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Protein

Floral homeotic protein APETALA 2

Gene

AP2

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Probable transcriptional activator that promotes early floral meristem identity (PubMed:7919989). Is required subsequently for the transition of an inflorescence meristem into a floral meristem (PubMed:1675158). Plays a central role in the specification of floral identity, particularly for the normal development of sepals and petals in the wild-type flower, by spatially controlling the expression domains of multiple floral organ identity genes (PubMed:1675158, PubMed:23034631). Acts as A class cadastral protein by repressing the C class floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS in association with other repressors like LEUNIG and SEUSS (PubMed:1675158). Directly represses AGAMOUS by recruiting the transcriptional corepressor TOPLESS and the histone deacetylase HDA19 (PubMed:23034631). It is also required during seed development (PubMed:1675158).3 Publications

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
DNA bindingi131 – 18757AP2/ERF 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
DNA bindingi223 – 28058AP2/ERF 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

GO - Molecular functioni

  • DNA binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding Source: TAIR

GO - Biological processi

  • cell differentiation Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • flower development Source: TAIR
  • meristem maintenance Source: TAIR
  • plant ovule development Source: TAIR
  • seed development Source: TAIR
  • specification of floral organ identity Source: CACAO
  • transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Activator, Developmental protein

Keywords - Biological processi

Differentiation, Flowering, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Keywords - Ligandi

DNA-binding

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Floral homeotic protein APETALA 21 Publication
Gene namesi
Name:AP21 Publication
Ordered Locus Names:At4g36920Imported
ORF Names:AP22.49, C7A10.440Imported
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 4

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT4G36920.

Subcellular locationi

  • Nucleus PROSITE-ProRule annotation

GO - Cellular componenti

  • nucleus Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi159 – 1591G → E in AP2-5; temperature-sensitive. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi251 – 2511G → S in AP2-1; temperature-sensitive. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi304 – 3085LDLSL → ADASA: Loss of interaction with TPL. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi420 – 4201Q → E in AP2-5; temperature-sensitive. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 432432Floral homeotic protein APETALA 2PRO_0000112522Add
BLAST

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP47927.
PRIDEiP47927.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Sepals, petals, stamens, carpels, developing ovules, inflorescence stem, leaf and stem.

Developmental stagei

It is detectable at low levels throughout the shoot apex and at enhanced levels in the inflorescence meristem, young floral buds and throughout the early stages of flower development and organogenesis. During floral organ differentiation it becomes spatially restricted to specific organ, tissue and cell types within the flower.

Inductioni

Negatively regulated by the C class floral homeotic protein AGAMOUS in stamens and carpels. MicroRNA 172 (miRNA172) negatively regulates APETALA2 at the translational level and may modulate its expression pattern. Seems not to be influenced by jasmonate and Alternaria brassicicola.3 Publications

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiP47927. AT.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

May form homodimer. Interacts with HDA19 and with TPL in an EAR-motif dependent manner (PubMed:23034631).1 Publication

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi15126. 4 interactions.
STRINGi3702.AT4G36920.1.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP47927.
SMRiP47927. Positions 131-189, 223-282.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Motifi119 – 12810Nuclear localization signalSequence analysis
Motifi304 – 3085EARCurated

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Compositional biasi14 – 5037Asp/Glu/Ser-rich (acidic; potential involvement with transcription)Sequence analysisAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Contains 2 AP2/ERF DNA-binding domains.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IEQU. Eukaryota.
ENOG410YBZ8. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000033977.
InParanoidiP47927.
KOiK09284.
OMAiAENHRFD.
OrthoDBiEOG09360CM4.
PhylomeDBiP47927.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.30.730.10. 2 hits.
InterProiIPR031112. AP2-like_transcript_factor.
IPR001471. AP2/ERF_dom.
IPR016177. DNA-bd_dom.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR32467. PTHR32467. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00847. AP2. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00367. ETHRSPELEMNT.
SMARTiSM00380. AP2. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF54171. SSF54171. 2 hits.
PROSITEiPS51032. AP2_ERF. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P47927-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MWDLNDAPHQ TQREEESEEF CYSSPSKRVG SFSNSSSSAV VIEDGSDDDE
60 70 80 90 100
LNRVRPNNPL VTHQFFPEMD SNGGGVASGF PRAHWFGVKF CQSDLATGSS
110 120 130 140 150
AGKATNVAAA VVEPAQPLKK SRRGPRSRSS QYRGVTFYRR TGRWESHIWD
160 170 180 190 200
CGKQVYLGGF DTAHAAARAY DRAAIKFRGV EADINFNIDD YDDDLKQMTN
210 220 230 240 250
LTKEEFVHVL RRQSTGFPRG SSKYRGVTLH KCGRWEARMG QFLGKKYVYL
260 270 280 290 300
GLFDTEVEAA RAYDKAAIKC NGKDAVTNFD PSIYDEELNA ESSGNPTTPQ
310 320 330 340 350
DHNLDLSLGN SANSKHKSQD MRLRMNQQQQ DSLHSNEVLG LGQTGMLNHT
360 370 380 390 400
PNSNHQFPGS SNIGSGGGFS LFPAAENHRF DGRASTNQVL TNAAASSGFS
410 420 430
PHHHNQIFNS TSTPHQNWLQ TNGFQPPLMR PS
Length:432
Mass (Da):47,833
Last modified:February 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:i376A355291EFFB42
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAM91531 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally extended.Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U12546 mRNA. Translation: AAC13770.1.
Z99707 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB16765.1.
AL161590 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB80358.1.
CP002687 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE86717.1.
CP002687 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE86718.1.
AY128328 mRNA. Translation: AAM91531.1. Different initiation.
PIRiA85436.
RefSeqiNP_001190938.1. NM_001204009.1.
NP_195410.1. NM_119856.2.
UniGeneiAt.4638.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT4G36920.1; AT4G36920.1; AT4G36920.
AT4G36920.2; AT4G36920.2; AT4G36920.
GeneIDi829845.
GrameneiAT4G36920.1; AT4G36920.1; AT4G36920.
AT4G36920.2; AT4G36920.2; AT4G36920.
KEGGiath:AT4G36920.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U12546 mRNA. Translation: AAC13770.1.
Z99707 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB16765.1.
AL161590 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB80358.1.
CP002687 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE86717.1.
CP002687 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE86718.1.
AY128328 mRNA. Translation: AAM91531.1. Different initiation.
PIRiA85436.
RefSeqiNP_001190938.1. NM_001204009.1.
NP_195410.1. NM_119856.2.
UniGeneiAt.4638.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP47927.
SMRiP47927. Positions 131-189, 223-282.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi15126. 4 interactions.
STRINGi3702.AT4G36920.1.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP47927.
PRIDEiP47927.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT4G36920.1; AT4G36920.1; AT4G36920.
AT4G36920.2; AT4G36920.2; AT4G36920.
GeneIDi829845.
GrameneiAT4G36920.1; AT4G36920.1; AT4G36920.
AT4G36920.2; AT4G36920.2; AT4G36920.
KEGGiath:AT4G36920.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT4G36920.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IEQU. Eukaryota.
ENOG410YBZ8. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000033977.
InParanoidiP47927.
KOiK09284.
OMAiAENHRFD.
OrthoDBiEOG09360CM4.
PhylomeDBiP47927.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiP47927.

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiP47927. AT.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.30.730.10. 2 hits.
InterProiIPR031112. AP2-like_transcript_factor.
IPR001471. AP2/ERF_dom.
IPR016177. DNA-bd_dom.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR32467. PTHR32467. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00847. AP2. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00367. ETHRSPELEMNT.
SMARTiSM00380. AP2. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF54171. SSF54171. 2 hits.
PROSITEiPS51032. AP2_ERF. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiAP2_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P47927
Secondary accession number(s): Q8L7P9
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 1, 1996
Last sequence update: February 1, 1996
Last modified: September 7, 2016
This is version 131 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

Mutations in the APETALA2 gene result in the ectopic expression of AGAMOUS, leading to the replacement of sepals by carpels and stamens and of petals by stamens.

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.