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Protein

Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase

Gene

TDO2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Heme-dependent dioxygenase that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of the L-tryptophan (L-Trp) pyrrole ring and converts L-tryptophan to N-formyl-L-kynurenine. Catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of the indole moiety.UniRule annotation2 Publications

Catalytic activityi

L-tryptophan + O2 = N-formyl-L-kynurenine.UniRule annotation2 Publications

Cofactori

hemeUniRule annotation2 PublicationsNote: Binds 1 heme group per subunit.UniRule annotation1 Publication

Kineticsi

  1. KM=0.135 mM for L-tryptophan1 Publication

    Pathwayi: L-tryptophan degradation via kynurenine pathway

    This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes L-kynurenine from L-tryptophan.UniRule annotation2 Publications
    Proteins known to be involved in the 2 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:
    1. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2)
    2. Kynurenine formamidase (AFMID)
    This subpathway is part of the pathway L-tryptophan degradation via kynurenine pathway, which is itself part of Amino-acid degradation.
    View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes L-kynurenine from L-tryptophan, the pathway L-tryptophan degradation via kynurenine pathway and in Amino-acid degradation.

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Binding sitei144SubstrateUniRule annotationCombined sources1 Publication1
    Metal bindingi328Iron (heme axial ligand)UniRule annotationCombined sources1 Publication1
    Binding sitei342SubstrateUniRule annotationCombined sources1 Publication1

    GO - Molecular functioni

    • amino acid binding Source: Ensembl
    • heme binding Source: UniProtKB
    • identical protein binding Source: IntAct
    • metal ion binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
    • oxygen binding Source: Ensembl
    • tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase activity Source: UniProtKB

    GO - Biological processi

    • protein homotetramerization Source: UniProtKB
    • tryptophan catabolic process Source: Reactome
    • tryptophan catabolic process to acetyl-CoA Source: GO_Central
    • tryptophan catabolic process to kynurenine Source: UniProtKB

    Keywordsi

    Molecular functionDioxygenase, Oxidoreductase
    Biological processTryptophan catabolism
    LigandHeme, Iron, Metal-binding

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciMetaCyc:HS07771-MONOMER.
    BRENDAi1.13.11.11. 2681.
    ReactomeiR-HSA-71240. Tryptophan catabolism.
    UniPathwayiUPA00333; UER00453.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenaseUniRule annotation (EC:1.13.11.11UniRule annotation2 Publications)
    Short name:
    TDOUniRule annotation
    Alternative name(s):
    Tryptamin 2,3-dioxygenaseUniRule annotation
    Tryptophan oxygenaseUniRule annotation
    Short name:
    TOUniRule annotation
    Short name:
    TRPOUniRule annotation
    Tryptophan pyrrolaseUniRule annotation
    TryptophanaseUniRule annotation
    Gene namesi
    Name:TDO2UniRule annotation
    Synonyms:TDO
    OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
    Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
    Proteomesi
    • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 4

    Organism-specific databases

    HGNCiHGNC:11708. TDO2.

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Mutagenesis

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Mutagenesisi42Y → A: Reduces enzyme activity by 99%. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi45Y → A: Reduces enzyme activity by 99%. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi72F → A: Abolishes enzyme activity. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi76H → A: Abolishes enzyme activity. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi140F → A: Reduces enzyme activity by 99%. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi144R → A: Reduces enzyme activity by 99%. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi151S → A: Reduces enzyme activity by 90%. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi175Y → G: Reduces enzyme activity. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi328H → A: Abolishes enzyme activity. 1 Publication1

    Organism-specific databases

    DisGeNETi6999.
    MalaCardsiTDO2.
    OpenTargetsiENSG00000151790.
    PharmGKBiPA36427.

    Chemistry databases

    ChEMBLiCHEMBL2140.
    DrugBankiDB00150. L-Tryptophan.
    DB00779. Nalidixic Acid.
    DB00500. Tolmetin.
    GuidetoPHARMACOLOGYi2887.

    Polymorphism and mutation databases

    BioMutaiTDO2.
    DMDMi1351188.

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    ChainiPRO_00000723991 – 406Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenaseAdd BLAST406

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiP48775.
    PeptideAtlasiP48775.
    PRIDEiP48775.

    PTM databases

    iPTMnetiP48775.
    PhosphoSitePlusiP48775.

    Expressioni

    Gene expression databases

    BgeeiENSG00000151790.
    CleanExiHS_TDO2.
    ExpressionAtlasiP48775. baseline and differential.
    GenevisibleiP48775. HS.

    Organism-specific databases

    HPAiHPA039611.

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Homotetramer. Dimer of dimers.UniRule annotation2 Publications

    Binary interactionsi

    Show more details

    GO - Molecular functioni

    • identical protein binding Source: IntAct

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi112858. 16 interactors.
    IntActiP48775. 18 interactors.
    MINTiMINT-1446261.
    STRINGi9606.ENSP00000444788.

    Chemistry databases

    BindingDBiP48775.

    Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1406
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
    Show more details
    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Helixi42 – 45Combined sources4
    Helixi48 – 51Combined sources4
    Helixi58 – 61Combined sources4
    Helixi68 – 98Combined sources31
    Helixi101 – 103Combined sources3
    Helixi105 – 107Combined sources3
    Helixi108 – 127Combined sources20
    Helixi129 – 132Combined sources4
    Helixi137 – 140Combined sources4
    Turni141 – 143Combined sources3
    Helixi144 – 146Combined sources3
    Turni147 – 149Combined sources3
    Helixi152 – 154Combined sources3
    Helixi156 – 165Combined sources10
    Turni169 – 171Combined sources3
    Helixi174 – 177Combined sources4
    Helixi186 – 197Combined sources12
    Helixi201 – 210Combined sources10
    Turni217 – 220Combined sources4
    Helixi222 – 243Combined sources22
    Beta strandi246 – 248Combined sources3
    Helixi252 – 266Combined sources15
    Helixi270 – 276Combined sources7
    Turni277 – 280Combined sources4
    Helixi286 – 297Combined sources12
    Turni298 – 300Combined sources3
    Helixi302 – 336Combined sources35
    Helixi348 – 352Combined sources5
    Helixi357 – 359Combined sources3
    Helixi363 – 367Combined sources5
    Helixi368 – 371Combined sources4
    Helixi375 – 377Combined sources3
    Helixi383 – 388Combined sources6

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBei
    RCSB PDBi
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    4PW8X-ray2.90A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H19-388[»]
    5TI9X-ray2.50A/B/C/D18-389[»]
    5TIAX-ray2.44A/B/C/D18-389[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliP48775.
    SMRiP48775.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Region

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Regioni72 – 76Substrate bindingUniRule annotationCombined sources1 Publication5

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase family.UniRule annotation

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiKOG3906. Eukaryota.
    COG3483. LUCA.
    GeneTreeiENSGT00390000008593.
    HOGENOMiHOG000221584.
    HOVERGENiHBG003043.
    InParanoidiP48775.
    KOiK00453.
    OMAiWRYNHVL.
    OrthoDBiEOG091G080K.
    PhylomeDBiP48775.
    TreeFamiTF105827.

    Family and domain databases

    HAMAPiMF_01972. T23O. 1 hit.
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR004981. Trp_2_3_dOase.
    PANTHERiPTHR10138. PTHR10138. 1 hit.
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF03301. Trp_dioxygenase. 1 hit.

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    P48775-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MSGCPFLGNN FGYTFKKLPV EGSEEDKSQT GVNRASKGGL IYGNYLHLEK
    60 70 80 90 100
    VLNAQELQSE TKGNKIHDEH LFIITHQAYE LWFKQILWEL DSVREIFQNG
    110 120 130 140 150
    HVRDERNMLK VVSRMHRVSV ILKLLVQQFS ILETMTALDF NDFREYLSPA
    160 170 180 190 200
    SGFQSLQFRL LENKIGVLQN MRVPYNRRHY RDNFKGEENE LLLKSEQEKT
    210 220 230 240 250
    LLELVEAWLE RTPGLEPHGF NFWGKLEKNI TRGLEEEFIR IQAKEESEEK
    260 270 280 290 300
    EEQVAEFQKQ KEVLLSLFDE KRHEHLLSKG ERRLSYRALQ GALMIYFYRE
    310 320 330 340 350
    EPRFQVPFQL LTSLMDIDSL MTKWRYNHVC MVHRMLGSKA GTGGSSGYHY
    360 370 380 390 400
    LRSTVSDRYK VFVDLFNLST YLIPRHWIPK MNPTIHKFLY TAEYCDSSYF

    SSDESD
    Length:406
    Mass (Da):47,872
    Last modified:February 1, 1996 - v1
    Checksum:i1B89901F445B79FE
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    U32989 mRNA. Translation: AAB08514.1.
    AK289418 mRNA. Translation: BAF82107.1.
    CH471056 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX04885.1.
    BC005355 mRNA. Translation: AAH05355.1.
    CCDSiCCDS34086.1.
    PIRiG02022.
    RefSeqiNP_005642.1. NM_005651.3.
    UniGeneiHs.183671.
    Hs.593955.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENST00000536354; ENSP00000444788; ENSG00000151790.
    ENST00000573403; ENSP00000460086; ENSG00000262635.
    GeneIDi6999.
    KEGGihsa:6999.
    UCSCiuc003ipf.3. human.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    U32989 mRNA. Translation: AAB08514.1.
    AK289418 mRNA. Translation: BAF82107.1.
    CH471056 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX04885.1.
    BC005355 mRNA. Translation: AAH05355.1.
    CCDSiCCDS34086.1.
    PIRiG02022.
    RefSeqiNP_005642.1. NM_005651.3.
    UniGeneiHs.183671.
    Hs.593955.

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBei
    RCSB PDBi
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    4PW8X-ray2.90A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H19-388[»]
    5TI9X-ray2.50A/B/C/D18-389[»]
    5TIAX-ray2.44A/B/C/D18-389[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliP48775.
    SMRiP48775.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi112858. 16 interactors.
    IntActiP48775. 18 interactors.
    MINTiMINT-1446261.
    STRINGi9606.ENSP00000444788.

    Chemistry databases

    BindingDBiP48775.
    ChEMBLiCHEMBL2140.
    DrugBankiDB00150. L-Tryptophan.
    DB00779. Nalidixic Acid.
    DB00500. Tolmetin.
    GuidetoPHARMACOLOGYi2887.

    PTM databases

    iPTMnetiP48775.
    PhosphoSitePlusiP48775.

    Polymorphism and mutation databases

    BioMutaiTDO2.
    DMDMi1351188.

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiP48775.
    PeptideAtlasiP48775.
    PRIDEiP48775.

    Protocols and materials databases

    DNASUi6999.
    Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENST00000536354; ENSP00000444788; ENSG00000151790.
    ENST00000573403; ENSP00000460086; ENSG00000262635.
    GeneIDi6999.
    KEGGihsa:6999.
    UCSCiuc003ipf.3. human.

    Organism-specific databases

    CTDi6999.
    DisGeNETi6999.
    GeneCardsiTDO2.
    HGNCiHGNC:11708. TDO2.
    HPAiHPA039611.
    MalaCardsiTDO2.
    MIMi191070. gene.
    neXtProtiNX_P48775.
    OpenTargetsiENSG00000151790.
    PharmGKBiPA36427.
    GenAtlasiSearch...

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiKOG3906. Eukaryota.
    COG3483. LUCA.
    GeneTreeiENSGT00390000008593.
    HOGENOMiHOG000221584.
    HOVERGENiHBG003043.
    InParanoidiP48775.
    KOiK00453.
    OMAiWRYNHVL.
    OrthoDBiEOG091G080K.
    PhylomeDBiP48775.
    TreeFamiTF105827.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    UniPathwayiUPA00333; UER00453.
    BioCyciMetaCyc:HS07771-MONOMER.
    BRENDAi1.13.11.11. 2681.
    ReactomeiR-HSA-71240. Tryptophan catabolism.

    Miscellaneous databases

    ChiTaRSiTDO2. human.
    GeneWikiiTDO2.
    GenomeRNAii6999.
    PROiP48775.
    SOURCEiSearch...

    Gene expression databases

    BgeeiENSG00000151790.
    CleanExiHS_TDO2.
    ExpressionAtlasiP48775. baseline and differential.
    GenevisibleiP48775. HS.

    Family and domain databases

    HAMAPiMF_01972. T23O. 1 hit.
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR004981. Trp_2_3_dOase.
    PANTHERiPTHR10138. PTHR10138. 1 hit.
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF03301. Trp_dioxygenase. 1 hit.
    ProtoNetiSearch...

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiT23O_HUMAN
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P48775
    Secondary accession number(s): A8K053
    Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 1, 1996
    Last sequence update: February 1, 1996
    Last modified: March 15, 2017
    This is version 149 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
    DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Human chromosome 4
      Human chromosome 4: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
    2. MIM cross-references
      Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    3. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    4. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    5. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    Similar proteinsi

    Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
    100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
    90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
    50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.