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Protein

Leptin

Gene

LEP

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Key player in the regulation of energy balance and body weight control. Once released into the circulation, has central and peripheral effects by binding LEPR, found in many tissues, which results in the activation of several major signaling pathways (PubMed:17344214, PubMed:15899045, PubMed:19688109). In the hypothalamus, acts as an appetite-regulating factor that induces a decrease in food intake and an increase in energy consumption by inducing anorexinogenic factors and suppressing orexigenic neuropeptides, also regulates bone mass and secretion of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal hormones. In the periphery, increases basal metabolism, influences reproductive function, regulates pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin secretion, is pro-angiogenic for endothelial cell and affects innate and adaptive immunity (By similarity) (PubMed:8589726, PubMed:11460888, PubMed:19688109, PubMed:24340098, PubMed:25060689). In the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, activates by depolarization POMC neurons inducing FOS and SOCS3 expression to release anorexigenic peptides and inhibits by hyperpolarization NPY neurons inducing SOCS3 with a consequent reduction on release of orexigenic peptides (By similarity). In addition to its known satiety inducing effect, has a modulatory role in nutrient absorption. In the intestine, reduces glucose absorption by enterocytes by activating PKC and leading to a sequential activation of p38, PI3K and ERK signaling pathways which exerts an inhibitory effect on glucose absorption (PubMed:24340098). Acts as a growth factor on certain tissues, through the activation of different signaling pathways increases expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation such as CCND1, via JAK2-STAT3 pathway, or VEGFA, via MAPK1/3 and PI3K-AKT1 pathways (By similarity) (PubMed:17344214). May also play an apoptotic role via JAK2-STAT3 pathway and up-regulation of BIRC5 expression (PubMed:18242580). Pro-angiogenic, has mitogenic activity on vascular endothelial cells and plays a role in matrix remodeling by regulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) (PubMed:11460888). In innate immunity, modulates the activity and function of neutrophils by increasing chemotaxis and the secretion of oxygen radicals. Increases phagocytosis by macrophages and enhances secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators. Increases cytotoxic ability of NK cells (PubMed:12504075). Plays a pro-inflammatory role, in synergy with IL1B, by inducing NOS2 wich promotes the production of IL6, IL8 and Prostaglandin E2, through a signaling pathway that involves JAK2, PI3K, MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAPK14/p38 (PubMed:15899045, PubMed:19688109). In adaptive immunity, promotes the switch of memory T-cells towards T helper-1 cell immune responses (By similarity). Increases CD4+CD25- T cells proliferation and reduces autophagy during TCR (T cell receptor) stimulation, through MTOR signaling pathway activation and BCL2 up-regulation (PubMed:25060689).By similarity2 Publications9 Publications

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-2586552. Signaling by Leptin.
R-HSA-381340. Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation.
R-HSA-381771. Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1).
R-HSA-422085. Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin.
SignaLinkiP41159.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
LeptinImported
Alternative name(s):
Obese protein
Obesity factor
Gene namesi
Name:LEPImported
Synonyms:OBImported, OBSImported
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 7

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:6553. LEP.

Subcellular locationi

  • Secreted 1 Publication

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Involvement in diseasei

Leptin deficiency (LEPD)2 Publications
The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionA rare disease characterized by low levels of serum leptin, severe hyperphagia and intractable obesity from an early age.
See also OMIM:614962
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti100 – 1001D → Y in LEPD; no effect on secretion; does not bind or activate LEPR. 1 Publication
VAR_075144
Natural varianti105 – 1051R → W in LEPD. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs104894023 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_008094

Keywords - Diseasei

Diabetes mellitus, Disease mutation, Obesity

Organism-specific databases

MalaCardsiLEP.
MIMi614962. phenotype.
Orphaneti66628. Obesity due to congenital leptin deficiency.
PharmGKBiPA228.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiLEP.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 2121Sequence analysisAdd
BLAST
Chaini22 – 167146LeptinPRO_0000017685Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Disulfide bondi117 ↔ 167

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP41159.
PeptideAtlasiP41159.
PRIDEiP41159.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP41159.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Adipose tissue is the main source of leptin it is also produced by other peripheral tissues such as the skeletal muscle (PubMed:7789654, PubMed:16052473, PubMed:12448771). Expressed by intercalated and striated tracts of submandibular and parotid salivary gland intralobular ducts (PubMed:12448771). Detected by fundic epithelium of the gastric mucosa (PubMed:10896907). Secreted into blood and gastric juice (PubMed:10896907).4 Publications

Inductioni

Induced by secretin.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP41159.
CleanExiHS_LEP.
ExpressionAtlasiP41159. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP41159. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB010490.
CAB016730.
HPA030721.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with SIGLEC6.1 Publication

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi110143. 2 interactions.
DIPiDIP-6116N.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000312652.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
167
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Helixi25 – 4420Combined sources
Helixi72 – 8716Combined sources
Helixi92 – 11423Combined sources
Helixi128 – 1314Combined sources
Helixi132 – 1354Combined sources
Helixi142 – 16019Combined sources
Helixi161 – 1633Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1AX8X-ray2.40A22-167[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP41159.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP41159.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the leptin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IVT0. Eukaryota.
ENOG410Y7NT. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000011772.
HOGENOMiHOG000252923.
HOVERGENiHBG007860.
InParanoidiP41159.
KOiK05424.
OMAiINDISHT.
OrthoDBiEOG77Q4Z3.
PhylomeDBiP41159.
TreeFamiTF105086.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.20.1250.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR009079. 4_helix_cytokine-like_core.
IPR012351. 4_helix_cytokine_core.
IPR000065. Leptin.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11724. PTHR11724. 1 hit.
PfamiPF02024. Leptin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF001837. Leptin. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR00495. LEPTIN.
ProDomiPD005698. Leptin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view] [Entries sharing at least one domain]
SUPFAMiSSF47266. SSF47266. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P41159-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MHWGTLCGFL WLWPYLFYVQ AVPIQKVQDD TKTLIKTIVT RINDISHTQS
60 70 80 90 100
VSSKQKVTGL DFIPGLHPIL TLSKMDQTLA VYQQILTSMP SRNVIQISND
110 120 130 140 150
LENLRDLLHV LAFSKSCHLP WASGLETLDS LGGVLEASGY STEVVALSRL
160
QGSLQDMLWQ LDLSPGC
Length:167
Mass (Da):18,641
Last modified:February 1, 1995 - v1
Checksum:iC91A121E92D37B69
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti96 – 961Q → R in AAB63507 (Ref. 7) Curated

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti49 – 491Missing .
VAR_004196
Natural varianti94 – 941V → M.2 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs17151919 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_004197
Natural varianti100 – 1001D → Y in LEPD; no effect on secretion; does not bind or activate LEPR. 1 Publication
VAR_075144
Natural varianti105 – 1051R → W in LEPD. 1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs104894023 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_008094
Natural varianti110 – 1101V → M.
Corresponds to variant rs1800564 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_011955

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U18915 mRNA. Translation: AAA60470.1.
D49487 mRNA. Translation: BAA08448.1.
U43653 mRNA. Translation: AAC50400.1.
U43415 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC31660.1.
D63710 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA09839.1.
D63519 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA09787.1.
AF008123 mRNA. Translation: AAB63507.1.
AY996373 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAX81413.1.
BC060830 mRNA. Translation: AAH60830.1.
BC069452 mRNA. Translation: AAH69452.1.
BC069527 mRNA. Translation: AAH69527.1.
CCDSiCCDS5800.1.
PIRiA38952. LTHU.
I53166.
RefSeqiNP_000221.1. NM_000230.2.
XP_005250397.1. XM_005250340.3.
UniGeneiHs.194236.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000308868; ENSP00000312652; ENSG00000174697.
GeneIDi3952.
KEGGihsa:3952.
UCSCiuc003vml.3. human.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

R&D Systems' cytokine mini-reviews: Leptin
Wikipedia

Leptin entry

SeattleSNPs

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U18915 mRNA. Translation: AAA60470.1.
D49487 mRNA. Translation: BAA08448.1.
U43653 mRNA. Translation: AAC50400.1.
U43415 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC31660.1.
D63710 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA09839.1.
D63519 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA09787.1.
AF008123 mRNA. Translation: AAB63507.1.
AY996373 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAX81413.1.
BC060830 mRNA. Translation: AAH60830.1.
BC069452 mRNA. Translation: AAH69452.1.
BC069527 mRNA. Translation: AAH69527.1.
CCDSiCCDS5800.1.
PIRiA38952. LTHU.
I53166.
RefSeqiNP_000221.1. NM_000230.2.
XP_005250397.1. XM_005250340.3.
UniGeneiHs.194236.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1AX8X-ray2.40A22-167[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP41159.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi110143. 2 interactions.
DIPiDIP-6116N.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000312652.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP41159.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiLEP.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP41159.
PeptideAtlasiP41159.
PRIDEiP41159.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi3952.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000308868; ENSP00000312652; ENSG00000174697.
GeneIDi3952.
KEGGihsa:3952.
UCSCiuc003vml.3. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi3952.
GeneCardsiLEP.
HGNCiHGNC:6553. LEP.
HPAiCAB010490.
CAB016730.
HPA030721.
MalaCardsiLEP.
MIMi164160. gene.
614962. phenotype.
neXtProtiNX_P41159.
Orphaneti66628. Obesity due to congenital leptin deficiency.
PharmGKBiPA228.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IVT0. Eukaryota.
ENOG410Y7NT. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000011772.
HOGENOMiHOG000252923.
HOVERGENiHBG007860.
InParanoidiP41159.
KOiK05424.
OMAiINDISHT.
OrthoDBiEOG77Q4Z3.
PhylomeDBiP41159.
TreeFamiTF105086.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-2586552. Signaling by Leptin.
R-HSA-381340. Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation.
R-HSA-381771. Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1).
R-HSA-422085. Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin.
SignaLinkiP41159.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP41159.
GeneWikiiLeptin.
GenomeRNAii3952.
NextBioi15501.
PROiP41159.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP41159.
CleanExiHS_LEP.
ExpressionAtlasiP41159. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP41159. HS.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.20.1250.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR009079. 4_helix_cytokine-like_core.
IPR012351. 4_helix_cytokine_core.
IPR000065. Leptin.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11724. PTHR11724. 1 hit.
PfamiPF02024. Leptin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF001837. Leptin. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR00495. LEPTIN.
ProDomiPD005698. Leptin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view] [Entries sharing at least one domain]
SUPFAMiSSF47266. SSF47266. 1 hit.
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue."
    Zhang Y., Proenca P., Maffei M., Barone M., Leopold L., Friedman J.M.
    Nature 372:425-432(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
  2. Erratum
    Zhang Y., Proenca P., Maffei M., Barone M., Leopold L., Friedman J.M.
    Nature 374:479-479(1995)
  3. "Human obese gene expression. Adipocyte-specific expression and regional differences in the adipose tissue."
    Masuzaki H., Ogawa Y., Isse N., Satoh N., Okazaki T., Shigemoto M., Mori K., Tamura N., Hosoda K., Yoshimasa Y., Jingami H., Kawada T., Nakao K.
    Diabetes 44:855-858(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  4. "Genomic structure and promoter analysis of the human obese gene."
    Gong D.W., Bi S., Pratley R.E., Weintraub B.D.
    J. Biol. Chem. 271:3971-3974(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
  5. Chehab F.F., Lim M.E.
    Submitted (DEC-1995) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
  6. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
  7. "Human obese gene: molecular screening in Japanese and Asian Indian NIDDM patients associated with obesity."
    Niki T., Mori H., Tamori Y., Kishimoto-Hashiramoto M., Ueno H., Araki S., Masugi J., Sawant N., Majithia H.R., Rais N., Hashiramoto M., Taniguchi H., Kasuga M.
    Diabetes 45:675-678(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
  8. Lu L., Fu Z., Xu M., Fu Y., Hu Z.
    Submitted (JUN-1997) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
  9. SeattleSNPs variation discovery resource
    Submitted (APR-2005) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], VARIANT MET-94.
  10. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Placenta.
  11. "Correction of the sterility defect in homozygous obese female mice by treatment with the human recombinant leptin."
    Chehab F.F., Lim M.E., Lu R.
    Nat. Genet. 12:318-320(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  12. Cited for: INTERACTION WITH SIGLEC6.
  13. Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY, INDUCTION BY SECRETIN.
  14. "Potential role of leptin in angiogenesis: leptin induces endothelial cell proliferation and expression of matrix metalloproteinases in vivo and in vitro."
    Park H.Y., Kwon H.M., Lim H.J., Hong B.K., Lee J.Y., Park B.E., Jang Y., Cho S.Y., Kim H.S.
    Exp. Mol. Med. 33:95-102(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  15. "Intralobular ducts of human major salivary glands contain leptin and its receptor."
    De Matteis R., Puxeddu R., Riva A., Cinti S.
    J. Anat. 201:363-370(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  16. "Expression of leptin receptors and response to leptin stimulation of human natural killer cell lines."
    Zhao Y., Sun R., You L., Gao C., Tian Z.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 300:247-252(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  17. Cited for: REVIEW OF FUNCTION IN IMMUNITY.
  18. "signaling pathway involved in nitric oxide synthase type II activation in chondrocytes: synergistic effect of leptin with interleukin-1."
    Otero M., Lago R., Lago F., Reino J.J., Gualillo O.
    Arthritis Res. Ther. 7:R581-R591(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  19. "Leptin expression in human primary skeletal muscle cells is reduced during differentiation."
    Solberg R., Aas V., Thoresen G.H., Kase E.T., Drevon C.A., Rustan A.C., Reseland J.E.
    J. Cell. Biochem. 96:89-96(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  20. "leptin-induced growth stimulation of breast cancer cells involves recruitment of histone acetyltransferases and mediator complex to CYCLIN D1 promoter via activation of Stat3."
    Saxena N.K., Vertino P.M., Anania F.A., Sharma D.
    J. Biol. Chem. 282:13316-13325(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  21. "up-regulation of survivin by leptin/STAT3 signaling in MCF-7 cells."
    Jiang H., Yu J., Guo H., Song H., Chen S.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 368:1-5(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  22. "Leptin enhances synthesis of proinflammatory mediators in human osteoarthritic cartilage--mediator role of NO in leptin-induced PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8 production."
    Vuolteenaho K., Koskinen A., Kukkonen M., Nieminen R., Paeivaerinta U., Moilanen T., Moilanen E.
    Mediators Inflamm. 2009:345838-345838(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  23. "Leptin inhibits glucose intestinal absorption via PKC, p38MAPK, PI3K and MEK/ERK."
    El-Zein O., Kreydiyyeh S.I.
    PLoS ONE 8:E83360-E83360(2013) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  24. "20 years of leptin: connecting leptin signaling to biological function."
    Allison M.B., Myers M.G. Jr.
    J. Endocrinol. 223:T25-T35(2014) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: REVIEW OF FUNCTION.
  25. "Leptin modulates autophagy in human CD4+CD25- conventional T cells."
    Cassano S., Pucino V., La Rocca C., Procaccini C., De Rosa V., Marone G., Matarese G.
    Metabolism 63:1272-1279(2014) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  26. Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR.
  27. Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.4 ANGSTROMS).
  28. "A novel polymorphism in the leptin gene."
    Bartholomew D.W., McClellan J.M.
    Hum. Mutat. 12:220-220(1998)
    Cited for: VARIANT MET-94.
  29. "A leptin missense mutation associated with hypogonadism and morbid obesity."
    Strobel A., Issad T., Camoin L., Ozata M., Strosberg A.D.
    Nat. Genet. 18:213-215(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: VARIANT LEPD TRP-105.
  30. Cited for: VARIANT LEPD TYR-100, CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIANT LEPD TYR-100.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiLEP_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P41159
Secondary accession number(s): O15158, Q56A88
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 1, 1995
Last sequence update: February 1, 1995
Last modified: March 16, 2016
This is version 161 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 7
    Human chromosome 7: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  6. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.