P39951 (CDK1_RAT) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Last modified November 13, 2013. Version 120. History...
Names and origin
|Protein names||Recommended name:|
Cyclin-dependent kinase 1
Cell division control protein 2 homolog
Cell division protein kinase 1
p34 protein kinase
|Organism||Rattus norvegicus (Rat) [Reference proteome]|
|Taxonomic identifier||10116 [NCBI]|
|Taxonomic lineage||Eukaryota › Metazoa › Chordata › Craniata › Vertebrata › Euteleostomi › Mammalia › Eutheria › Euarchontoglires › Glires › Rodentia › Sciurognathi › Muroidea › Muridae › Murinae › Rattus|
|Sequence length||297 AA.|
|Protein existence||Evidence at protein level|
General annotation (Comments)
Plays a key role in the control of the eukaryotic cell cycle by modulating the centrosome cycle as well as mitotic onset; promotes G2-M transition, and regulates G1 progress and G1-S transition via association with multiple interphase cyclins. Required in higher cells for entry into S-phase and mitosis. Phosphorylates PARVA/actopaxin, APC, AMPH, APC, BARD1, Bcl-xL/BCL2L1, BRCA2, CALD1, CASP8, CDC7, CDC20, CDC25A, CDC25C, CC2D1A, CSNK2 proteins/CKII, FZR1/CDH1, CDK7, CEBPB, CHAMP1, DMD/dystrophin, EEF1 proteins/EF-1, EZH2, KIF11/EG5, EGFR, FANCG, FOS, GFAP, GOLGA2/GM130, GRASP1, UBE2A/hHR6A, HIST1H1 proteins/histone H1, HMGA1, HIVEP3/KRC, LMNA, LMNB, LMNC, LBR, LATS1, MAP1B, MAP4, MARCKS, MCM2, MCM4, MKLP1, MYB, NEFH, NFIC, NPC/nuclear pore complex, PITPNM1/NIR2, NPM1, NCL, NUCKS1, NPM1/numatrin, ORC1, PRKAR2A, EEF1E1/p18, EIF3F/p47, p53/TP53, NONO/p54NRB, PAPOLA, PLEC/plectin, RB1, UL40/R2, RAB4A, RAP1GAP, RCC1, RPS6KB1/S6K1, KHDRBS1/SAM68, ESPL1, SKI, BIRC5/survivin, STIP1, TEX14, beta-tubulins, MAPT/TAU, NEDD1, VIM/vimentin, TK1, FOXO1, RUNX1/AML1 and RUNX2. CDK1/CDC2-cyclin-B controls pronuclear union in interphase fertilized eggs. Essential for early stages of embryonic development. During G2 and early mitosis, CDC25A/B/C-mediated dephosphorylation activates CDK1/cyclin complexes which phosphorylate several substrates that trigger at least centrosome separation, Golgi dynamics, nuclear envelope breakdown and chromosome condensation. Once chromosomes are condensed and aligned at the metaphase plate, CDK1 activity is switched off by WEE1- and PKMYT1-mediated phosphorylation to allow sister chromatid separation, chromosome decondensation, reformation of the nuclear envelope and cytokinesis. Inactivated by PKR/EIF2AK2- and WEE1-mediated phosphorylation upon DNA damage to stop cell cycle and genome replication at the G2 checkpoint thus facilitating DNA repair. Reactivated after successful DNA repair through WIP1-dependent signaling leading to CDC25A/B/C-mediated dephosphorylation and restoring cell cycle progression. In proliferating cells, CDK1-mediated FOXO1 phosphorylation at the G2-M phase represses FOXO1 interaction with 14-3-3 proteins and thereby promotes FOXO1 nuclear accumulation and transcription factor activity, leading to cell death of postmitotic neurons. The phosphorylation of beta-tubulins regulates microtubule dynamics during mitosis. NEDD1 phosphorylation promotes PLK1-mediated NEDD1 phosphorylation and subsequent targeting of the gamma-tubulin ring complex (gTuRC) to the centrosome, an important step for spindle formation. In addition, CC2D1A phosphorylation regulates CC2D1A spindle pole localization and association with SCC1/RAD21 and centriole cohesion during mitosis. The phosphorylation of Bcl-xL/BCL2L1 after prolongated G2 arrest upon DNA damage triggers apoptosis. In contrast, CASP8 phosphorylation during mitosis prevents its activation by proteolysis and subsequent apoptosis. This phosphorylation occurs in cancer cell lines, as well as in primary breast tissues and lymphocytes. EZH2 phosphorylation promotes H3K27me3 maintenance and epigenetic gene silencing By similarity. CALD1 phosphorylation promotes Schwann cell migration during peripheral nerve regeneration. Ref.4 Ref.5 Ref.6
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
ATP + [DNA-directed RNA polymerase] = ADP + [DNA-directed RNA polymerase] phosphate.
Phosphorylation at Thr-14 or Tyr-15 inactivates the enzyme, while phosphorylation at Thr-161 activates it By similarity.
Forms a stable but non-covalent complex with a regulatory subunit and with a cyclin. Interacts with cyclins-B (CCNB1, CCNB2 and CCNB3) to form a serine/threonine kinase holoenzyme complex also known as maturation promoting factor (MPF). The cyclin subunit imparts substrate specificity to the complex. Can also form CDK1-cylin-D and CDK1-cyclin-E complexes that phosphorylate RB1 in vitro. Binds to RB1 and other transcription factors such as FOXO1 and RUNX2. Promotes G2-M transition when in complex with a cyclin-B. Interacts with DLGAP5. Binds to the CDK inhibitors CDKN1A/p21 and CDKN1B/p27. Isoform 2 is unable to complex with cyclin-B1 and also fails to bind to CDKN1A/p21. Interacts with catalytically active CCNB1 and RALBP1 during mitosis to form an endocytotic complex during interphase By similarity. Associates with cyclins-A and B1 during S-phase in regenerating hepatocytes. Interacts with FANCC By similarity. Interacts with CEP63; this interaction recruits CDK1 to centrosomes By similarity. Ref.4 Ref.6
Nucleus. Cytoplasm By similarity. Mitochondrion By similarity. Cytoplasm › cytoskeleton › microtubule organizing center › centrosome By similarity. Note: Cytoplasmic during the interphase. Reversibly translocated from cytoplasm to nucleus when phosphorylated before G2-M transition when associated with cyclin B1. Accumulates in mitochondria in G2-arrested cells upon DNA- damage By similarity. Ref.3 Ref.6
Follow a cyclic expression; during interphase, accumulates gradually following G1, S to reach a critical threshold at the end of G2, which promotes self-activation and triggers onset of mitosis. Induced transiently by TGFB1 at an early phase of TGFB1-mediated apoptosis. Expressed during S-phase in mitogen-stimulated hepatocytes. Ref.4 Ref.6
Phosphorylation at Thr-161 by CAK/CDK7 activates kinase activity. Phosphorylation at Thr-14 and Tyr-15 by PKMYT1 prevents nuclear translocation. Phosphorylation at Tyr-15 by WEE1 and WEE2 inhibits the protein kinase activity and acts as a negative regulator of entry into mitosis (G2 to M transition). Phosphorylation by PKMYT1 and WEE1 takes place during mitosis to keep CDK1-cyclin-B complexes inactive until the end of G2. By the end of G2, PKMYT1 and WEE1 are inactivated, but CDC25A and CDC25B are activated. Dephosphorylation by active CDC25A and CDC25B at Thr-14 and Tyr-15, leads to CDK1 activation at the G2-M transition. Phosphorylation at Tyr-15 by WEE2 during oogenesis is required to maintain meiotic arrest in oocytes during the germinal vesicle (GV) stage, a long period of quiescence at dictyate prophase I, leading to prevent meiotic reentry. Phosphorylation by WEE2 is also required for metaphase II exit during egg activation to ensure exit from meiosis in oocytes and promote pronuclear formation. Phosphorylated at Tyr-4 by PKR/EIF2AK2 upon genotoxic stress. This phosphorylation triggers CDK1 polyubiquitination and subsequent proteolysis, thus leading to G2 arrest. In response to UV irradiation, phosphorylation at Tyr-15 by PRKCD activates the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint By similarity.
Polyubiquitinated upon genotoxic stress By similarity.
Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Sequence annotation (Features)
|Feature key||Position(s)||Length||Description||Graphical view||Feature identifier|
|Chain||1 – 297||297||Cyclin-dependent kinase 1||PRO_0000085727|
|Domain||4 – 287||284||Protein kinase|
|Nucleotide binding||10 – 18||9||ATP By similarity|
|Active site||128||1||Proton acceptor By similarity|
|Binding site||33||1||ATP By similarity|
Amino acid modifications
|Modified residue||1||1||N-acetylmethionine By similarity|
|Modified residue||4||1||Phosphotyrosine; by PKR By similarity|
|Modified residue||6||1||N6-acetyllysine By similarity|
|Modified residue||14||1||Phosphothreonine; by PKMYT1 By similarity|
|Modified residue||15||1||Phosphotyrosine; by PKMYT1, WEE1, WEE2 and PKC/PRKCD; alternate By similarity|
|Modified residue||15||1||Phosphotyrosine; by WEE1 and WEE2; alternate By similarity|
|Modified residue||19||1||Phosphotyrosine By similarity|
|Modified residue||39||1||Phosphoserine By similarity|
|Modified residue||77||1||Phosphotyrosine By similarity|
|Modified residue||161||1||Phosphothreonine; by CAK By similarity|
|Modified residue||178||1||Phosphoserine By similarity|
|Modified residue||222||1||Phosphothreonine By similarity|
|Modified residue||248||1||Phosphoserine By similarity|
|Cross-link||89||Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in ubiquitin) By similarity|
|||Kanaoka Y., Nojima H., Okayama H.|
Submitted (JUL-1991) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
|||"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."|
The MGC Project Team
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
|||"The cdc2 kinase is a nuclear protein that is essential for mitosis in mammalian cells."|
Riabowol K., Draetta G., Brizuela L., Vandre D., Beach D.
Cell 57:393-401(1989) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
|||"Cdc2 and Cdk2 kinase activated by transforming growth factor-beta1 trigger apoptosis through the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein in FaO hepatoma cells."|
Choi K.S., Eom Y.W., Kang Y., Ha M.J., Rhee H., Yoon J.-W., Kim S.-J.
J. Biol. Chem. 274:31775-31783(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION AS RB1 KINASE, INDUCTION BY TGFB1, INTERACTION WITH RB1.
|||"Cdc2-mediated Schwann cell migration during peripheral nerve regeneration."|
Han I.S., Seo T.B., Kim K.-H., Yoon J.-H., Yoon S.-J., Namgung U.
J. Cell Sci. 120:246-255(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION AS CALD1 KINASE.
|||"Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 plays a critical role in DNA replication control during rat liver regeneration."|
Garnier D., Loyer P., Ribault C., Guguen-Guillouzo C., Corlu A.
Hepatology 50:1946-1956(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, INTERACTION WITH CYCLIN-A AND B1, INDUCTION BY MITOGEN AGENT, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
|+||Additional computationally mapped references.|
|X60767 mRNA. Translation: CAA43177.1.|
BC091549 mRNA. Translation: AAH91549.1.
|RefSeq||NP_062169.1. NM_019296.1. |
3D structure databases
|SMR||P39951. Positions 1-294. |
Protein-protein interaction databases
Protocols and materials databases
Genome annotation databases
|Ensembl||ENSRNOT00000000783; ENSRNOP00000000783; ENSRNOG00000000632. |
|UCSC||RGD:2319. rat. |
|RGD||2319. Cdk1. |
Enzyme and pathway databases
|BRENDA||188.8.131.52. 5301. |
Gene expression databases
Family and domain databases
|InterPro||IPR011009. Kinase-like_dom. |
|Pfam||PF00069. Pkinase. 1 hit. |
|SMART||SM00220. S_TKc. 1 hit. |
|SUPFAM||SSF56112. SSF56112. 1 hit. |
|PROSITE||PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit. |
PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit.
PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 hit.
|Accession||Primary (citable) accession number: P39951|
Secondary accession number(s): Q5BJB4
|Entry status||Reviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)|
|Annotation program||Chordata Protein Annotation Program|
Index of protein domains and families