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Protein

Afamin

Gene

AFM

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Functions as carrier for hydrophobic molecules in body fluids (Probable). Essential for the solubility and activity of lipidated Wnt family members, including WNT1, WNT2B, WNT3, WNT3A, WNT5A, WNT7A, WNT7B, WNT8, WNT9A, WNT9B, WNT10A and WNT10B (PubMed:26902720). Binds vitamin E (PubMed:15952736, PubMed:12463752). May transport vitamin E in body fluids under conditions where the lipoprotein system is not sufficient (PubMed:15952736). May be involved in the transport of vitamin E across the blood-brain barrier (PubMed:19046407).Curated4 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

  • vitamin E binding Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

  • protein stabilization Source: UniProtKB
  • protein transport within extracellular region Source: UniProtKB
  • vitamin transport Source: UniProtKB

Keywordsi

Biological processProtein transport, Transport

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Afamin
Alternative name(s):
Alpha-albumin1 Publication
Short name:
Alpha-Alb
Gene namesi
Name:AFM
Synonyms:ALB2, ALBA
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 4

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000079557.4.
HGNCiHGNC:316. AFM.
MIMi104145. gene.
neXtProtiNX_P43652.

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi173.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000079557.
PharmGKBiPA24613.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiAFM.
DMDMi1168366.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 211 PublicationAdd BLAST21
ChainiPRO_000000110622 – 599AfaminAdd BLAST578

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Glycosylationi33N-linked (GlcNAc...) (complex) asparagine4 Publications1
Disulfide bondi77 ↔ 86PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication
Disulfide bondi99 ↔ 114PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication
Glycosylationi109N-linked (GlcNAc...) (complex) asparagine1 Publication1
Disulfide bondi113 ↔ 124PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication
Disulfide bondi148 ↔ 193PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Disulfide bondi192 ↔ 201PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication
Disulfide bondi224 ↔ 270PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication
Disulfide bondi269 ↔ 277PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication
Disulfide bondi289 ↔ 303PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication
Disulfide bondi302 ↔ 313PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication
Disulfide bondi340 ↔ 385PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication
Glycosylationi383N-linked (GlcNAc...) (complex) asparagine; atypical2 Publications1
Disulfide bondi384 ↔ 393PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication
Glycosylationi402N-linked (GlcNAc...) (complex) asparagine6 Publications1
Disulfide bondi416 ↔ 462PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication
Disulfide bondi461 ↔ 470PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication
Disulfide bondi483 ↔ 499PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication
Glycosylationi488N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagine2 Publications1
Disulfide bondi498 ↔ 509PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication
Disulfide bondi536 ↔ 581PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication
Disulfide bondi580 ↔ 589PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication

Post-translational modificationi

N-glycosylated; more than 90% of the glycans are sialylated.8 Publications

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP43652.
PeptideAtlasiP43652.
PRIDEiP43652.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP43652.
PhosphoSitePlusiP43652.
UniCarbKBiP43652.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

High level detected in plasma but also in extravascular fluids such as follicular and cerebrospinal fluids (at protein level).3 Publications

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000079557.
CleanExiHS_AFM.
GenevisibleiP43652. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA017006.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Forms a 1:1 complex with Wnt family members; interacts with WNT1, WNT2B, WNT3, WNT3A, WNT5A, WNT7A, WNT7B, WNT8, WNT9A, WNT9B, WNT10A and WNT10B.1 Publication

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi106681. 5 interactors.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000226355.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1599
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Helixi33 – 41Combined sources9
Helixi43 – 54Combined sources12
Helixi60 – 78Combined sources19
Helixi85 – 87Combined sources3
Helixi90 – 99Combined sources10
Helixi104 – 107Combined sources4
Helixi111 – 114Combined sources4
Helixi118 – 128Combined sources11
Helixi157 – 169Combined sources13
Helixi175 – 190Combined sources16
Helixi198 – 203Combined sources6
Helixi207 – 230Combined sources24
Helixi232 – 246Combined sources15
Helixi252 – 271Combined sources20
Helixi274 – 290Combined sources17
Helixi291 – 294Combined sources4
Helixi300 – 303Combined sources4
Helixi309 – 316Combined sources8
Helixi331 – 333Combined sources3
Helixi339 – 345Combined sources7
Helixi347 – 360Combined sources14
Helixi367 – 384Combined sources18
Helixi390 – 394Combined sources5
Helixi397 – 438Combined sources42
Helixi444 – 461Combined sources18
Helixi467 – 483Combined sources17
Beta strandi485 – 487Combined sources3
Helixi493 – 501Combined sources9
Helixi506 – 511Combined sources6
Helixi526 – 529Combined sources4
Helixi533 – 535Combined sources3
Helixi541 – 557Combined sources17
Turni558 – 560Combined sources3
Helixi563 – 580Combined sources18
Beta strandi583 – 585Combined sources3
Helixi586 – 593Combined sources8

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
5OKLX-ray2.09A/B22-599[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP43652.
SMRiP43652.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini22 – 210Albumin 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST189
Domaini211 – 403Albumin 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST193
Domaini404 – 599Albumin 3PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST196

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni215 – 319Binding pocket for hydrophobic ligands1 PublicationAdd BLAST105

Domaini

The second albumin domain forms a deep binding pocket that contains palmitoleic acid (in vitro) (PubMed:29153507). Palmitoleic acid is most likely not the physiological ligand. Instead, this pocket may accomodate the covalently bound lipid moiety of Wnt family members (Probable).Curated1 Publication

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the ALB/AFP/VDB family.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat, Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IIRZ. Eukaryota.
ENOG410Z40H. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000000113.
HOGENOMiHOG000293137.
HOVERGENiHBG004207.
InParanoidiP43652.
OMAiLDPEEKC.
OrthoDBiEOG091G0F5F.
PhylomeDBiP43652.
TreeFamiTF335561.

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00015. ALBUMIN. 3 hits.
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000264. ALB/AFP/VDB.
IPR020858. Serum_albumin-like.
IPR021177. Serum_albumin/AFP/Afamin.
IPR020857. Serum_albumin_CS.
IPR014760. Serum_albumin_N.
PANTHERiPTHR11385. PTHR11385. 1 hit.
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00273. Serum_albumin. 3 hits.
PIRSFiPIRSF002520. Serum_albumin_subgroup. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR00803. AFETOPROTEIN.
PR00802. SERUMALBUMIN.
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00103. ALBUMIN. 3 hits.
SUPFAMiSSF48552. SSF48552. 3 hits.
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00212. ALBUMIN_1. 3 hits.
PS51438. ALBUMIN_2. 3 hits.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P43652-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MKLLKLTGFI FFLFFLTESL TLPTQPRDIE NFNSTQKFIE DNIEYITIIA
60 70 80 90 100
FAQYVQEATF EEMEKLVKDM VEYKDRCMAD KTLPECSKLP NNVLQEKICA
110 120 130 140 150
MEGLPQKHNF SHCCSKVDAQ RRLCFFYNKK SDVGFLPPFP TLDPEEKCQA
160 170 180 190 200
YESNRESLLN HFLYEVARRN PFVFAPTLLT VAVHFEEVAK SCCEEQNKVN
210 220 230 240 250
CLQTRAIPVT QYLKAFSSYQ KHVCGALLKF GTKVVHFIYI AILSQKFPKI
260 270 280 290 300
EFKELISLVE DVSSNYDGCC EGDVVQCIRD TSKVMNHICS KQDSISSKIK
310 320 330 340 350
ECCEKKIPER GQCIINSNKD DRPKDLSLRE GKFTDSENVC QERDADPDTF
360 370 380 390 400
FAKFTFEYSR RHPDLSIPEL LRIVQIYKDL LRNCCNTENP PGCYRYAEDK
410 420 430 440 450
FNETTEKSLK MVQQECKHFQ NLGKDGLKYH YLIRLTKIAP QLSTEELVSL
460 470 480 490 500
GEKMVTAFTT CCTLSEEFAC VDNLADLVFG ELCGVNENRT INPAVDHCCK
510 520 530 540 550
TNFAFRRPCF ESLKADKTYV PPPFSQDLFT FHADMCQSQN EELQRKTDRF
560 570 580 590
LVNLVKLKHE LTDEELQSLF TNFANVVDKC CKAESPEVCF NEESPKIGN
Length:599
Mass (Da):69,069
Last modified:November 1, 1995 - v1
Checksum:iD594E75E20D308AB
GO

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_061003395R → H. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs41265665Ensembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_048218404T → S. Corresponds to variant dbSNP:rs2276444Ensembl.1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L32140 mRNA. Translation: AAA21612.1.
U51243 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC50720.1.
AK290556 mRNA. Translation: BAF83245.1.
AC108157 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AC110752 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAY41051.1.
CH471057 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX05682.1.
BC109020 mRNA. Translation: AAI09021.1.
BC109021 mRNA. Translation: AAI09022.1.
L35486 mRNA. Translation: AAA68197.1.
L35497 mRNA. Translation: AAA68198.1.
L35498 mRNA. Translation: AAA68199.1.
CCDSiCCDS3557.1.
PIRiA54906.
I39424.
I39426.
RefSeqiNP_001124.1. NM_001133.2.
UniGeneiHs.168718.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000226355; ENSP00000226355; ENSG00000079557.
GeneIDi173.
KEGGihsa:173.
UCSCiuc003hhb.4. human.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiAFAM_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P43652
Secondary accession number(s): A8K3E1, Q32MR3, Q4W5C5
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1995
Last sequence update: November 1, 1995
Last modified: February 28, 2018
This is version 149 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome