EQQEGLLSEV NAEKVVGNMK
260 270 280 290 300
PPKPTKIKKK GVKKTFQCEL CSYTCPRRSN LDRHMKSHTD ERPHKCHLCG
310 320 330 340 350
RAFRTVTLLR NHLNTHTGTR PHKCPDCDMA FVTSGELVRH RRYKHTHEKP
360 370 380 390 400
FKCSMCDYAS VEVSKLKRHI RSHTGERPFQ CSLCSYASRD TYKLKRHMRT
410 420 430 440 450
HSGEKPYECY ICHARFTQSG TMKMHILQKH TENVAKFHCP HCDTVIARKS
460 470 480 490 500
DLGVHLRKQH SYIEQGKKCR YCDAVFHERY ALIQHQKSHK NEKRFKCDQC
510 520 530 540 550
DYACRQERHM IMHKRTHTGE KPYACSHCDK TFRQKQLLDM HFKRYHDPNF
560 570 580 590 600
VPAAFVCSKC GKTFTRRNTM ARHADNCAGP DGVEGENGGE TKKSKRGRKR
610 620 630 640 650
KMRSKKEDSS DSENAEPDLD DNEDEEEPAV EIEPEPEPQP VTPAPPPAKK
660 670 680 690 700
RRGRPPGRTN QPKQNQPTAI IQVEDQNTGA IENIIVEVKK EPDAEPAEGE
710 720
EEEAQPAATD APNGDLTPEM ILSMMDR
Length:727
Mass (Da):82,785
Last modified:October 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:i2110538B65DC5706
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: P49711-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-328: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:399
Mass (Da):45,998
Checksum:iFEB74DFBADCF586A
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence BAD93030 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally shortened.Curated

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_013141339R → W in a Wilms' tumor. 1 Publication1
Natural variantiVAR_013142344K → E in a breast tumor. 1 Publication1
Natural variantiVAR_013143345H → R in a prostate tumor. 1 Publication1
Natural variantiVAR_013144448R → Q in a Wilms' tumor. 1 Publication1
Natural variantiVAR_070776567R → W in MRD21. 1 Publication1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_0453501 – 328Missing in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST328

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U25435 mRNA. Translation: AAB07788.1.
AF145477
, AF145468, AF145469, AF145470, AF145471, AF145472, AF145473, AF145474, AF145475, AF145476 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF31318.1.
BT009915 mRNA. Translation: AAP88917.1.
AB209793 mRNA. Translation: BAD93030.1. Different initiation.
AC009095 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AC027682 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
CH471092 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW83142.1.
BC014267 mRNA. Translation: AAH14267.1.
CCDSiCCDS10841.1. [P49711-1]
CCDS54029.1. [P49711-2]
PIRiG01792.
RefSeqiNP_001177951.1. NM_001191022.1. [P49711-2]
NP_006556.1. NM_006565.3. [P49711-1]
XP_016878357.1. XM_017022868.1. [P49711-1]
UniGeneiHs.368367.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000264010; ENSP00000264010; ENSG00000102974. [P49711-1]
ENST00000401394; ENSP00000384707; ENSG00000102974. [P49711-2]
GeneIDi10664.
KEGGihsa:10664.
UCSCiuc002etl.4. human. [P49711-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U25435 mRNA. Translation: AAB07788.1.
AF145477
, AF145468, AF145469, AF145470, AF145471, AF145472, AF145473, AF145474, AF145475, AF145476 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF31318.1.
BT009915 mRNA. Translation: AAP88917.1.
AB209793 mRNA. Translation: BAD93030.1. Different initiation.
AC009095 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AC027682 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
CH471092 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW83142.1.
BC014267 mRNA. Translation: AAH14267.1.
CCDSiCCDS10841.1. [P49711-1]
CCDS54029.1. [P49711-2]
PIRiG01792.
RefSeqiNP_001177951.1. NM_001191022.1. [P49711-2]
NP_006556.1. NM_006565.3. [P49711-1]
XP_016878357.1. XM_017022868.1. [P49711-1]
UniGeneiHs.368367.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1X6HNMR-A515-587[»]
2CT1NMR-A399-462[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP49711.
SMRiP49711.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi115906. 51 interactors.
DIPiDIP-35252N.
IntActiP49711. 23 interactors.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000264010.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP49711.
PhosphoSitePlusiP49711.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiCTCF.
DMDMi1706179.

Proteomic databases

EPDiP49711.
MaxQBiP49711.
PaxDbiP49711.
PeptideAtlasiP49711.
PRIDEiP49711.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi10664.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000264010; ENSP00000264010; ENSG00000102974. [P49711-1]
ENST00000401394; ENSP00000384707; ENSG00000102974. [P49711-2]
GeneIDi10664.
KEGGihsa:10664.
UCSCiuc002etl.4. human. [P49711-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi10664.
DisGeNETi10664.
GeneCardsiCTCF.
HGNCiHGNC:13723. CTCF.
HPAiCAB062550.
CAB068181.
CAB068182.
HPA004122.
MalaCardsiCTCF.
MIMi604167. gene.
615502. phenotype.
neXtProtiNX_P49711.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000102974.
Orphaneti363611. Intellectual disability-feeding difficulties-developmental delay-microcephaly syndrome.
PharmGKBiPA26998.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1721. Eukaryota.
COG5048. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000063079.
HOGENOMiHOG000276534.
HOVERGENiHBG000350.
InParanoidiP49711.
OMAiGVQMVMM.
OrthoDBiEOG091G06B4.
PhylomeDBiP49711.
TreeFamiTF106430.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciZFISH:ENSG00000102974-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-HSA-5617472. Activation of anterior HOX genes in hindbrain development during early embryogenesis.
SignaLinkiP49711.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiCTCF. human.
EvolutionaryTraceiP49711.
GeneWikiiCTCF.
GenomeRNAii10664.
PROiP49711.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000102974.
CleanExiHS_CTCF.
GenevisibleiP49711. HS.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.30.160.60. 9 hits.
InterProiIPR007087. Znf_C2H2.
IPR015880. Znf_C2H2-like.
IPR013087. Znf_C2H2/integrase_DNA-bd.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00355. ZnF_C2H2. 11 hits.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00028. ZINC_FINGER_C2H2_1. 8 hits.
PS50157. ZINC_FINGER_C2H2_2. 11 hits.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiCTCF_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P49711
Secondary accession number(s): B5MC38, Q53XI7, Q59EL8
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 1, 1996
Last sequence update: October 1, 1996
Last modified: November 30, 2016
This is version 168 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

More than 13'00 CTCF-binding sites in potential insulators were identified in the human genome.

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 16
    Human chromosome 16: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  6. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.