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Protein

Homeobox protein extradenticle

Gene

exd

Organism
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Transcription factor which acts with the selector homeodomain proteins altering the regulation of downstream target genes such as wingless (wg), teashirt (tsh) and decapentaplegic (dpp), thus affecting segmental identity. Delimits the eye field and prevent inappropriate eye development. Required for proper localization of chordotonal organs within the peripheral nervous system.6 Publications

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
DNA bindingi238 – 30063Homeobox; TALE-typePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

GO - Molecular functioni

  • activating transcription factor binding Source: FlyBase
  • DNA binding Source: UniProtKB
  • enhancer binding Source: FlyBase
  • protein heterodimerization activity Source: FlyBase
  • sequence-specific DNA binding Source: FlyBase
  • transcription coactivator activity Source: FlyBase
  • transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding Source: FlyBase
  • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding Source: UniProtKB
  • transcription factor binding Source: FlyBase

GO - Biological processi

  • brain development Source: FlyBase
  • eye development Source: UniProtKB
  • leg disc proximal/distal pattern formation Source: FlyBase
  • oenocyte development Source: FlyBase
  • peripheral nervous system development Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter Source: FlyBase
  • protein import into nucleus, translocation Source: UniProtKB
  • regulation of cell fate specification Source: FlyBase
  • regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter Source: UniProtKB
  • salivary gland boundary specification Source: FlyBase
  • somatic muscle development Source: FlyBase
  • transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Developmental protein

Keywords - Biological processi

Transcription, Transcription regulation

Keywords - Ligandi

DNA-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

SignaLinkiP40427.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Homeobox protein extradenticle
Short name:
Dpbx
Gene namesi
Name:exd
ORF Names:CG8933
OrganismiDrosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Taxonomic identifieri7227 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaHexapodaInsectaPterygotaNeopteraEndopterygotaDipteraBrachyceraMuscomorphaEphydroideaDrosophilidaeDrosophilaSophophora
Proteomesi
  • UP000000803 Componenti: Chromosome X

Organism-specific databases

FlyBaseiFBgn0000611. exd.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • cytoplasm Source: FlyBase
  • nucleus Source: FlyBase
  • transcription factor complex Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Weak posterior-directed transformations in all 3 thoracic segments and in the anterior segments of the abdomen.1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 376376Homeobox protein extradenticlePRO_0000048875Add
BLAST

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP40427.
PRIDEiP40427.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Prior to full germband retraction it is ubiquitously present, after germband retraction, mostly present in the anterior portion of the ventral nerve cord.2 Publications

Developmental stagei

Expressed both maternally and zygotically at all stages of development.4 Publications

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP40427.
ExpressionAtlasiP40427. differential.
GenevisibleiP40427. DM.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with Ubx and hth.4 Publications

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
DfdP075482EBI-101537,EBI-458925
hthO4633913EBI-101537,EBI-137488

GO - Molecular functioni

  • activating transcription factor binding Source: FlyBase
  • protein heterodimerization activity Source: FlyBase
  • transcription factor binding Source: FlyBase

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi58911. 27 interactions.
DIPiDIP-18773N.
IntActiP40427. 6 interactions.
MINTiMINT-86818.
STRINGi7227.FBpp0073940.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
376
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Helixi247 – 25913Combined sources
Turni260 – 2623Combined sources
Helixi268 – 27811Combined sources
Helixi282 – 29817Combined sources
Helixi300 – 31011Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1B8IX-ray2.40B238-300[»]
2R5YX-ray2.60B238-300[»]
2R5ZX-ray2.60B238-300[»]
4CYCX-ray2.36B238-312[»]
4UUSX-ray2.55B/F238-312[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP40427.
SMRiP40427. Positions 244-312.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP40427.

Family & Domainsi

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Compositional biasi127 – 1359Poly-Ala

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the TALE/PBX homeobox family.Curated
Contains 1 homeobox DNA-binding domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Homeobox

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0774. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XRVF. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000016426.
InParanoidiP40427.
KOiK09355.
OMAiVQNSQTN.
OrthoDBiEOG75XGM1.
PhylomeDBiP40427.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.10.60. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR017970. Homeobox_CS.
IPR001356. Homeobox_dom.
IPR009057. Homeodomain-like.
IPR005542. PBX.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00046. Homeobox. 1 hit.
PF03792. PBC. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00389. HOX. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF46689. SSF46689. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00027. HOMEOBOX_1. 1 hit.
PS50071. HOMEOBOX_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P40427-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MEDPNRMLAH TGGMMAPQGY GLSGQDDGQN AGSENEVRKQ KDIGEILQQI
60 70 80 90 100
MSISEQSLDE AQARKHTLNC HRMKPALFSV LCEIKEKTVL SIRNTQEEEP
110 120 130 140 150
PDPQLMRLDN MLIAEGVAGP EKGGGGAAAA SAAAASQGGS LSIDGADNAI
160 170 180 190 200
EHSDYRAKLA QIRQIYHQEL EKYEQACNEF TTHVMNLLRE QSRTRPITPK
210 220 230 240 250
EIERMVQIIH KKFSSIQMQL KQSTCEAVMI LRSRFLDARR KRRNFSKQAS
260 270 280 290 300
EILNEYFYSH LSNPYPSEEA KEELARKCGI TVSQVSNWFG NKRIRYKKNI
310 320 330 340 350
GKAQEEANLY AAKKAAGASP YSMAGPPSGT TTPMMSPAPP QDSMGYPMGS
360 370
GGYDQQQPYD NSMGGYDPNL HQDLSP
Length:376
Mass (Da):41,692
Last modified:February 1, 1995 - v1
Checksum:i79E3DC8F1F6B711F
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti98 – 981E → G in CAA79313 (PubMed:8100142).Curated
Sequence conflicti344 – 3441M → K in CAA79313 (PubMed:8100142).Curated
Sequence conflicti363 – 3631M → T in CAA79313 (PubMed:8100142).Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U33747 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC46903.1.
L19295 mRNA. Translation: AAC37182.1.
AE014298 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF48555.1.
AY061065 mRNA. Translation: AAL28613.1.
Z18864 mRNA. Translation: CAA79313.1.
PIRiA48840.
RefSeqiNP_001259592.1. NM_001272663.2.
NP_001259593.1. NM_001272664.1.
NP_523360.1. NM_078636.5.
NP_727923.1. NM_167478.3.
UniGeneiDm.174.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0074135; FBpp0073940; FBgn0000611.
FBtr0074137; FBpp0073942; FBgn0000611.
FBtr0333322; FBpp0305514; FBgn0000611.
FBtr0333323; FBpp0305515; FBgn0000611.
GeneIDi32567.
KEGGidme:Dmel_CG8933.
UCSCiCG8933-RA. d. melanogaster.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U33747 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC46903.1.
L19295 mRNA. Translation: AAC37182.1.
AE014298 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF48555.1.
AY061065 mRNA. Translation: AAL28613.1.
Z18864 mRNA. Translation: CAA79313.1.
PIRiA48840.
RefSeqiNP_001259592.1. NM_001272663.2.
NP_001259593.1. NM_001272664.1.
NP_523360.1. NM_078636.5.
NP_727923.1. NM_167478.3.
UniGeneiDm.174.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1B8IX-ray2.40B238-300[»]
2R5YX-ray2.60B238-300[»]
2R5ZX-ray2.60B238-300[»]
4CYCX-ray2.36B238-312[»]
4UUSX-ray2.55B/F238-312[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP40427.
SMRiP40427. Positions 244-312.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi58911. 27 interactions.
DIPiDIP-18773N.
IntActiP40427. 6 interactions.
MINTiMINT-86818.
STRINGi7227.FBpp0073940.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP40427.
PRIDEiP40427.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0074135; FBpp0073940; FBgn0000611.
FBtr0074137; FBpp0073942; FBgn0000611.
FBtr0333322; FBpp0305514; FBgn0000611.
FBtr0333323; FBpp0305515; FBgn0000611.
GeneIDi32567.
KEGGidme:Dmel_CG8933.
UCSCiCG8933-RA. d. melanogaster.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi32567.
FlyBaseiFBgn0000611. exd.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0774. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XRVF. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000016426.
InParanoidiP40427.
KOiK09355.
OMAiVQNSQTN.
OrthoDBiEOG75XGM1.
PhylomeDBiP40427.

Enzyme and pathway databases

SignaLinkiP40427.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiexd. fly.
EvolutionaryTraceiP40427.
GenomeRNAii32567.
PROiP40427.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP40427.
ExpressionAtlasiP40427. differential.
GenevisibleiP40427. DM.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.10.60. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR017970. Homeobox_CS.
IPR001356. Homeobox_dom.
IPR009057. Homeodomain-like.
IPR005542. PBX.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00046. Homeobox. 1 hit.
PF03792. PBC. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00389. HOX. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF46689. SSF46689. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00027. HOMEOBOX_1. 1 hit.
PS50071. HOMEOBOX_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Extradenticle, a regulator of homeotic gene activity, is a homolog of the homeobox-containing human proto-oncogene pbx1."
    Rauskolb C., Peifer M., Wieschaus E.
    Cell 74:1101-1112(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA / MRNA], FUNCTION, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE.
  2. "The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster."
    Adams M.D., Celniker S.E., Holt R.A., Evans C.A., Gocayne J.D., Amanatides P.G., Scherer S.E., Li P.W., Hoskins R.A., Galle R.F., George R.A., Lewis S.E., Richards S., Ashburner M., Henderson S.N., Sutton G.G., Wortman J.R., Yandell M.D.
    , Zhang Q., Chen L.X., Brandon R.C., Rogers Y.-H.C., Blazej R.G., Champe M., Pfeiffer B.D., Wan K.H., Doyle C., Baxter E.G., Helt G., Nelson C.R., Miklos G.L.G., Abril J.F., Agbayani A., An H.-J., Andrews-Pfannkoch C., Baldwin D., Ballew R.M., Basu A., Baxendale J., Bayraktaroglu L., Beasley E.M., Beeson K.Y., Benos P.V., Berman B.P., Bhandari D., Bolshakov S., Borkova D., Botchan M.R., Bouck J., Brokstein P., Brottier P., Burtis K.C., Busam D.A., Butler H., Cadieu E., Center A., Chandra I., Cherry J.M., Cawley S., Dahlke C., Davenport L.B., Davies P., de Pablos B., Delcher A., Deng Z., Mays A.D., Dew I., Dietz S.M., Dodson K., Doup L.E., Downes M., Dugan-Rocha S., Dunkov B.C., Dunn P., Durbin K.J., Evangelista C.C., Ferraz C., Ferriera S., Fleischmann W., Fosler C., Gabrielian A.E., Garg N.S., Gelbart W.M., Glasser K., Glodek A., Gong F., Gorrell J.H., Gu Z., Guan P., Harris M., Harris N.L., Harvey D.A., Heiman T.J., Hernandez J.R., Houck J., Hostin D., Houston K.A., Howland T.J., Wei M.-H., Ibegwam C., Jalali M., Kalush F., Karpen G.H., Ke Z., Kennison J.A., Ketchum K.A., Kimmel B.E., Kodira C.D., Kraft C.L., Kravitz S., Kulp D., Lai Z., Lasko P., Lei Y., Levitsky A.A., Li J.H., Li Z., Liang Y., Lin X., Liu X., Mattei B., McIntosh T.C., McLeod M.P., McPherson D., Merkulov G., Milshina N.V., Mobarry C., Morris J., Moshrefi A., Mount S.M., Moy M., Murphy B., Murphy L., Muzny D.M., Nelson D.L., Nelson D.R., Nelson K.A., Nixon K., Nusskern D.R., Pacleb J.M., Palazzolo M., Pittman G.S., Pan S., Pollard J., Puri V., Reese M.G., Reinert K., Remington K., Saunders R.D.C., Scheeler F., Shen H., Shue B.C., Siden-Kiamos I., Simpson M., Skupski M.P., Smith T.J., Spier E., Spradling A.C., Stapleton M., Strong R., Sun E., Svirskas R., Tector C., Turner R., Venter E., Wang A.H., Wang X., Wang Z.-Y., Wassarman D.A., Weinstock G.M., Weissenbach J., Williams S.M., Woodage T., Worley K.C., Wu D., Yang S., Yao Q.A., Ye J., Yeh R.-F., Zaveri J.S., Zhan M., Zhang G., Zhao Q., Zheng L., Zheng X.H., Zhong F.N., Zhong W., Zhou X., Zhu S.C., Zhu X., Smith H.O., Gibbs R.A., Myers E.W., Rubin G.M., Venter J.C.
    Science 287:2185-2195(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: Berkeley.
  3. Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: Berkeley.
  4. "A Drosophila full-length cDNA resource."
    Stapleton M., Carlson J.W., Brokstein P., Yu C., Champe M., George R.A., Guarin H., Kronmiller B., Pacleb J.M., Park S., Wan K.H., Rubin G.M., Celniker S.E.
    Genome Biol. 3:RESEARCH0080.1-RESEARCH0080.8(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: Berkeley.
    Tissue: Embryo.
  5. "Dpbx, a new homeobox gene closely related to the human proto-oncogene pbx1 molecular structure and developmental expression."
    Flegel W.A., Singson A.W., Margolis J.S., Bang A.G., Posakony J.W., Murre C.
    Mech. Dev. 41:155-161(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 1-365, FUNCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
    Strain: y(2)w(bf).
  6. "Coordinate regulation of downstream genes by extradenticle and the homeotic selector proteins."
    Rauskolb C., Wieschaus E.
    EMBO J. 13:3561-3569(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
  7. "Nuclear translocation of extradenticle requires homothorax, which encodes an extradenticle-related homeodomain protein."
    Rieckhof G.E., Casares F., Ryoo H.D., Abu-Shaar M., Mann R.S.
    Cell 91:171-183(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, INTERACTION WITH HTH, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
    Tissue: Antenna.
  8. "Dorsotonals/homothorax, the Drosophila homologue of meis1, interacts with extradenticle in patterning of the embryonic PNS."
    Kurant E., Pai C.-Y., Sharf R., Halachmi N., Sun Y.H., Salzberg A.
    Development 125:1037-1048(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, INTERACTION WITH HTH, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
  9. "The Homothorax homeoprotein activates the nuclear localization of another homeoprotein, extradenticle, and suppresses eye development in Drosophila."
    Pai C.-Y., Kuo T.-S., Jaw T.J., Kurant E., Chen C.-T., Bessarab D.A., Salzberg A., Sun Y.H.
    Genes Dev. 12:435-446(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, INTERACTION WITH HTH, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
  10. "Structure of a DNA-bound Ultrabithorax-Extradenticle homeodomain complex."
    Passner J.M., Ryoo H.-D., Shen L., Mann R.S., Aggarwal A.K.
    Nature 397:714-719(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.4 ANGSTROMS) OF 238-300 IN COMPLEX WITH UBX.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiEXD_DROME
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P40427
Secondary accession number(s): A4V4K5, Q0KHS1, Q9V3S2
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 1, 1995
Last sequence update: February 1, 1995
Last modified: June 8, 2016
This is version 156 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programDrosophila annotation project

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Drosophila
    Drosophila: entries, gene names and cross-references to FlyBase
  2. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.