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Protein

Floral homeotic protein APETALA 2

Gene

AP2

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Probable transcriptional activator that promotes early floral meristem identity. Is required subsequently for the transition of an inflorescence meristem into a floral meristem. Plays a central role in the specification of floral identity, particularly for the normal development of sepals and petals in the wild-type flower. Acts as A class cadastral protein by repressing the C class floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS in association with other repressors like LEUNIG and SEUSS. It is also required during seed development.1 Publication

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
DNA bindingi131 – 18757AP2/ERF 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
DNA bindingi223 – 28058AP2/ERF 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. DNA binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
  2. sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity Source: TAIR

GO - Biological processi

  1. cell differentiation Source: UniProtKB-KW
  2. flower development Source: TAIR
  3. meristem maintenance Source: TAIR
  4. ovule development Source: TAIR
  5. seed development Source: TAIR
  6. specification of floral organ identity Source: TAIR
  7. transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Activator, Developmental protein

Keywords - Biological processi

Differentiation, Flowering, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Keywords - Ligandi

DNA-binding

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Floral homeotic protein APETALA 2
Gene namesi
Name:AP2
Ordered Locus Names:At4g36920
ORF Names:AP22.49, C7A10.440
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
ProteomesiUP000006548: Chromosome 4

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT4G36920.

Subcellular locationi

Nucleus Curated

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. nucleus Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi159 – 1591G → E in AP2-5; temperature-sensitive.
Mutagenesisi251 – 2511G → S in AP2-1; temperature-sensitive.
Mutagenesisi420 – 4201Q → E in AP2-5; temperature-sensitive.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 432432Floral homeotic protein APETALA 2PRO_0000112522Add
BLAST

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP47927.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Sepals, petals, stamens, carpels, developing ovules, inflorescence stem, leaf and stem.

Developmental stagei

It is detectable at low levels throughout the shoot apex and at enhanced levels in the inflorescence meristem, young floral buds and throughout the early stages of flower development and organogenesis. During floral organ differentiation it becomes spatially restricted to specific organ, tissue and cell types within the flower.

Inductioni

Negatively regulated by the C class floral homeotic protein AGAMOUS in stamens and carpels. MicroRNA 172 (miRNA172) negatively regulates APETALA2 at the translational level and may modulate its expression pattern. Seems not to be influenced by jasmonate and Alternaria brassicicola.3 Publications

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiP47927. baseline and differential.
GenevestigatoriP47927.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

May form homodimer.

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi15126. 4 interactions.
STRINGi3702.AT4G36920.1-P.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP47927.
SMRiP47927. Positions 131-189, 223-282.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Motifi119 – 12810Nuclear localization signalSequence Analysis

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Compositional biasi14 – 5037Asp/Glu/Ser-rich (acidic; potential involvement with transcription)Add
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Contains 2 AP2/ERF DNA-binding domains.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG247476.
HOGENOMiHOG000033977.
InParanoidiP47927.
KOiK09284.
OMAiESEEFCY.
PhylomeDBiP47927.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.30.730.10. 2 hits.
InterProiIPR001471. AP2/ERF_dom.
IPR016177. DNA-bd_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00847. AP2. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00367. ETHRSPELEMNT.
SMARTiSM00380. AP2. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF54171. SSF54171. 2 hits.
PROSITEiPS51032. AP2_ERF. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P47927-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MWDLNDAPHQ TQREEESEEF CYSSPSKRVG SFSNSSSSAV VIEDGSDDDE
60 70 80 90 100
LNRVRPNNPL VTHQFFPEMD SNGGGVASGF PRAHWFGVKF CQSDLATGSS
110 120 130 140 150
AGKATNVAAA VVEPAQPLKK SRRGPRSRSS QYRGVTFYRR TGRWESHIWD
160 170 180 190 200
CGKQVYLGGF DTAHAAARAY DRAAIKFRGV EADINFNIDD YDDDLKQMTN
210 220 230 240 250
LTKEEFVHVL RRQSTGFPRG SSKYRGVTLH KCGRWEARMG QFLGKKYVYL
260 270 280 290 300
GLFDTEVEAA RAYDKAAIKC NGKDAVTNFD PSIYDEELNA ESSGNPTTPQ
310 320 330 340 350
DHNLDLSLGN SANSKHKSQD MRLRMNQQQQ DSLHSNEVLG LGQTGMLNHT
360 370 380 390 400
PNSNHQFPGS SNIGSGGGFS LFPAAENHRF DGRASTNQVL TNAAASSGFS
410 420 430
PHHHNQIFNS TSTPHQNWLQ TNGFQPPLMR PS
Length:432
Mass (Da):47,833
Last modified:February 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:i376A355291EFFB42
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAM91531.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U12546 mRNA. Translation: AAC13770.1.
Z99707 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB16765.1.
AL161590 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB80358.1.
CP002687 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE86717.1.
CP002687 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE86718.1.
AY128328 mRNA. Translation: AAM91531.1. Different initiation.
PIRiA85436.
RefSeqiNP_001190938.1. NM_001204009.1.
NP_195410.1. NM_119856.2.
UniGeneiAt.4638.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT4G36920.1; AT4G36920.1; AT4G36920.
AT4G36920.2; AT4G36920.2; AT4G36920.
GeneIDi829845.
KEGGiath:AT4G36920.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U12546 mRNA. Translation: AAC13770.1.
Z99707 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB16765.1.
AL161590 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB80358.1.
CP002687 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE86717.1.
CP002687 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE86718.1.
AY128328 mRNA. Translation: AAM91531.1. Different initiation.
PIRiA85436.
RefSeqiNP_001190938.1. NM_001204009.1.
NP_195410.1. NM_119856.2.
UniGeneiAt.4638.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP47927.
SMRiP47927. Positions 131-189, 223-282.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi15126. 4 interactions.
STRINGi3702.AT4G36920.1-P.

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiP47927.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT4G36920.1; AT4G36920.1; AT4G36920.
AT4G36920.2; AT4G36920.2; AT4G36920.
GeneIDi829845.
KEGGiath:AT4G36920.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT4G36920.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG247476.
HOGENOMiHOG000033977.
InParanoidiP47927.
KOiK09284.
OMAiESEEFCY.
PhylomeDBiP47927.

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiP47927. baseline and differential.
GenevestigatoriP47927.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.30.730.10. 2 hits.
InterProiIPR001471. AP2/ERF_dom.
IPR016177. DNA-bd_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00847. AP2. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00367. ETHRSPELEMNT.
SMARTiSM00380. AP2. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF54171. SSF54171. 2 hits.
PROSITEiPS51032. AP2_ERF. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Control of Arabidopsis flower and seed development by the homeotic gene APETALA2."
    Jofuku K.D., den Boer B.G.W., Van Montagu M., Okamuro J.K.
    Plant Cell 6:1211-1225(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], MUTANTS AP2-1 AND AP2-5.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
    Tissue: Flower.
  2. "Analysis of 1.9 Mb of contiguous sequence from chromosome 4 of Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Bevan M., Bancroft I., Bent E., Love K., Goodman H.M., Dean C., Bergkamp R., Dirkse W., van Staveren M., Stiekema W., Drost L., Ridley P., Hudson S.-A., Patel K., Murphy G., Piffanelli P., Wedler H., Wedler E.
    , Wambutt R., Weitzenegger T., Pohl T., Terryn N., Gielen J., Villarroel R., De Clercq R., van Montagu M., Lecharny A., Aubourg S., Gy I., Kreis M., Lao N., Kavanagh T., Hempel S., Kotter P., Entian K.-D., Rieger M., Schaefer M., Funk B., Mueller-Auer S., Silvey M., James R., Monfort A., Pons A., Puigdomenech P., Douka A., Voukelatou E., Milioni D., Hatzopoulos P., Piravandi E., Obermaier B., Hilbert H., Duesterhoeft A., Moores T., Jones J.D.G., Eneva T., Palme K., Benes V., Rechmann S., Ansorge W., Cooke R., Berger C., Delseny M., Voet M., Volckaert G., Mewes H.-W., Klosterman S., Schueller C., Chalwatzis N.
    Nature 391:485-488(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  3. "Sequence and analysis of chromosome 4 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Mayer K.F.X., Schueller C., Wambutt R., Murphy G., Volckaert G., Pohl T., Duesterhoeft A., Stiekema W., Entian K.-D., Terryn N., Harris B., Ansorge W., Brandt P., Grivell L.A., Rieger M., Weichselgartner M., de Simone V., Obermaier B.
    , Mache R., Mueller M., Kreis M., Delseny M., Puigdomenech P., Watson M., Schmidtheini T., Reichert B., Portetelle D., Perez-Alonso M., Boutry M., Bancroft I., Vos P., Hoheisel J., Zimmermann W., Wedler H., Ridley P., Langham S.-A., McCullagh B., Bilham L., Robben J., van der Schueren J., Grymonprez B., Chuang Y.-J., Vandenbussche F., Braeken M., Weltjens I., Voet M., Bastiaens I., Aert R., Defoor E., Weitzenegger T., Bothe G., Ramsperger U., Hilbert H., Braun M., Holzer E., Brandt A., Peters S., van Staveren M., Dirkse W., Mooijman P., Klein Lankhorst R., Rose M., Hauf J., Koetter P., Berneiser S., Hempel S., Feldpausch M., Lamberth S., Van den Daele H., De Keyser A., Buysshaert C., Gielen J., Villarroel R., De Clercq R., van Montagu M., Rogers J., Cronin A., Quail M.A., Bray-Allen S., Clark L., Doggett J., Hall S., Kay M., Lennard N., McLay K., Mayes R., Pettett A., Rajandream M.A., Lyne M., Benes V., Rechmann S., Borkova D., Bloecker H., Scharfe M., Grimm M., Loehnert T.-H., Dose S., de Haan M., Maarse A.C., Schaefer M., Mueller-Auer S., Gabel C., Fuchs M., Fartmann B., Granderath K., Dauner D., Herzl A., Neumann S., Argiriou A., Vitale D., Liguori R., Piravandi E., Massenet O., Quigley F., Clabauld G., Muendlein A., Felber R., Schnabl S., Hiller R., Schmidt W., Lecharny A., Aubourg S., Chefdor F., Cooke R., Berger C., Monfort A., Casacuberta E., Gibbons T., Weber N., Vandenbol M., Bargues M., Terol J., Torres A., Perez-Perez A., Purnelle B., Bent E., Johnson S., Tacon D., Jesse T., Heijnen L., Schwarz S., Scholler P., Heber S., Francs P., Bielke C., Frishman D., Haase D., Lemcke K., Mewes H.-W., Stocker S., Zaccaria P., Bevan M., Wilson R.K., de la Bastide M., Habermann K., Parnell L., Dedhia N., Gnoj L., Schutz K., Huang E., Spiegel L., Sekhon M., Murray J., Sheet P., Cordes M., Abu-Threideh J., Stoneking T., Kalicki J., Graves T., Harmon G., Edwards J., Latreille P., Courtney L., Cloud J., Abbott A., Scott K., Johnson D., Minx P., Bentley D., Fulton B., Miller N., Greco T., Kemp K., Kramer J., Fulton L., Mardis E., Dante M., Pepin K., Hillier L.W., Nelson J., Spieth J., Ryan E., Andrews S., Geisel C., Layman D., Du H., Ali J., Berghoff A., Jones K., Drone K., Cotton M., Joshu C., Antonoiu B., Zidanic M., Strong C., Sun H., Lamar B., Yordan C., Ma P., Zhong J., Preston R., Vil D., Shekher M., Matero A., Shah R., Swaby I.K., O'Shaughnessy A., Rodriguez M., Hoffman J., Till S., Granat S., Shohdy N., Hasegawa A., Hameed A., Lodhi M., Johnson A., Chen E., Marra M.A., Martienssen R., McCombie W.R.
    Nature 402:769-777(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  4. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
    Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  5. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
    Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
    , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
    Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] OF 221-432.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  6. "Negative regulation of the Arabidopsis homeotic gene AGAMOUS by the APETALA2 product."
    Drews G.N., Bowman J.L., Meyerowitz E.M.
    Cell 65:991-1002(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  7. "Regulation of flowering time and floral organ identity by a microRNA and its APETALA2-like target genes."
    Aukerman M.J., Sakai H.
    Plant Cell 15:2730-2741(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INDUCTION.
  8. "A role for the GCC-box in jasmonate-mediated activation of the PDF1.2 gene of Arabidopsis."
    Brown R.L., Kazan K., McGrath K.C., Maclean D.J., Manners J.M.
    Plant Physiol. 132:1020-1032(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INDUCTION.
  9. "A microRNA as a translational repressor of APETALA2 in Arabidopsis flower development."
    Chen X.
    Science 303:2022-2025(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INDUCTION.
  10. "Genome-wide analysis of the ERF gene family in Arabidopsis and rice."
    Nakano T., Suzuki K., Fujimura T., Shinshi H.
    Plant Physiol. 140:411-432(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: GENE FAMILY, NOMENCLATURE.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiAP2_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P47927
Secondary accession number(s): Q8L7P9
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 1, 1996
Last sequence update: February 1, 1996
Last modified: January 7, 2015
This is version 120 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

Mutations in the APETALA2 gene result in the ectopic expression of AGAMOUS, leading to the replacement of sepals by carpels and stamens and of petals by stamens.

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.