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Protein

Phosphorylase b kinase regulatory subunit alpha, liver isoform

Gene

PHKA2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Phosphorylase b kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine in certain substrates, including troponin I. The alpha chain may bind calmodulin.

Enzyme regulationi

By phosphorylation of various serine residues and by calcium.

Pathwayi: glycogen metabolism

This protein is involved in the pathway glycogen metabolism, which is part of Glycan biosynthesis.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway glycogen metabolism and in Glycan biosynthesis.

GO - Molecular functioni

  • phosphorylase kinase activity Source: ProtInc

GO - Biological processi

  • carbohydrate metabolic process Source: ProtInc
  • cellular protein modification process Source: ProtInc
  • generation of precursor metabolites and energy Source: ProtInc
  • glycogen catabolic process Source: Reactome
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Biological processi

Carbohydrate metabolism, Glycogen metabolism

Keywords - Ligandi

Calmodulin-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:HS00576-MONOMER.
BRENDAi2.7.11.19. 2681.
ReactomeiR-HSA-70221. Glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis).
UniPathwayiUPA00163.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Phosphorylase b kinase regulatory subunit alpha, liver isoform
Short name:
Phosphorylase kinase alpha L subunit
Gene namesi
Name:PHKA2
Synonyms:PHKLA, PYK
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome X

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:8926. PHKA2.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • cytosol Source: Reactome
  • phosphorylase kinase complex Source: ProtInc
  • plasma membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Involvement in diseasei

Glycogen storage disease 9A (GSD9A)7 Publications
The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionA metabolic disorder resulting in a mild liver glycogenosis with clinical symptoms that include hepatomegaly, growth retardation, muscle weakness, elevation of glutamate-pyruvate transaminase and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and fasting hyperketosis. Two subtypes are known: type 1 or classic type with no phosphorylase kinase activity in liver or erythrocytes, and type 2 or variant type with no phosphorylase kinase activity in liver, but normal activity in erythrocytes. Unlike other glycogenosis diseases, glycogen storage disease type 9A is generally a benign condition. Patients improve with age and are often asymptomatic as adults. Accurate diagnosis is therefore also of prognostic interest.
See also OMIM:306000
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti120 – 1201T → TYNTAT in GSD9A.
VAR_062393
Natural varianti132 – 1321H → P in GSD9A; type 2. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs137852291 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_006177
Natural varianti132 – 1321H → Y in GSD9A; type 2. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs137852292 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_006178
Natural varianti141 – 1411Missing in GSD9A; type 1. 1 Publication
VAR_006179
Natural varianti186 – 1861R → C in GSD9A; type 2. 2 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs137852294 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_006180
Natural varianti186 – 1861R → H in GSD9A; type 2. 2 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs137852290 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_006181
Natural varianti189 – 1902Missing in GSD9A; type 2. 1 Publication
VAR_012270
Natural varianti189 – 1891K → E in GSD9A; type 2. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs137852295 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_012269
Natural varianti193 – 1931G → V in GSD9A; type 2. 1 Publication
VAR_012271
Natural varianti251 – 2511Missing in GSD9A; type 2. 1 Publication
VAR_006182
Natural varianti295 – 2951R → H in GSD9A; type 1 and type 2. 1 Publication
VAR_012272
Natural varianti299 – 2991D → G in GSD9A; type 2. 2 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs137852289 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_006183
Natural varianti399 – 3991P → S in GSD9A; type 1. 1 Publication
VAR_012273
Natural varianti498 – 4981P → L in GSD9A. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs199792389 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_062394
Natural varianti818 – 8258Missing in GSD9A; type 1. 1 Publication
VAR_012274
Natural varianti869 – 8691P → R in GSD9A. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs777137574 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_062395
Natural varianti916 – 9161R → W in GSD9A. 1 Publication
VAR_062396
Natural varianti953 – 9542NL → I in GSD9A; type 1.
VAR_012275
Natural varianti1070 – 10701Missing in GSD9A. 1 Publication
VAR_062397
Natural varianti1111 – 11111R → RTR in GSD9A; type 2.
VAR_006184
Natural varianti1113 – 11131M → I in GSD9A. 1 Publication
VAR_062398
Natural varianti1114 – 11141T → I in GSD9A; type 2. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs137852293 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_006185
Natural varianti1125 – 11251E → K in GSD9A; type 1. 1 Publication
VAR_012276
Natural varianti1205 – 12051P → L in GSD9A; type 1. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs137852288 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_006186
Natural varianti1207 – 12071G → W in GSD9A; type 1. 1 Publication
VAR_012277

Keywords - Diseasei

Disease mutation, Glycogen storage disease

Organism-specific databases

MalaCardsiPHKA2.
MIMi306000. phenotype.
Orphaneti264580. Glycogen storage disease due to liver phosphorylase kinase deficiency.
PharmGKBiPA33267.

Chemistry

ChEMBLiCHEMBL2111324.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiPHKA2.
DMDMi1170685.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 12351235Phosphorylase b kinase regulatory subunit alpha, liver isoformPRO_0000057730Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei695 – 6951PhosphoserineCombined sources
Modified residuei729 – 7291PhosphoserineCombined sources
Modified residuei735 – 7351PhosphoserineCombined sources
Modified residuei983 – 9831PhosphoserineCombined sources
Modified residuei1015 – 10151PhosphoserineCombined sources
Modified residuei1044 – 10441PhosphoserineCombined sources
Lipidationi1232 – 12321S-farnesyl cysteineBy similarity

Post-translational modificationi

Although the final Cys may be farnesylated, the terminal tripeptide is probably not removed, and the C-terminus is not methylated.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Lipoprotein, Phosphoprotein, Prenylation

Proteomic databases

EPDiP46019.
MaxQBiP46019.
PaxDbiP46019.
PeptideAtlasiP46019.
PRIDEiP46019.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP46019.
PhosphoSiteiP46019.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Predominantly expressed in liver and other non-muscle tissues.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000044446.
CleanExiHS_PHKA2.
GenevisibleiP46019. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA002912.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Hexadecamer of 4 heterotetramers, each composed of alpha, beta, gamma, and delta subunits. Alpha (PHKA1 or PHKA2) and beta (PHKB) are regulatory subunits, gamma (PHKG1 or PHKG2) is the catalytic subunit, and delta is calmodulin.

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi111274. 24 interactions.
IntActiP46019. 11 interactions.
MINTiMINT-1185164.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000369274.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP46019.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni807 – 83731Calmodulin-bindingSequence analysisAdd
BLAST
Regioni1059 – 109941Calmodulin-bindingSequence analysisAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3635. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XPJZ. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00520000055553.
HOGENOMiHOG000231478.
HOVERGENiHBG000273.
InParanoidiP46019.
KOiK07190.
OMAiYCYLILF.
OrthoDBiEOG091G00NN.
PhylomeDBiP46019.
TreeFamiTF313970.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.50.10.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR008928. 6-hairpin_glycosidase-like.
IPR012341. 6hp_glycosidase.
IPR011613. Glyco_hydro_15/PHK.
IPR008734. PHK_A/B_su.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR10749. PTHR10749. 2 hits.
PfamiPF00723. Glyco_hydro_15. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48208. SSF48208. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P46019-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MRSRSNSGVR LDGYARLVQQ TILCYQNPVT GLLSASHEQK DAWVRDNIYS
60 70 80 90 100
ILAVWGLGMA YRKNADRDED KAKAYELEQN VVKLMRGLLQ CMMRQVAKVE
110 120 130 140 150
KFKHTQSTKD SLHAKYNTAT CGTVVGDDQW GHLQVDATSL FLLFLAQMTA
160 170 180 190 200
SGLRIIFTLD EVAFIQNLVF YIEAAYKVAD YGMWERGDKT NQGIPELNAS
210 220 230 240 250
SVGMAKAALE AIDELDLFGA HGGRKSVIHV LPDEVEHCQS ILFSMLPRAS
260 270 280 290 300
TSKEIDAGLL SIISFPAFAV EDVNLVNVTK NEIISKLQGR YGCCRFLRDG
310 320 330 340 350
YKTPREDPNR LHYDPAELKL FENIECEWPV FWTYFIIDGV FSGDAVQVQE
360 370 380 390 400
YREALEGILI RGKNGIRLVP ELYAVPPNKV DEEYKNPHTV DRVPMGKVPH
410 420 430 440 450
LWGQSLYILS SLLAEGFLAA GEIDPLNRRF STSVKPDVVV QVTVLAENNH
460 470 480 490 500
IKDLLRKHGV NVQSIADIHP IQVQPGRILS HIYAKLGRNK NMNLSGRPYR
510 520 530 540 550
HIGVLGTSKL YVIRNQIFTF TPQFTDQHHF YLALDNEMIV EMLRIELAYL
560 570 580 590 600
CTCWRMTGRP TLTFPISRTM LTNDGSDIHS AVLSTIRKLE DGYFGGARVK
610 620 630 640 650
LGNLSEFLTT SFYTYLTFLD PDCDEKLFDN ASEGTFSPDS DSDLVGYLED
660 670 680 690 700
TCNQESQDEL DHYINHLLQS TSLRSYLPPL CKNTEDRHVF SAIHSTRDIL
710 720 730 740 750
SVMAKAKGLE VPFVPMTLPT KVLSAHRKSL NLVDSPQPLL EKVPESDFQW
760 770 780 790 800
PRDDHGDVDC EKLVEQLKDC SNLQDQADIL YILYVIKGPS WDTNLSGQHG
810 820 830 840 850
VTVQNLLGEL YGKAGLNQEW GLIRYISGLL RKKVEVLAEA CTDLLSHQKQ
860 870 880 890 900
LTVGLPPEPR EKIISAPLPP EELTKLIYEA SGQDISIAVL TQEIVVYLAM
910 920 930 940 950
YVRAQPSLFV EMLRLRIGLI IQVMATELAR SLNCSGEEAS ESLMNLSPFD
960 970 980 990 1000
MKNLLHHILS GKEFGVERSV RPIHSSTSSP TISIHEVGHT GVTKTERSGI
1010 1020 1030 1040 1050
NRLRSEMKQM TRRFSADEQF FSVGQAASSS AHSSKSARSS TPSSPTGTSS
1060 1070 1080 1090 1100
SDSGGHHIGW GERQGQWLRR RRLDGAINRV PVGFYQRVWK ILQKCHGLSI
1110 1120 1130 1140 1150
DGYVLPSSTT REMTPHEIKF AVHVESVLNR VPQPEYRQLL VEAIMVLTLL
1160 1170 1180 1190 1200
SDTEMTSIGG IIHVDQIVQM ASQLFLQDQV SIGAMDTLEK DQATGICHFF
1210 1220 1230
YDSAPSGAYG TMTYLTRAVA SYLQELLPNS GCQMQ
Length:1,235
Mass (Da):138,408
Last modified:November 1, 1995 - v1
Checksum:i6CA10CFFA86A582A
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti527 – 5271Q → E in AAH14036 (PubMed:15489334).Curated
Sequence conflicti756 – 7561G → S in AAH14036 (PubMed:15489334).Curated

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti38 – 381E → Q.
Corresponds to variant rs17313469 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_024563
Natural varianti120 – 1201T → TYNTAT in GSD9A.
VAR_062393
Natural varianti132 – 1321H → P in GSD9A; type 2. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs137852291 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_006177
Natural varianti132 – 1321H → Y in GSD9A; type 2. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs137852292 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_006178
Natural varianti141 – 1411Missing in GSD9A; type 1. 1 Publication
VAR_006179
Natural varianti186 – 1861R → C in GSD9A; type 2. 2 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs137852294 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_006180
Natural varianti186 – 1861R → H in GSD9A; type 2. 2 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs137852290 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_006181
Natural varianti189 – 1902Missing in GSD9A; type 2. 1 Publication
VAR_012270
Natural varianti189 – 1891K → E in GSD9A; type 2. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs137852295 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_012269
Natural varianti193 – 1931G → V in GSD9A; type 2. 1 Publication
VAR_012271
Natural varianti251 – 2511Missing in GSD9A; type 2. 1 Publication
VAR_006182
Natural varianti295 – 2951R → H in GSD9A; type 1 and type 2. 1 Publication
VAR_012272
Natural varianti299 – 2991D → G in GSD9A; type 2. 2 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs137852289 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_006183
Natural varianti399 – 3991P → S in GSD9A; type 1. 1 Publication
VAR_012273
Natural varianti416 – 4161G → R.
Corresponds to variant rs16980929 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_050518
Natural varianti498 – 4981P → L in GSD9A. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs199792389 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_062394
Natural varianti818 – 8258Missing in GSD9A; type 1. 1 Publication
VAR_012274
Natural varianti869 – 8691P → R in GSD9A. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs777137574 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_062395
Natural varianti916 – 9161R → W in GSD9A. 1 Publication
VAR_062396
Natural varianti953 – 9542NL → I in GSD9A; type 1.
VAR_012275
Natural varianti1070 – 10701Missing in GSD9A. 1 Publication
VAR_062397
Natural varianti1111 – 11111R → RTR in GSD9A; type 2.
VAR_006184
Natural varianti1113 – 11131M → I in GSD9A. 1 Publication
VAR_062398
Natural varianti1114 – 11141T → I in GSD9A; type 2. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs137852293 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_006185
Natural varianti1125 – 11251E → K in GSD9A; type 1. 1 Publication
VAR_012276
Natural varianti1205 – 12051P → L in GSD9A; type 1. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs137852288 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_006186
Natural varianti1207 – 12071G → W in GSD9A; type 1. 1 Publication
VAR_012277

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X80497 mRNA. Translation: CAA56662.1.
D38616 mRNA. Translation: BAA07606.1.
AF044572
, AF044540, AF044541, AF044542, AF044543, AF044544, AF044545, AF044546, AF044547, AF044548, AF044549, AF044550, AF044551, AF044552, AF044553, AF044554, AF044555, AF044556, AF044557, AF044558, AF044559, AF044560, AF044561, AF044562, AF044563, AF044564, AF044565, AF044566, AF044567, AF044568, AF044569, AF044570, AF044571 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAD32846.1.
AK289996 mRNA. Translation: BAF82685.1.
AL096700, AL732509 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB86408.2.
AL732509, AL096700 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAI41680.1.
CH471074 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW98951.1.
BC014036 mRNA. Translation: AAH14036.1.
Y15154 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA75421.1.
X73875 mRNA. Translation: CAA52084.1.
CCDSiCCDS14190.1.
RefSeqiNP_000283.1. NM_000292.2.
UniGeneiHs.54941.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000379942; ENSP00000369274; ENSG00000044446.
GeneIDi5256.
KEGGihsa:5256.
UCSCiuc004cyv.5. human.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X80497 mRNA. Translation: CAA56662.1.
D38616 mRNA. Translation: BAA07606.1.
AF044572
, AF044540, AF044541, AF044542, AF044543, AF044544, AF044545, AF044546, AF044547, AF044548, AF044549, AF044550, AF044551, AF044552, AF044553, AF044554, AF044555, AF044556, AF044557, AF044558, AF044559, AF044560, AF044561, AF044562, AF044563, AF044564, AF044565, AF044566, AF044567, AF044568, AF044569, AF044570, AF044571 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAD32846.1.
AK289996 mRNA. Translation: BAF82685.1.
AL096700, AL732509 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB86408.2.
AL732509, AL096700 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAI41680.1.
CH471074 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW98951.1.
BC014036 mRNA. Translation: AAH14036.1.
Y15154 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA75421.1.
X73875 mRNA. Translation: CAA52084.1.
CCDSiCCDS14190.1.
RefSeqiNP_000283.1. NM_000292.2.
UniGeneiHs.54941.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP46019.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi111274. 24 interactions.
IntActiP46019. 11 interactions.
MINTiMINT-1185164.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000369274.

Chemistry

ChEMBLiCHEMBL2111324.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP46019.
PhosphoSiteiP46019.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiPHKA2.
DMDMi1170685.

Proteomic databases

EPDiP46019.
MaxQBiP46019.
PaxDbiP46019.
PeptideAtlasiP46019.
PRIDEiP46019.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi5256.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000379942; ENSP00000369274; ENSG00000044446.
GeneIDi5256.
KEGGihsa:5256.
UCSCiuc004cyv.5. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi5256.
GeneCardsiPHKA2.
GeneReviewsiPHKA2.
H-InvDBHIX0176778.
HGNCiHGNC:8926. PHKA2.
HPAiHPA002912.
MalaCardsiPHKA2.
MIMi300798. gene.
306000. phenotype.
neXtProtiNX_P46019.
Orphaneti264580. Glycogen storage disease due to liver phosphorylase kinase deficiency.
PharmGKBiPA33267.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3635. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XPJZ. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00520000055553.
HOGENOMiHOG000231478.
HOVERGENiHBG000273.
InParanoidiP46019.
KOiK07190.
OMAiYCYLILF.
OrthoDBiEOG091G00NN.
PhylomeDBiP46019.
TreeFamiTF313970.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00163.
BioCyciMetaCyc:HS00576-MONOMER.
BRENDAi2.7.11.19. 2681.
ReactomeiR-HSA-70221. Glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis).

Miscellaneous databases

GeneWikiiPHKA2.
GenomeRNAii5256.
PROiP46019.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000044446.
CleanExiHS_PHKA2.
GenevisibleiP46019. HS.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.50.10.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR008928. 6-hairpin_glycosidase-like.
IPR012341. 6hp_glycosidase.
IPR011613. Glyco_hydro_15/PHK.
IPR008734. PHK_A/B_su.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR10749. PTHR10749. 2 hits.
PfamiPF00723. Glyco_hydro_15. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48208. SSF48208. 1 hit.
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiKPB2_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P46019
Secondary accession number(s): A8K1T1
, Q6LAJ5, Q7Z6W0, Q96CR3, Q9UDA1
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1995
Last sequence update: November 1, 1995
Last modified: September 7, 2016
This is version 169 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome X
    Human chromosome X: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  6. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.