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Protein

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2

Gene

PAL2

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

This is a key enzyme of plant metabolism catalyzing the first reaction in the biosynthesis from L-phenylalanine of a wide variety of natural products based on the phenylpropane skeleton.

Catalytic activityi

L-phenylalanine = trans-cinnamate + ammonia.

Kineticsi

  1. KM=64 µM for L-phenylalanine1 Publication
  1. Vmax=10.5 µmol/sec/mg enzyme1 Publication

pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 8.4-8.9.1 Publication

Temperature dependencei

Optimum temperature is 48 degrees Celsius.1 Publication

Pathwayi: trans-cinnamate biosynthesis

This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes trans-cinnamate from L-phenylalanine.
Proteins known to be involved in this subpathway in this organism are:
  1. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 3 (PAL3), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2 (PAL2), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AXX17_At3g10120), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (At3g53260), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1 (PAL1), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AXX17_At5g03600), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AXX17_At2g33820), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 4 (PAL4), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AXX17_At3g47660), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL3)
This subpathway is part of the pathway trans-cinnamate biosynthesis, which is itself part of Phenylpropanoid metabolism.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes trans-cinnamate from L-phenylalanine, the pathway trans-cinnamate biosynthesis and in Phenylpropanoid metabolism.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Active sitei109Proton donor/acceptorBy similarity1
Binding sitei355SubstrateBy similarity1

GO - Molecular functioni

  • phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity Source: TAIR

GO - Biological processi

  • cinnamic acid biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB-UniPathway
  • L-phenylalanine catabolic process Source: InterPro
  • phenylpropanoid biosynthetic process Source: TAIR
  • response to karrikin Source: TAIR
  • response to oxidative stress Source: TAIR

Keywordsi

Molecular functionLyase
Biological processPhenylpropanoid metabolism

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi4.3.1.24 399
ReactomeiR-ATH-70921 Histidine catabolism
SABIO-RKiP45724
UniPathwayiUPA00713; UER00725

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2 (EC:4.3.1.24)
Gene namesi
Name:PAL2
Ordered Locus Names:At3g53260
ORF Names:T4D2.190
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 3

Organism-specific databases

AraportiAT3G53260
TAIRilocus:2101958 AT3G53260

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cell wall Cytoskeleton Vacuole Chloroplast Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertion Graphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00002153831 – 717Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2Add BLAST717

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Cross-linki203 ↔ 2055-imidazolinone (Ala-Gly)By similarity
Modified residuei2042,3-didehydroalanine (Ser)PROSITE-ProRule annotation1

Post-translational modificationi

Contains an active site 4-methylidene-imidazol-5-one (MIO), which is formed autocatalytically by cyclization and dehydration of residues Ala-Ser-Gly.By similarity

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP45724
PRIDEiP45724

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiP45724 differential
GenevisibleiP45724 AT

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi9810, 9 interactors
IntActiP45724, 5 interactors
STRINGi3702.AT3G53260.1

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP45724
SMRiP45724
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the PAL/histidase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0222 Eukaryota
COG2986 LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000214384
InParanoidiP45724
KOiK10775
OMAiRQATKSI
OrthoDBiEOG093603B9
PhylomeDBiP45724

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00332 PAL-HAL, 1 hit
Gene3Di1.10.274.20, 1 hit
1.10.275.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR001106 Aromatic_Lyase
IPR024083 Fumarase/histidase_N
IPR008948 L-Aspartase-like
IPR022313 Phe/His_NH3-lyase_AS
IPR005922 Phe_NH3-lyase
IPR023144 Phe_NH3-lyase_shielding_dom_sf
PANTHERiPTHR10362 PTHR10362, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00221 Lyase_aromatic, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF48557 SSF48557, 1 hit
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01226 phe_am_lyase, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00488 PAL_HISTIDASE, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P45724-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MDQIEAMLCG GGEKTKVAVT TKTLADPLNW GLAADQMKGS HLDEVKKMVE
60 70 80 90 100
EYRRPVVNLG GETLTIGQVA AISTVGGSVK VELAETSRAG VKASSDWVME
110 120 130 140 150
SMNKGTDSYG VTTGFGATSH RRTKNGTALQ TELIRFLNAG IFGNTKETCH
160 170 180 190 200
TLPQSATRAA MLVRVNTLLQ GYSGIRFEIL EAITSLLNHN ISPSLPLRGT
210 220 230 240 250
ITASGDLVPL SYIAGLLTGR PNSKATGPDG ESLTAKEAFE KAGISTGFFD
260 270 280 290 300
LQPKEGLALV NGTAVGSGMA SMVLFEANVQ AVLAEVLSAI FAEVMSGKPE
310 320 330 340 350
FTDHLTHRLK HHPGQIEAAA IMEHILDGSS YMKLAQKVHE MDPLQKPKQD
360 370 380 390 400
RYALRTSPQW LGPQIEVIRQ ATKSIEREIN SVNDNPLIDV SRNKAIHGGN
410 420 430 440 450
FQGTPIGVSM DNTRLAIAAI GKLMFAQFSE LVNDFYNNGL PSNLTASSNP
460 470 480 490 500
SLDYGFKGAE IAMASYCSEL QYLANPVTSH VQSAEQHNQD VNSLGLISSR
510 520 530 540 550
KTSEAVDILK LMSTTFLVGI CQAVDLRHLE ENLRQTVKNT VSQVAKKVLT
560 570 580 590 600
TGINGELHPS RFCEKDLLKV VDREQVFTYV DDPCSATYPL MQRLRQVIVD
610 620 630 640 650
HALSNGETEK NAVTSIFQKI GAFEEELKAV LPKEVEAARA AYGNGTAPIP
660 670 680 690 700
NRIKECRSYP LYRFVREELG TKLLTGEKVV SPGEEFDKVF TAMCEGKLID
710
PLMDCLKEWN GAPIPIC
Length:717
Mass (Da):77,860
Last modified:May 27, 2002 - v2
Checksum:i360A206295AF787D
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti50E → A in AAM12956 (PubMed:14593172).Curated1
Sequence conflicti50E → A in AAN15354 (PubMed:14593172).Curated1
Sequence conflicti206D → H in AAC18871 (PubMed:7888622).Curated1
Sequence conflicti235A → E in AAC18871 (PubMed:7888622).Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L33678 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC18871.1
AY303129 mRNA Translation: AAP59439.1
AL132958 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB64229.1
CP002686 Genomic DNA Translation: AEE79055.1
AF367308 mRNA Translation: AAK32895.1
AY092957 mRNA Translation: AAM12956.1
AY133595 mRNA Translation: AAM91425.1
BT000035 mRNA Translation: AAN15354.1
PIRiT46172
RefSeqiNP_190894.1, NM_115186.4
UniGeneiAt.21614

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT3G53260.1; AT3G53260.1; AT3G53260
GeneIDi824493
GrameneiAT3G53260.1; AT3G53260.1; AT3G53260
KEGGiath:AT3G53260

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiPAL2_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P45724
Secondary accession number(s): Q53ZM9
, Q8RWP4, Q94KC9, Q9SCN5
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1995
Last sequence update: May 27, 2002
Last modified: May 23, 2018
This is version 151 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

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