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P47927 (AP2_ARATH) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified May 14, 2014. Version 117. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (2) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
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Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Floral homeotic protein APETALA 2
Gene names
Name:AP2
Ordered Locus Names:At4g36920
ORF Names:AP22.49, C7A10.440
OrganismArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis

Protein attributes

Sequence length432 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Probable transcriptional activator that promotes early floral meristem identity. Is required subsequently for the transition of an inflorescence meristem into a floral meristem. Plays a central role in the specification of floral identity, particularly for the normal development of sepals and petals in the wild-type flower. Acts as A class cadastral protein by repressing the C class floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS in association with other repressors like LEUNIG and SEUSS. It is also required during seed development. Ref.6

Subunit structure

May form homodimer.

Subcellular location

Nucleus Probable.

Tissue specificity

Sepals, petals, stamens, carpels, developing ovules, inflorescence stem, leaf and stem.

Developmental stage

It is detectable at low levels throughout the shoot apex and at enhanced levels in the inflorescence meristem, young floral buds and throughout the early stages of flower development and organogenesis. During floral organ differentiation it becomes spatially restricted to specific organ, tissue and cell types within the flower.

Induction

Negatively regulated by the C class floral homeotic protein AGAMOUS in stamens and carpels. MicroRNA 172 (miRNA172) negatively regulates APETALA2 at the translational level and may modulate its expression pattern. Seems not to be influenced by jasmonate and Alternaria brassicicola. Ref.7 Ref.8 Ref.9

Miscellaneous

Mutations in the APETALA2 gene result in the ectopic expression of AGAMOUS, leading to the replacement of sepals by carpels and stamens and of petals by stamens.

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the AP2/ERF transcription factor family. AP2 subfamily.

Contains 2 AP2/ERF DNA-binding domains.

Sequence caution

The sequence AAM91531.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation.

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Chain1 – 432432Floral homeotic protein APETALA 2
PRO_0000112522

Regions

DNA binding131 – 18757AP2/ERF 1
DNA binding223 – 28058AP2/ERF 2
Motif119 – 12810Nuclear localization signal Potential
Compositional bias14 – 5037Asp/Glu/Ser-rich (acidic; potential involvement with transcription)

Experimental info

Mutagenesis1591G → E in AP2-5; temperature-sensitive.
Mutagenesis2511G → S in AP2-1; temperature-sensitive.
Mutagenesis4201Q → E in AP2-5; temperature-sensitive.

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
P47927 [UniParc].

Last modified February 1, 1996. Version 1.
Checksum: 376A355291EFFB42

FASTA43247,833
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MWDLNDAPHQ TQREEESEEF CYSSPSKRVG SFSNSSSSAV VIEDGSDDDE LNRVRPNNPL 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
VTHQFFPEMD SNGGGVASGF PRAHWFGVKF CQSDLATGSS AGKATNVAAA VVEPAQPLKK 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
SRRGPRSRSS QYRGVTFYRR TGRWESHIWD CGKQVYLGGF DTAHAAARAY DRAAIKFRGV 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
EADINFNIDD YDDDLKQMTN LTKEEFVHVL RRQSTGFPRG SSKYRGVTLH KCGRWEARMG 

       250        260        270        280        290        300 
QFLGKKYVYL GLFDTEVEAA RAYDKAAIKC NGKDAVTNFD PSIYDEELNA ESSGNPTTPQ 

       310        320        330        340        350        360 
DHNLDLSLGN SANSKHKSQD MRLRMNQQQQ DSLHSNEVLG LGQTGMLNHT PNSNHQFPGS 

       370        380        390        400        410        420 
SNIGSGGGFS LFPAAENHRF DGRASTNQVL TNAAASSGFS PHHHNQIFNS TSTPHQNWLQ 

       430 
TNGFQPPLMR PS 

« Hide

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"Control of Arabidopsis flower and seed development by the homeotic gene APETALA2."
Jofuku K.D., den Boer B.G.W., Van Montagu M., Okamuro J.K.
Plant Cell 6:1211-1225(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], MUTANTS AP2-1 AND AP2-5.
Strain: cv. Columbia.
Tissue: Flower.
[2]"Analysis of 1.9 Mb of contiguous sequence from chromosome 4 of Arabidopsis thaliana."
Bevan M., Bancroft I., Bent E., Love K., Goodman H.M., Dean C., Bergkamp R., Dirkse W., van Staveren M., Stiekema W., Drost L., Ridley P., Hudson S.-A., Patel K., Murphy G., Piffanelli P., Wedler H., Wedler E. expand/collapse author list , Wambutt R., Weitzenegger T., Pohl T., Terryn N., Gielen J., Villarroel R., De Clercq R., van Montagu M., Lecharny A., Aubourg S., Gy I., Kreis M., Lao N., Kavanagh T., Hempel S., Kotter P., Entian K.-D., Rieger M., Schaefer M., Funk B., Mueller-Auer S., Silvey M., James R., Monfort A., Pons A., Puigdomenech P., Douka A., Voukelatou E., Milioni D., Hatzopoulos P., Piravandi E., Obermaier B., Hilbert H., Duesterhoeft A., Moores T., Jones J.D.G., Eneva T., Palme K., Benes V., Rechmann S., Ansorge W., Cooke R., Berger C., Delseny M., Voet M., Volckaert G., Mewes H.-W., Klosterman S., Schueller C., Chalwatzis N.
Nature 391:485-488(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[3]"Sequence and analysis of chromosome 4 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana."
Mayer K.F.X., Schueller C., Wambutt R., Murphy G., Volckaert G., Pohl T., Duesterhoeft A., Stiekema W., Entian K.-D., Terryn N., Harris B., Ansorge W., Brandt P., Grivell L.A., Rieger M., Weichselgartner M., de Simone V., Obermaier B. expand/collapse author list , Mache R., Mueller M., Kreis M., Delseny M., Puigdomenech P., Watson M., Schmidtheini T., Reichert B., Portetelle D., Perez-Alonso M., Boutry M., Bancroft I., Vos P., Hoheisel J., Zimmermann W., Wedler H., Ridley P., Langham S.-A., McCullagh B., Bilham L., Robben J., van der Schueren J., Grymonprez B., Chuang Y.-J., Vandenbussche F., Braeken M., Weltjens I., Voet M., Bastiaens I., Aert R., Defoor E., Weitzenegger T., Bothe G., Ramsperger U., Hilbert H., Braun M., Holzer E., Brandt A., Peters S., van Staveren M., Dirkse W., Mooijman P., Klein Lankhorst R., Rose M., Hauf J., Koetter P., Berneiser S., Hempel S., Feldpausch M., Lamberth S., Van den Daele H., De Keyser A., Buysshaert C., Gielen J., Villarroel R., De Clercq R., van Montagu M., Rogers J., Cronin A., Quail M.A., Bray-Allen S., Clark L., Doggett J., Hall S., Kay M., Lennard N., McLay K., Mayes R., Pettett A., Rajandream M.A., Lyne M., Benes V., Rechmann S., Borkova D., Bloecker H., Scharfe M., Grimm M., Loehnert T.-H., Dose S., de Haan M., Maarse A.C., Schaefer M., Mueller-Auer S., Gabel C., Fuchs M., Fartmann B., Granderath K., Dauner D., Herzl A., Neumann S., Argiriou A., Vitale D., Liguori R., Piravandi E., Massenet O., Quigley F., Clabauld G., Muendlein A., Felber R., Schnabl S., Hiller R., Schmidt W., Lecharny A., Aubourg S., Chefdor F., Cooke R., Berger C., Monfort A., Casacuberta E., Gibbons T., Weber N., Vandenbol M., Bargues M., Terol J., Torres A., Perez-Perez A., Purnelle B., Bent E., Johnson S., Tacon D., Jesse T., Heijnen L., Schwarz S., Scholler P., Heber S., Francs P., Bielke C., Frishman D., Haase D., Lemcke K., Mewes H.-W., Stocker S., Zaccaria P., Bevan M., Wilson R.K., de la Bastide M., Habermann K., Parnell L., Dedhia N., Gnoj L., Schutz K., Huang E., Spiegel L., Sekhon M., Murray J., Sheet P., Cordes M., Abu-Threideh J., Stoneking T., Kalicki J., Graves T., Harmon G., Edwards J., Latreille P., Courtney L., Cloud J., Abbott A., Scott K., Johnson D., Minx P., Bentley D., Fulton B., Miller N., Greco T., Kemp K., Kramer J., Fulton L., Mardis E., Dante M., Pepin K., Hillier L.W., Nelson J., Spieth J., Ryan E., Andrews S., Geisel C., Layman D., Du H., Ali J., Berghoff A., Jones K., Drone K., Cotton M., Joshu C., Antonoiu B., Zidanic M., Strong C., Sun H., Lamar B., Yordan C., Ma P., Zhong J., Preston R., Vil D., Shekher M., Matero A., Shah R., Swaby I.K., O'Shaughnessy A., Rodriguez M., Hoffman J., Till S., Granat S., Shohdy N., Hasegawa A., Hameed A., Lodhi M., Johnson A., Chen E., Marra M.A., Martienssen R., McCombie W.R.
Nature 402:769-777(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[4]The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[5]"Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G. expand/collapse author list , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] OF 221-432.
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[6]"Negative regulation of the Arabidopsis homeotic gene AGAMOUS by the APETALA2 product."
Drews G.N., Bowman J.L., Meyerowitz E.M.
Cell 65:991-1002(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[7]"Regulation of flowering time and floral organ identity by a microRNA and its APETALA2-like target genes."
Aukerman M.J., Sakai H.
Plant Cell 15:2730-2741(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INDUCTION.
[8]"A role for the GCC-box in jasmonate-mediated activation of the PDF1.2 gene of Arabidopsis."
Brown R.L., Kazan K., McGrath K.C., Maclean D.J., Manners J.M.
Plant Physiol. 132:1020-1032(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INDUCTION.
[9]"A microRNA as a translational repressor of APETALA2 in Arabidopsis flower development."
Chen X.
Science 303:2022-2025(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INDUCTION.
[10]"Genome-wide analysis of the ERF gene family in Arabidopsis and rice."
Nakano T., Suzuki K., Fujimura T., Shinshi H.
Plant Physiol. 140:411-432(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: GENE FAMILY, NOMENCLATURE.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
U12546 mRNA. Translation: AAC13770.1.
Z99707 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB16765.1.
AL161590 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB80358.1.
CP002687 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE86717.1.
CP002687 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE86718.1.
AY128328 mRNA. Translation: AAM91531.1. Different initiation.
PIRA85436.
RefSeqNP_001190938.1. NM_001204009.1.
NP_195410.1. NM_119856.2.
UniGeneAt.4638.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortalP47927.
SMRP47927. Positions 131-189, 223-282.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid15126. 4 interactions.
STRING3702.AT4G36920.1-P.

Proteomic databases

PRIDEP47927.

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsAT4G36920.1; AT4G36920.1; AT4G36920.
AT4G36920.2; AT4G36920.2; AT4G36920.
GeneID829845.
KEGGath:AT4G36920.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRAT4G36920.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGNOG247476.
HOGENOMHOG000033977.
InParanoidP47927.
KOK09284.
OMAESEEFCY.
PhylomeDBP47927.

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatorP47927.

Family and domain databases

Gene3D3.30.730.10. 2 hits.
InterProIPR001471. AP2/ERF_dom.
IPR016177. DNA-bd_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamPF00847. AP2. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSPR00367. ETHRSPELEMNT.
SMARTSM00380. AP2. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMSSF54171. SSF54171. 2 hits.
PROSITEPS51032. AP2_ERF. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Entry information

Entry nameAP2_ARATH
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: P47927
Secondary accession number(s): Q8L7P9
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 1, 1996
Last sequence update: February 1, 1996
Last modified: May 14, 2014
This is version 117 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

Arabidopsis thaliana

Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names