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Protein

Alcohol O-acetyltransferase 1

Gene

ATF1

Organism
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c) (Baker's yeast)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Major alcohol O-acetyltransferase that uses acetyl-CoA to synthesize acetate esters from various alcohols, producing ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, butyl acetate, hexyl acetate, heptyl acetate and octyl acetate (PubMed:7764365, PubMed:9758847, PubMed:10653746, PubMed:12937998, PubMed:16845703, PubMed:18597084, PubMed:17891501, PubMed:25306884, PubMed:28160314). The alcohol acyltransferase activity is promiscuous with regard to alcohol but relatively specific for acetyl-CoA since ATF1 does not use any other acyl-CoAs (C3, C4, C5, C6, C8, C10, C12) (PubMed:28160314). Acts also as an efficient thioesterase in vitro with specificity towards medium-chain-length acyl-CoAs (PubMed:28160314). In natural environments, the production of aromatic volatile metabolites promotes dispersal through insect vectors (PubMed:25310977).10 Publications

Miscellaneous

Present with 1990 molecules/cell in log phase SD medium.1 Publication

Catalytic activityi

Acetyl-CoA + an alcohol = CoA + an acetyl ester.2 Publications
Acyl-CoA + H2O = CoA + a carboxylate.1 Publication

Enzyme regulationi

Found to be inhibited by cadmium, copper, zinc and mercurium divalent cations and sulfhydryl reagents (PubMed:7764365). Inhibited by the addition of unsaturated fatty acids to the culture (PubMed:7764365).1 Publication

Kineticsi

  1. KM=0.19 mM for acetyl-CoA (for acetyltransferase activity)1 Publication
  2. KM=29.8 mM for isoamyl alcohol (for acetyltransferase activity)1 Publication
  3. KM=61 µM for acetyl-CoA (for thioesterase activity)1 Publication
  4. KM=25 µM for butyryl-CoA (for thioesterase activity)1 Publication
  5. KM=12 µM for hexanoyl-CoA (for thioesterase activity)1 Publication
  6. KM=3 µM for octanoyl-CoA (for thioesterase activity)1 Publication

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is 8.1 Publication

    Temperature dependencei

    Optimum temperature is 25 degrees Celsius.1 Publication

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Active sitei191Charge relay system1 Publication1
    Active sitei195Charge relay system1 Publication1

    GO - Molecular functioni

    • alcohol O-acetyltransferase activity Source: SGD
    • N-acetyltransferase activity Source: GO_Central

    GO - Biological processi

    • acetate ester metabolic process involved in fermentation Source: SGD
    • interspecies interaction between organisms Source: SGD
    • response to drug Source: GO_Central

    Keywordsi

    Molecular functionAcyltransferase, Hydrolase, Transferase

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciMetaCyc:YOR377W-MONOMER
    YEAST:YOR377W-MONOMER
    SABIO-RKP40353

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Alcohol O-acetyltransferase 11 Publication (EC:2.3.1.842 Publications, EC:3.1.2.201 Publication)
    Short name:
    AATase 11 Publication
    Gene namesi
    Name:ATF11 Publication
    Ordered Locus Names:YOR377W
    OrganismiSaccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c) (Baker's yeast)
    Taxonomic identifieri559292 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaFungiDikaryaAscomycotaSaccharomycotinaSaccharomycetesSaccharomycetalesSaccharomycetaceaeSaccharomyces
    Proteomesi
    • UP000002311 Componenti: Chromosome XV

    Organism-specific databases

    EuPathDBiFungiDB:YOR377W
    SGDiS000005904 ATF1

    Subcellular locationi

    Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cell wall Cytoskeleton Vacuole Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Endoplasmic reticulum, Lipid droplet, Membrane

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Biotechnological usei

    Understanding the biochemistry of the volatile esters is of considerable importance in industrial agriculture, winemaking and brewing. ATF1 could profoundly affect the flavor profiles of wines and distillates deficient in aroma, thereby paving the way for the production of products maintaining a fruitier character for longer periods after bottling (PubMed:10653746, PubMed:16845703, PubMed:18597084, PubMed:25306884, PubMed:28176138). The most important acetate esters from the perspective of fermented foods and beverages are probably ethyl acetate (fruity, solvent aroma), isobutyl acetate (sweet, fruit), isoamyl acetate (banana) and 2-phenylethyl acetate (rose). In addition, the enzymes responsible for ester synthesis are targets for the metabolic engineering of cellular factories intended to produce insect pheromones for use in pest control, but also for the production of fragrances, industrial solvents, fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals and renewable biofuels (PubMed:25281839, PubMed:24609358, PubMed:26205521, PubMed:26801935).10 Publications

    Disruption phenotypei

    Reduces levels of isoamyl acetate production during fermentation to about 16% of those produced by the wild-type strain and causes a 40% reduction of ethyl acetate formation (PubMed:12957907).1 Publication

    Mutagenesis

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Mutagenesisi191H → A: Only moderately reduces the thioesterase activity. 1 Publication1

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    ChainiPRO_00000647201 – 525Alcohol O-acetyltransferase 1Add BLAST525

    Proteomic databases

    MaxQBiP40353
    PaxDbiP40353
    PRIDEiP40353

    Expressioni

    Inductioni

    Expression is repressed both by aeration and by unsaturated fatty acids (PubMed:9055409, PubMed:9675816). Also repressed by heat and ethanol stress (PubMed:14654433). Rapid induction by glucose depends on the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway (PubMed:14654433). Long-term expression requires both carbon and nitrogen sources (PubMed:14654433). The activation of transcription is dependent on RAP1, and the ROX1-TUP1p-SSN6 hypoxic repressor complex is responsible for repression by oxygen (PubMed:10487921). The putative ROX1-binding sequence in the ATF1 promoter is 5'-CCTATTGTTTT-3' and the RAP1-binding sequence is 5'-AACCCAACAAA-3' (PubMed:10487921).4 Publications

    Interactioni

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi34759, 35 interactors
    DIPiDIP-5494N
    IntActiP40353, 2 interactors
    STRINGi4932.YOR377W

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliP40353
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Region

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Regioni24 – 41Membrane association1 PublicationAdd BLAST18
    Regioni508 – 525Membrane association1 PublicationAdd BLAST18

    Domaini

    Segments of the N- and C-terminal domains (residues 24-41 and 508-525, respectively) are predicted to be amphipathic helices and are essential for endoplasmic reticulum and lipid dropplet association (PubMed:25093817).1 Publication

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Phylogenomic databases

    GeneTreeiENSGT00390000000257
    HOGENOMiHOG000034125
    InParanoidiP40353
    KOiK00664
    OrthoDBiEOG092C1I3C

    Family and domain databases

    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR010828 Atf2/Sli1-like
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF07247 AATase, 1 hit

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    P40353-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MNEIDEKNQA PVQQECLKEM IQNGHARRMG SVEDLYVALN RQNLYRNFCT
    60 70 80 90 100
    YGELSDYCTR DQLTLALREI CLKNPTLLHI VLPTRWPNHE NYYRSSEYYS
    110 120 130 140 150
    RPHPVHDYIS VLQELKLSGV VLNEQPEYSA VMKQILEEFK NSKGSYTAKI
    160 170 180 190 200
    FKLTTTLTIP YFGPTGPSWR LICLPEEHTE KWKKFIFVSN HCMSDGRSSI
    210 220 230 240 250
    HFFHDLRDEL NNIKTPPKKL DYIFKYEEDY QLLRKLPEPI EKVIDFRPPY
    260 270 280 290 300
    LFIPKSLLSG FIYNHLRFSS KGVCMRMDDV EKTDDVVTEI INISPTEFQA
    310 320 330 340 350
    IKANIKSNIQ GKCTITPFLH VCWFVSLHKW GKFFKPLNFE WLTDIFIPAD
    360 370 380 390 400
    CRSQLPDDDE MRQMYRYGAN VGFIDFTPWI SEFDMNDNKE NFWPLIEHYH
    410 420 430 440 450
    EVISEALRNK KHLHGLGFNI QGFVQKYVNI DKVMCDRAIG KRRGGTLLSN
    460 470 480 490 500
    VGLFNQLEEP DAKYSICDLA FGQFQGSWHQ AFSLGVCSTN VKGMNIVVAS
    510 520
    TKNVVGSQES LEELCSIYKA LLLGP
    Length:525
    Mass (Da):61,036
    Last modified:November 1, 1997 - v2
    Checksum:i79D0733CDDC5C629
    GO

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Sequence conflicti84T → I in BAA05552 (PubMed:8085822).Curated1
    Sequence conflicti391N → K in BAA05552 (PubMed:8085822).Curated1

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    D26554 Genomic DNA Translation: BAA05552.1
    Z75285 Genomic DNA Translation: CAA99708.1
    BK006948 Genomic DNA Translation: DAA11136.1
    PIRiS67289
    RefSeqiNP_015022.3, NM_001183797.3

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblFungiiYOR377W; YOR377W; YOR377W
    GeneIDi854559
    KEGGisce:YOR377W

    Similar proteinsi

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiATF1_YEAST
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P40353
    Secondary accession number(s): D6W370, Q08901
    Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 1, 1995
    Last sequence update: November 1, 1997
    Last modified: May 23, 2018
    This is version 133 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programFungal Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

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