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Protein

Putrescine aminotransferase

Gene

patA

Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 4 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes the aminotransferase reaction from putrescine to 2-oxoglutarate, leading to glutamate and 4-aminobutanal, which spontaneously cyclizes to form 1-pyrroline. Is also able to transaminate cadaverine and, in lower extent, spermidine, but not ornithine. Alpha-ketobutyrate and pyruvate can also act as amino acceptors, although much less efficiently.1 Publication

Catalytic activityi

Putrescine + 2-oxoglutarate = L-glutamate + 1-pyrroline + H2O.

Cofactori

Kineticsi

The kinetic constants are determined for the recombinant His(6)-tagged protein and seem to be 3-4 times lower for the native enzyme.

  1. KM=9.2 mM for putrescine1 Publication
  2. KM=19.0 mM for 2-oxoglutarate1 Publication

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is 9.0. Active at alkaline pH.1 Publication

    Temperature dependencei

    Optimum temperature is 60 degrees Celsius. Highly active from 20 to 80 degrees Celsius.1 Publication

    Pathwayi: putrescine degradation

    This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes 4-aminobutanal from putrescine (transaminase route).
    Proteins known to be involved in this subpathway in this organism are:
    1. Putrescine aminotransferase (patA)
    This subpathway is part of the pathway putrescine degradation, which is itself part of Amine and polyamine degradation.
    View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes 4-aminobutanal from putrescine (transaminase route), the pathway putrescine degradation and in Amine and polyamine degradation.

    GO - Molecular functioni

    • butane-1,4-diamine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity Source: EcoCyc
    • identical protein binding Source: GO_Central
    • pyridoxal phosphate binding Source: EcoCyc

    GO - Biological processi

    • putrescine catabolic process Source: EcoCyc
    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Aminotransferase, Transferase

    Keywords - Ligandi

    Pyridoxal phosphate

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciEcoCyc:G7596-MONOMER.
    ECOL316407:JW5510-MONOMER.
    MetaCyc:G7596-MONOMER.
    BRENDAi2.6.1.82. 2026.
    SABIO-RKP42588.
    UniPathwayiUPA00188; UER00290.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Putrescine aminotransferase (EC:2.6.1.82)
    Alternative name(s):
    Putrescine--2-oxoglutaric acid transaminase
    Short name:
    PAT
    Short name:
    PATase
    Gene namesi
    Name:patA
    Synonyms:ygjG
    Ordered Locus Names:b3073, JW5510
    OrganismiEscherichia coli (strain K12)
    Taxonomic identifieri83333 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacterialesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia
    Proteomesi
    • UP000000318 Componenti: Chromosome
    • UP000000625 Componenti: Chromosome

    Organism-specific databases

    EcoGeneiEG12718. patA.

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    • cytosol Source: EcoCyc
    Complete GO annotation...

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Chaini1 – 459459Putrescine aminotransferasePRO_0000120507Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Modified residuei300 – 3001N6-(pyridoxal phosphate)lysineBy similarity

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiP42588.

    Expressioni

    Inductioni

    Up-regulated under nitrogen starvation conditions. Expression is sigma-54-dependent.1 Publication

    Interactioni

    GO - Molecular functioni

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi4262398. 13 interactions.
    DIPiDIP-12233N.
    IntActiP42588. 1 interaction.
    MINTiMINT-7290863.
    STRINGi511145.b3073.

    Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1
    459
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
    Show more details
    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Helixi10 – 2213Combined sources
    Helixi28 – 4518Combined sources
    Helixi48 – 569Combined sources
    Helixi60 – 623Combined sources
    Beta strandi66 – 705Combined sources
    Beta strandi75 – 784Combined sources
    Beta strandi83 – 886Combined sources
    Turni89 – 935Combined sources
    Helixi101 – 11313Combined sources
    Beta strandi119 – 1224Combined sources
    Helixi124 – 13613Combined sources
    Beta strandi141 – 1499Combined sources
    Helixi150 – 16516Combined sources
    Turni166 – 1694Combined sources
    Beta strandi172 – 1765Combined sources
    Helixi185 – 1906Combined sources
    Helixi194 – 1974Combined sources
    Helixi198 – 2003Combined sources
    Beta strandi207 – 2104Combined sources
    Helixi215 – 22814Combined sources
    Beta strandi232 – 2376Combined sources
    Beta strandi239 – 2413Combined sources
    Turni242 – 2454Combined sources
    Helixi253 – 26412Combined sources
    Beta strandi267 – 2715Combined sources
    Turni273 – 2808Combined sources
    Beta strandi281 – 2844Combined sources
    Helixi285 – 2873Combined sources
    Turni288 – 2903Combined sources
    Beta strandi294 – 2985Combined sources
    Helixi300 – 3034Combined sources
    Turni304 – 3063Combined sources
    Beta strandi310 – 3156Combined sources
    Helixi316 – 3194Combined sources
    Helixi320 – 3223Combined sources
    Beta strandi323 – 3253Combined sources
    Helixi337 – 35216Combined sources
    Helixi355 – 37622Combined sources
    Turni378 – 3803Combined sources
    Beta strandi381 – 3877Combined sources
    Beta strandi390 – 3978Combined sources
    Helixi398 – 41013Combined sources
    Beta strandi416 – 4183Combined sources
    Beta strandi419 – 4279Combined sources
    Helixi435 – 45622Combined sources

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBei
    RCSB PDBi
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    4UOXX-ray2.08A/B/C/D1-459[»]
    4UOYX-ray2.30A/B/C/D1-459[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliP42588.
    SMRiP42588. Positions 7-459.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiENOG4105C8Y. Bacteria.
    COG4992. LUCA.
    HOGENOMiHOG000020206.
    InParanoidiP42588.
    KOiK09251.
    OMAiTHDHTIR.
    PhylomeDBiP42588.

    Family and domain databases

    CDDicd00610. OAT_like. 1 hit.
    Gene3Di3.40.640.10. 1 hit.
    3.90.1150.10. 1 hit.
    HAMAPiMF_01276. Putres_aminotrans_3. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR005814. Aminotrans_3.
    IPR017747. Putrescine_aminotransferase.
    IPR015424. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase.
    IPR015421. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub1.
    IPR015422. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub2.
    [Graphical view]
    PANTHERiPTHR11986. PTHR11986. 1 hit.
    PfamiPF00202. Aminotran_3. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF53383. SSF53383. 1 hit.
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR03372. putres_am_tran. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS00600. AA_TRANSFER_CLASS_3. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    P42588-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MNRLPSSASA LACSAHALNL IEKRTLDHEE MKALNREVIE YFKEHVNPGF
    60 70 80 90 100
    LEYRKSVTAG GDYGAVEWQA GSLNTLVDTQ GQEFIDCLGG FGIFNVGHRN
    110 120 130 140 150
    PVVVSAVQNQ LAKQPLHSQE LLDPLRAMLA KTLAALTPGK LKYSFFCNSG
    160 170 180 190 200
    TESVEAALKL AKAYQSPRGK FTFIATSGAF HGKSLGALSA TAKSTFRKPF
    210 220 230 240 250
    MPLLPGFRHV PFGNIEAMRT ALNECKKTGD DVAAVILEPI QGEGGVILPP
    260 270 280 290 300
    PGYLTAVRKL CDEFGALMIL DEVQTGMGRT GKMFACEHEN VQPDILCLAK
    310 320 330 340 350
    ALGGGVMPIG ATIATEEVFS VLFDNPFLHT TTFGGNPLAC AAALATINVL
    360 370 380 390 400
    LEQNLPAQAE QKGDMLLDGF RQLAREYPDL VQEARGKGML MAIEFVDNEI
    410 420 430 440 450
    GYNFASEMFR QRVLVAGTLN NAKTIRIEPP LTLTIEQCEL VIKAARKALA

    AMRVSVEEA
    Length:459
    Mass (Da):49,661
    Last modified:January 9, 2007 - v2
    Checksum:i0B4D42A24627335D
    GO

    Sequence cautioni

    The sequence AAA57874 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Curated
    The sequence AAA89152 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Curated
    The sequence BAE77123 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Curated

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    U18997 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA57874.1. Different initiation.
    U28379 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA89152.1. Different initiation.
    U00096 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC76108.3.
    AP009048 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAE77123.1. Different initiation.
    PIRiF65095.
    RefSeqiNP_417544.5. NC_000913.3.
    WP_001301395.1. NZ_LN832404.1.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblBacteriaiAAC76108; AAC76108; b3073.
    BAE77123; BAE77123; BAE77123.
    GeneIDi947120.
    KEGGiecj:JW5510.
    eco:b3073.
    PATRICi32121562. VBIEscCol129921_3167.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    U18997 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA57874.1. Different initiation.
    U28379 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA89152.1. Different initiation.
    U00096 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC76108.3.
    AP009048 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAE77123.1. Different initiation.
    PIRiF65095.
    RefSeqiNP_417544.5. NC_000913.3.
    WP_001301395.1. NZ_LN832404.1.

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBei
    RCSB PDBi
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    4UOXX-ray2.08A/B/C/D1-459[»]
    4UOYX-ray2.30A/B/C/D1-459[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliP42588.
    SMRiP42588. Positions 7-459.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi4262398. 13 interactions.
    DIPiDIP-12233N.
    IntActiP42588. 1 interaction.
    MINTiMINT-7290863.
    STRINGi511145.b3073.

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiP42588.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblBacteriaiAAC76108; AAC76108; b3073.
    BAE77123; BAE77123; BAE77123.
    GeneIDi947120.
    KEGGiecj:JW5510.
    eco:b3073.
    PATRICi32121562. VBIEscCol129921_3167.

    Organism-specific databases

    EchoBASEiEB2577.
    EcoGeneiEG12718. patA.

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiENOG4105C8Y. Bacteria.
    COG4992. LUCA.
    HOGENOMiHOG000020206.
    InParanoidiP42588.
    KOiK09251.
    OMAiTHDHTIR.
    PhylomeDBiP42588.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    UniPathwayiUPA00188; UER00290.
    BioCyciEcoCyc:G7596-MONOMER.
    ECOL316407:JW5510-MONOMER.
    MetaCyc:G7596-MONOMER.
    BRENDAi2.6.1.82. 2026.
    SABIO-RKP42588.

    Miscellaneous databases

    PROiP42588.

    Family and domain databases

    CDDicd00610. OAT_like. 1 hit.
    Gene3Di3.40.640.10. 1 hit.
    3.90.1150.10. 1 hit.
    HAMAPiMF_01276. Putres_aminotrans_3. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR005814. Aminotrans_3.
    IPR017747. Putrescine_aminotransferase.
    IPR015424. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase.
    IPR015421. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub1.
    IPR015422. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub2.
    [Graphical view]
    PANTHERiPTHR11986. PTHR11986. 1 hit.
    PfamiPF00202. Aminotran_3. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF53383. SSF53383. 1 hit.
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR03372. putres_am_tran. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS00600. AA_TRANSFER_CLASS_3. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    ProtoNetiSearch...

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiPAT_ECOLI
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P42588
    Secondary accession number(s): P78108, Q2M9D3, Q46873
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1995
    Last sequence update: January 9, 2007
    Last modified: September 7, 2016
    This is version 127 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Escherichia coli
      Escherichia coli (strain K12): entries and cross-references to EcoGene
    2. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    3. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    4. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    Similar proteinsi

    Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
    100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
    90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
    50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.