P48963 (CDK2_MESAU) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Last modified May 14, 2014. Version 90. History...
Names and origin
|Protein names||Recommended name:|
Cyclin-dependent kinase 2
Cell division protein kinase 2
|Organism||Mesocricetus auratus (Golden hamster)|
|Taxonomic identifier||10036 [NCBI]|
|Taxonomic lineage||Eukaryota › Metazoa › Chordata › Craniata › Vertebrata › Euteleostomi › Mammalia › Eutheria › Euarchontoglires › Glires › Rodentia › Sciurognathi › Muroidea › Cricetidae › Cricetinae › Mesocricetus|
|Sequence length||298 AA.|
|Protein existence||Evidence at transcript level|
General annotation (Comments)
Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in the control of the cell cycle; essential for meiosis, but dispensable for mitosis. Phosphorylates CTNNB1, USP37, p53/TP53, NPM1, CDK7, RB1, BRCA2, MYC, NPAT, EZH2. Interacts with cyclins A, B1, B3, D, or E. Triggers duplication of centrosomes and DNA. Acts at the G1-S transition to promote the E2F transcriptional program and the initiation of DNA synthesis, and modulates G2 progression; controls the timing of entry into mitosis/meiosis by controlling the subsequent activation of cyclin B/CDK1 by phosphorylation, and coordinates the activation of cyclin B/CDK1 at the centrosome and in the nucleus. Crucial role in orchestrating a fine balance between cellular proliferation, cell death, and DNA repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Activity of CDK2 is maximal during S phase and G2; activated by interaction with cyclin E during the early stages of DNA synthesis to permit G1-S transition, and subsequently activated by cyclin A2 (cyclin A1 in germ cells) during the late stages of DNA replication to drive the transition from S phase to mitosis, the G2 phase. EZH2 phosphorylation promotes H3K27me3 maintenance and epigenetic gene silencing. Phosphorylates CABLES1 By similarity. Cyclin E/CDK2 prevents oxidative stress-mediated Ras-induced senescence by phosphorylating MYC. Involved in G1-S phase DNA damage checkpoint that prevents cells with damaged DNA from initiating mitosis; regulates homologous recombination-dependent repair by phosphorylating BRCA2, this phosphorylation is low in S phase when recombination is active, but increases as cells progress towards mitosis. In response to DNA damage, double-strand break repair by homologous recombination a reduction of CDK2-mediated BRCA2 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of RB1 disturbs its interaction with E2F1. NPM1 phosphorylation by cyclin E/CDK2 promotes its dissociates from unduplicated centrosomes, thus initiating centrosome duplication. Cyclin E/CDK2-mediated phosphorylation of NPAT at G1-S transition and until prophase stimulates the NPAT-mediated activation of histone gene transcription during S phase. Required for vitamin D-mediated growth inhibition by being itself inactivated. Involved in the nitric oxide- (NO) mediated signaling in a nitrosylation/activation-dependent manner. USP37 is activated by phosphorylation and thus triggers G1-S transition. CTNNB1 phosphorylation regulates insulin internalization By similarity.
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
Phosphorylation at Thr-14 or Tyr-15 inactivates the enzyme, while phosphorylation at Thr-160 activates it. Stimulated by MYC. Inactivated by CDKN1A (p21) By similarity.
Found in a complex with CABLES1, CCNA1 and CCNE1. Interacts with CABLES1 By similarity. Interacts with UHRF2. Part of a complex consisting of UHRF2, CDK2 and CCNE1. Interacts with the Speedy/Ringo proteins SPDYA and SPDYC. Found in a complex with both SPDYA and CDKN1B/KIP1. Binds to RB1 and CDK7. Binding to CDKN1A (p21) leads to CDK2/cyclin E inactivation at the G1-S phase DNA damage checkpoint, thereby arresting cells at the G1-S transition during DNA repair. Associated with PTPN6 and beta-catenin/CTNNB1 By similarity. Interacts with CACUL1 By similarity. May interact with CEP63 By similarity.
Cytoplasm › cytoskeleton › microtubule organizing center › centrosome By similarity. Nucleus › Cajal body By similarity. Cytoplasm By similarity. Endosome By similarity. Note: Localized at the centrosomes in late G2 phase after separation of the centrosomes but before the start of prophase. Nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking is mediated during the inhibition by 1,25-(OH)2D3 By similarity.
Phosphorylated at Thr-160 by CDK7 in a CAK complex. Phosphorylation at Thr-160 promotes kinase activity, whereas phosphorylation at Tyr-15 by WEE1 reduces slightly kinase activity. Phosphorylated on Thr-14 and Tyr-15 during S and G2 phases before being dephosphorylated by CDC25A By similarity.
Nitrosylated after treatment with nitric oxide (DETA-NO) By similarity.
Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Sequence annotation (Features)
|Feature key||Position(s)||Length||Description||Graphical view||Feature identifier|
|Chain||1 – 298||298||Cyclin-dependent kinase 2||PRO_0000085770|
|Domain||4 – 286||283||Protein kinase|
|Nucleotide binding||10 – 18||9||ATP By similarity|
|Nucleotide binding||81 – 83||3||ATP By similarity|
|Nucleotide binding||129 – 132||4||ATP By similarity|
|Active site||127||1||Proton acceptor By similarity|
|Metal binding||132||1||Magnesium; catalytic By similarity|
|Metal binding||145||1||Magnesium; catalytic By similarity|
|Binding site||33||1||ATP By similarity|
|Binding site||86||1||ATP By similarity|
|Binding site||145||1||ATP By similarity|
|Site||9||1||CDK7 binding By similarity|
|Site||88 – 89||2||CDK7 binding By similarity|
|Site||166||1||CDK7 binding By similarity|
Amino acid modifications
|Modified residue||1||1||N-acetylmethionine By similarity|
|Modified residue||6||1||N6-acetyllysine By similarity|
|Modified residue||14||1||Phosphothreonine By similarity|
|Modified residue||15||1||Phosphotyrosine; by WEE1 By similarity|
|Modified residue||19||1||Phosphotyrosine By similarity|
|Modified residue||160||1||Phosphothreonine; by CAK and CCRK By similarity|
|D17350 mRNA. Translation: BAA04165.1.|
3D structure databases
|SMR||P48963. Positions 1-298. |
Protocols and materials databases
Enzyme and pathway databases
|BRENDA||126.96.36.199. 3239. |
Family and domain databases
|InterPro||IPR011009. Kinase-like_dom. |
|Pfam||PF00069. Pkinase. 1 hit. |
|SMART||SM00220. S_TKc. 1 hit. |
|SUPFAM||SSF56112. SSF56112. 1 hit. |
|PROSITE||PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit. |
PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit.
PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 hit.
|Accession||Primary (citable) accession number: P48963|
|Entry status||Reviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)|
|Annotation program||Chordata Protein Annotation Program|
Index of protein domains and families